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U.. 


3./-A-8-5. 


REPORT 


OF   THE 


EIGHTY.FOURTH  MEETING  OF  THE 


BRITISH   ASSOCIATION 


FOR   THE  ADVANCEMENT   OF  SCIENCE 


AUSTRALIA:   1914 

JULY  28— AUGUST  31 


LONDON 
JOHN  MURRAY,  ALBEMARLE  STREET 

1915 

Office  of  the  Association :  Burlington  House,  London,   JV. 


CONTENTS. 


Page 

Officees  and  Council,  1914-1915 ni 

Rules  of  the  British  Association v 

Tables  :  Past  Annual  Meetings  :  * 

Trustees,  General  Officers,  &c.  (1831-1914)    xxi 

Sectional  Presidents  and  Secretaries  (1901-1914) xxii 

Chairmen  and  Secretaries  of  Conferences  of  Delegates  (1901-1914)  xxx 

Evening  Discourses  (1901-1914) xxx 

Lectures  to  the  Operative  Classes  and  Public  Lectures  (1901-1914)  xxxi 

Grants  for  Scientific  Purposes  (1901-19ly) xxxiii 

Repoet  of  the  Council  to  the  Geneeal  Committee,  1913-1914  ...  xxxix 

Geneeal  Teeasuree's  Account,  1913-1914    xliv 

Australian  Meetjng,  1914:  Sectional  Officers xlvi 

Annual   Meetings  :   Places   and   Dates,  Presidents,  Attendances, 
Receipts,  and  Sums  paid  on  account  of  Grants  foe  Scientific 

PuEPOSES  (1831-1914) xlviii 

Analysis  of  Attendances 1 

Australian  Meeting  : 

Research  Committees lii 

Communications  ordered  to  be  printed  in  extenso   Ixiv 

Resolutions  referred  to  the  Council Ixiv 

Synopsis  of  Grants  of  Money Ixvi 

Caied  Fund    Ixviii 

*  Particulars  for  early  Meetings  not  furnished  in  the  following  Tables  will 
be  found  in  Volumes  for  1911  and  previous  years. 

a2 


il  CONTEXTS. 

Page 
Address  by  the  President,  Professor  William  Ijatesox,  M.A.,  F.E  S.      3 

Reports  on  the  State  of  Science,  &o 41 

Transactions  of  the  Sections  : 

A. — Mathematical  and  Physical  Science    285 

B.— Chemistry     322 

C— Geology    344 

D. — Zoology    , 383 

E.— Geography   426 

F. — Economic  Science  aud  Statistics   453 

G. — Engineering 490 

H. — Anthropology 515 

I.— Physiology    537 

K.— Botany 560 

L.— Education    592 

M. — Agriculture 636 

Naeeative  and  Itinerary  of  the  Australian  Meeting 679 

Visit  of  Members  of  the  British  Association  to  the  Meeting  of 

L' Association  Fran9aise  at  Havre — Report  of  the  Committee    720 

Report  of  the  Corresponding  Societies  Committee 722 

Report  of  the  Conference  of  Delegates  of  Corresponding  Societies    722 

Index  757 

List  of  Publications 78! 

List  of  Members,  &c ]72pages 


LIST   OF  PLATES. 

Plate  I. — -Illustrating  the  Report  on  Seismological  Investigations. 

Plate  II. — Illustrating  the  Report  on  the  Upper  Old  Red  Sandstone  of  Dura  Den. 

Plates  III.  and  IV. — Illustrating  the  Report  on  Belmullet  Whaling  Station. 

Plate  V. — Illustrating  Dr.  Lyman  Briggs'  Paper  on  Dry-Farming  Investiga- 
tions in  the  United  States. 

Plate  VI. — Illustrating  Prof.  H.  E.  Armstrong's  Remarks  on  the  Structure  of 
Atoms  and  Molecules. 

Plate  VII. — Illustrating  Prof.  W.  .7.  Pope's  Address  to  the  Chemistry  Section. 


OFFICERS  AND  COUNCIL,  1914-1915. 


PATRON.  ^ 

HIS  MAJESTY   THE   KING. 

PRESIDENT. 
Professor  WILLIAM  BATESON,  IT. A.,  F.R..S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

His  Excellency  the  Govnruor-General  of  the  Com-   i   The  Honourable  the  Premiers  of  New  South  Wales, 
inonwealth  of  Australia.  |       Victoria,  Queensland,  South  Australia,  Western 

Their  Excellencies  the  Governors  of  New  South   |       Australia,  Tasmania. 

Wales,  Victoria,  Queensland,  South  Australia.   I   The  Right  Honourable  the  Lord  Mayors  of  Sydney 
Western  Australia,  Tasmania.  and  Melbourne. 

The  Honourable  the  Prime  Minister  of  the  Com-       The  Eight  Worshipful  the  Majors  of  Brisbane 
morwealth.  Adelaide,  Perth,  Hobart. 

The  Chancellors  of  the  Universities  of  Sydney,  Melbourne,  Adelaide,  Tasmania,  Queensland, 

Western  Australia. 

PRESIDENT  ELECT. 

Professor  Arthur  Schuster,  Ph.D.,  Sec.R.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS    ELECT. 

The  Eight  Hon.  the  Lord  Mayor  of  Manchester.  '  The  High  Sheriff  of  Cheshire. 

The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Shuttleworth,  LL.D.,  '.  The  Worshipful  the  Mayor  of  Salford. 

Lord-Lieutenant  of  Lancashire.  j  The  Right  Rev.  the  Bishop  of  Salford. 

The  High  Sheriff  of  Lancashire.  i  Tlie  Right  Hon.  Sir  H.  E.  RCSCOE    Ph  D ,  P  C  L 

The  Right  Hon.  Viscount   Morley  of  Black-  j       F.R.S.                                                         '        •   •> 

BURN',  O.M.,  D.O.L.,  F.R.S.,  Chancellor  of  Man-  '  The  Right  Hon.  Sir  William  Mather  LL  D 

Chester  University.  :  The  Vice-Chancellor  of  the  University  of  ilan- 

His  Grace  the  Duke  of  Dkvoxshire.  I       Chester. 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Eakl  of  Derby,  K.G.  ;  Sir  Edward  Doxxer,  Bart.,  LL.D. 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Earl  of  Ellesmere,  M.V.O.  '  Sir  Frank  Forbes  Ada.m  C.I  E    LL  D 

The  Right  Hon.  Viscount  Bryce,  D.C.L.,LL.D.,  I  Alderman  Sir  T.  ThornhillShaxx,'j.P. 

F.R.S.  Professor  Horace  Lamb,  D.Sc    F.R.S 

The  Rt.  Rev.  the  Bishop  of  Manchester,  R.  Xotox  Barclay,  Esii. 

The  Chancellor  of  the  Duchy  of  Lancaster.  I 

GENERAL    TREASURER. 
Professor  Joh.v  Perry,  D.Sc,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 

GENERAL    SECRETARIES. 
Professor  W.  A.  Herdman,  D.Sc,  F.R.S.  |         Professor  H.  H.  Turner,  D.Sc,  D.C.L.,  P.B.S. 

ASSISTANT    SECRETARY. 
0.  J.  R.  Howarth,  M.A.,  Burlington  House,  London,  W. 

CHIEF  CLERK  AND  ASSISTANT  TREASURER. 
H.  0.  Stewardson,  Burlington  House,  London,  W. 

LOCAL   TREASURER    FOR   THE   MEETING   AT    MANCHESTER. 
Alderman  Edward  Holt,  J. P. 

LOCAL  SECRETARIES    FOR    THE    MEETING    AT    MANCHESTER. 

Professor  S.  J.  Hick.son,  DSc,  F.R.S.  |  Principal  J.  C.  Ma.xwell  Garnett  M  A 

CouncillorE.D.  Simon,  M.I.C.E.  '     '    " 

A  3 


IV 


OFFICERS   AND    COUNCIL. 


ORDINARY    MEMBERS     OF    THE    COUNCIL. 


Armstrong,  Professor  H.  E..  F.R.S. 
Brabrook,  Sir  Edward,  C.B. 
Bragg,  Professor  W.H.,  F.R.S.  [ 

Olekk,  Dr.  DUGALD,  F.R.S.  [ 

Oraigie,  Major  P.  G.,  C.B.  j 

Crooke,  W.,  B.A.  I 

Dexdt,  Professor  A.,  F.R.S. 
DiXBT,  Dr.  F.  A.,  F.R.S. 
Dixon,  Professor  H.  B.,  F.R.S. 
Dyson,  Sir  F.  W.,  F.R.S. 
Griffiths,  Principal  E.  H.,  F.R.S. 
Haddon,  Dr.  A  C,  F.R.S. 

Weiss,  Professor  F. 


Hall,  A.  D.,  F.R.S. 
Halliburton,  Professor  W.  D.,  F.R.S. 
IM  Thurn,  Sir  E.  F..  K.O.M.G. 
Lodge,  Alfred,  M.A. 
Lyons,  Captain  H.  G.,  F.R.S. 
Meldola,  Professor  R..  F.R.S. 
Mtres,  Professor  J.  L.,  M.A. 
Rutherford,  Sir  B.,  F.R.S. 
Saunders,  Miss  E.  R. 
Starling,  Professor  E.  H.,  F.R.S. 
Teall,  Dr.  J.  J.  H.,  F.R.S. 
Thompson,  Dr.  Silyanus  P.,  F.R.S. 
E.,  D.Se. 


EX-OFFICIO    MEMBERS    OF    THE    COUNCIL. 

Tlie  Trustees,  past  Presidents  of  the  Association,  the  President  and  Vice-Presidents  for  the  year,  the 
President  and  Vice-Presidents  Elect,  past  and  present  General  Treasurers  and  General  Secretaries,  past 
Assistant  General  Secretaries,  and  the  Local  Treasurers  and  Local  Secretaries  for  the  ensuing  Annual 

Meetlnp. 


TRUSTEES  (PERMANENT). 

The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Rati.eigh.  O.M.,  MA..,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 
Sir  Arthur  W.  Rucker,  M.A.,  D.Sc.  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 
Major  P.  A.  MacMahon,  D.Sc,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  F.R.A..S. 


F.R.A.S. 


PAST  PRESIDENTS  OF  THE  ASSOCIATION. 


Lord  Rayleigh,  O.M.,  F.R.S. 
Sir  H.  E.  Roscoe,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S. 
Sir  A.Geikle,K.C.B.,O.M.,  F.R.S. 
Sir  W.  Orookes,  O.M.,  Pres.R.S. 
Sir  W.  Turner,  K.O.B.,  F.R.S. 
Sir  A.  W.  Rucker,  D.Sc.,  F.R.S. 


Sir  James  Dewar,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.        Sir  J.  J.  Thomson,  O.M.,  F.R.S. 


Sir  Norman  Lockyer,  K.O.B.,F.R.S. 
Arthur  J.  Balfour,  D.C.L..  F.R.S. 
SlrE.RayLankester,K.O.B.,F.R.S. 
Sir  Francis  Darwin,  F.R.S. 


Prof.  T.  G.  Bonney,  Sc.D.,  F.R.S. 

Sir  W.  Ramsay,  K.O.B.,  F.R.S. 
:  Sir  E.  A.  Schiifer,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 
I  Sir  Oliver  Lodge,  D.Sc,  F.H.S. 


PAST  GENERAL  OFFICERS  OF  THE  ASSOCIATION. 


Prof.  T.  G.  Bonney,  Sc.D.,  F.R.S. 
A.  Vernon  Harcourt,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S. 
Sir  A  W.  Rucker,  D.Sc,  F.R.S. 


Sir  E.  A.  Sohafer,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 
Dr.  D.  H.  Scott,  M.A..,  F.R.S. 
Dr.  G.  Carey  Foster.  F.R.S. 


Dr.  J.  G.  Garson. 

Major  P.  A,  MacMahon,  F.R.S. 


Sir  Edward  Brabrook,  C.B. 


AUDITORS. 

I         Professor  H.!McLeod,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 


RULES     OF 
THE     BRITISH     ASSOCIATION. 

[Adopted  hj  the  General  Committee  at  Leicester,  1907, 
with  subsequent  amendments.'] 

Chapter  I. 
Objects  and  Constitution. 

1.  The  objects  of  the  British  Associatioo  for  the  Advance-   Objects, 
ment  of  Science  are  :   To  give  a  stronger  impulse  and  a  more 
systematic   direction   to  scientific   inquiry  ;    to   promote   the 
intercourse  of  those  who  cultivate  Science  in  different  parts 

of  the  British  Empire  with  one  another  and  with  foreign 
philosophers  ;  to  obtain  more  general  attention  for  the  objects 
of  Science  and  the  removal  of  any  disadvantages  of  a  public 
kind  which  impede  its  progress. 

The  Association  contemplates  no  invasion  of  the  ground 
occupied  by  other  Institutions. 

2.  The  Association  shall  consist  of  Members,  Associates,   Constitution. 
and  Honorary  Corresponding  Members. 

The  governing  body  of  the  Association  shall  be  a  General 
Committee,  constituted  as  hereinafter  set  forth  ;  and  its 
affairs  shall  be  directed  by  a  Council  and  conducted  by 
General  Officers  appointed  by  that  Committee. 

3.  The  Association  shall  meet  annually,  for  one  week  or   Annual 
longer,  and  at  such   other  times  as  the  General  Committee   Meetings, 
may  appoint.     The  place  of  each  Annual  Meeting  shall  be 
determined  by  the  General  Committee  not  less  than  two  years 

in  advance  ;  and  the  arrangements  for  these  meetings  shall 
be  entrusted  to  the  Officers  of  the  Association. 

Chapter  II. 

The  General  Committee. 

1.  The  General  Committee  shall   be   constituted   of   the   Constitution, 
following  persons  : — 

(i)  Perm,anent  Members^ 

(a)  Past  and  present  Members  of  the  Council,  and  past 
and  present  Presidents  of  the  Sections. 


VI 


RILES    OF   THE   BRITISH    ASSOCIATION. 


Admission. 


Meetiags^, 


Functions. 


(b)  Members  who,  by  the  publication  of  works  or 
papers,  have  furthered  the  advancement  of  know- 
ledge in  any  of  those  departments  which  are 
assigned  to  the  Sections  of  the  Association. 

(ii)  2'ein2)orary  Members — 

{a)  Vice-Presidents  and  Secretaries  of  the  Sections. 

(b)  Honorary  Corresponding  Members,  foreign  repre- 

sentatives, and   other   persons   specially  invited 
or  nominated  by  the  Council  or  General  Officers. 

(c)  Delegates  nominated  by  the  Affiliated  Societies. 
{d)  Delegates — not    exceeding    altogether    three    in 

number — from  Scientific  Institutions  established 
at  the  place  of  meeting. 

2.  The  decision  of  the  Council  on  the  qualifications  and 
claims  of  any  Member  of  the  Association  to  be  placed  on  the 
General  Committee  shall  be  final. 

(i)  Claims  for  admission  as  a  Permanent  Member  must 

be  lodged  with  the  Assistant  Secretary  at  least  one 

month  before  the  Annual  Meeting, 
(ii)  Claims  for  admission  as  a  Temporary  Member  may  be 

sent  to  the  Assistant  Secretary  at  any  time  before  or 

during  the  Annual  Meeting. 

3.  The  General  Committee  shall  meet  twice  at  least  during 
every  Annual  Meeting.  In  the  interval  between  two  Annual 
Meetings,  it  shall  be  competent  for  the  Council  at  any  time 
to  summon  a  meeting  of  the  General  Committee. 

4.  The  General  Committee  shall 

(i)  Receive  and  consider  the  Report  of  the  Council. 

(ii)  Elect  a  Committee  of  Recommendations. 

(iii)  Receive  and  consider  the  Report  of  the  Committee 
of  Recommendations. 

(iv)  Determine  the  place  of  the  Annual  Meeting  not  less 
than  two  years  in  advance. 

(v)  Determine  the  date  of  the  next  Annual  Meeting. 

(vi)  Elect  the  President  and  Vice-Presidents,  Local  Trea- 
surer, and  Local  Secretaries  for  the  next  Annual 
Meeting. 

(vii)  Elect  Ordinary  Members  of  Council, 
(viii)  Appoint  General  Officers. 

(ix)  Appoint  Auditors, 
(x)  Elect  the  Officers  of  the  Conference  of  Delegates. 

(xi)  Receive  any  notice  of  motion  for  the  next  Annual 
Meeting. 


COMMITTEE   OF  RECOMMENDATIONS. 


Vll 


Chapter  III. 


Committee  of  RecoTiwiendations. 

1.  *  The  ex  officio  Members  of  the  Committee  of  Recom-   Constitution. 
mendations   are   the   President   and    Vice-Presidents  of   the 
Association,   the  President  of   each  Section   at   the  Annual 
Meeting,  the  Chairman  of  the  Conference  of  Delegates,  the 

General  Secretaries,  the  General  Treasurer,  the  Trustees,  and 
the  Presidents  of  the  Association  in  former  years. 

An  Ordinary  Member  of  the  Committee  for  each  Section 
shall  be  nominated  by  the  Committee  of  that  Section. 

If  the  President  of  a  Section  be  unable  to  attend  a  meeting 
of  the  Committee  of  Recommendations,  the  Sectional  Com- 
mittee may  appoint  a  Vice-President,  or  some  other  member 
of  the  Committee,  to  attend  in  his  place,  due  notice  of  such 
appointment  being  sent  to  the  Assistant  Secretary. 

2.  Every  recommendation  made  under  Chapter  IV.  and    Functions. 
every  resolution  on  a  scientific  subject,  which  may  be  sub- 
mitted to  the  Association  by  any  Sectional  Committee,  or  by 

the  Conference  of  Delegates,  or  otherwise  than  by  the  Council 
of  the  Association,  shall  be  submitted  to  the  Committee  of 
Recommendations.  If  the  Committee  of  Recommendations 
appi'ove  such  recommendation,  they  shall  transmit  it  to  the 
General  Committee  ;  and  no  recommendation  shall  be  con- 
sidered by  the  General  Committee  that  is  not  so  transmitted. 

Every  recommendation  adopted  by  the  General  Committee 
shall,  if  it  involve  action  on  the  part  of  the  Association,  be 
transmitted  to  the  Council ;  and  the  Council  shall  take  such 
action  as  may  be  needful  to  give  effect  to  it,  and  shall  report 
to  the  General  Committee  not  later  than  the  next  Annual 
Meeting. 

Every  proposal  for  establishing  a  new  Section  or  Sub- 
Section,  for  altering  the  title  of  a  Section,  or  for  any  other 
change  in  the  constitutional  forms  or  fundamental  rules  of 
the  Association,  shall  be  referred  to  the  Committee  of  Recom- 
mendations for  their  consideration  and  report. 

3.  The    Committee   of  Recommendations   shall  assemble,   Procedure, 
for  the  despatch  of  business,  on  the  Monday  of  the  Annual 


Meeting,    and,    if   necessary,    on   the 


following 


day.     Their 


Report  must  be  submitted  to  the  General  Committee  on  the 
last  day  of  the  Annual  Meeting. 


♦  Amended  by  the  General  Committee  at  Winnipeg,  1909. 


VIU 


RULES    OF    THE    BRITISH    ASSOCIATION. 


Procedure. 


Constitution. 


Proposals  by 

Sectional 

Committees. 


Tenure. 


Keports. 


Chapter  IV. 
Research  Committees. 

1.  Every  proposal  for  special  research,  or  for  a  grant  of 
money  in  aid  of  special  research,  which  is  made  in  any 
Section,  shall  be  considered  by  the  Committee  of  that  Section  ; 
and,  if  such  proposal  be  approved,  it  shall  be  referred  to  the 
Committee  of  Recommendations. 

In  consequence  of  any  such  proposal,  a  Sectional  Com- 
mittee may  recommend  the  appointment  of  a  Research 
Committee,  composed  of  Members  of  the  Association,  to 
conduct  research  or  administer  a  grant  in  aid  of  research, 
and  in  any  case  to  report  thereon  to  the  Association  ;  and  the 
Committee  of  Recommendations  may  include  such  recom- 
mendation in  their  report  to  the  General  Committee. 

2.  Every  appointment  of  a  Research  Committee  shall  be 
proposed  at  a  meeting  of  the  Sectional  Committee  and  adopted 
at  a  subsequent  meeting.  The  Sectional  Committee  shall 
settle  the  terms  of  reference  and  suitable  Members  to  serve 
on  it,  which  must  be  as  small  as  is  consistent  with  its  efficient 
working  ;  and  shall  nominate  a  Chairman  and  a  Secretary. 
Such  Research  Committee,  if  appointed,  shall  have  power  to 
add  to  their  numbers. 

3.  The  Sectional  Committee  shall  state  in  their  recommen- 
dation whether  a  grant  of  money  be  desired  for  the  purposes 
of  any  Research  Committee,  and  shall  estimate  the  amount 
required. 

All  proposals  sanctioned  by  a  Sectional  Committee  shall 
be  forwarded  by  the  Recorder  to  the  Assistant  Secretary  not 
later  than  noon  on  the  Monday  of  the  Annual  Meeting  for 
presentation  to  the  Committee  of  Recommendations. 

4.  Research  Committees  are  appointed  for  one  year  only. 
If  the  work  of  a  Research  Committee  cannot  be  completed 
in  that  year,  application  may  be  made  through  a  Sectional 
Committee  at  the  next  Annual  Meeting  for  reappointment, 
with  or  without  a  grant — or  a  further  grant — of  money. 

5.  Every  Research  Committee  shall  present  a  Report, 
whether  interim  or  final,  at  the  Annual  Meeting  next  after 
that  at  which  it  was  appointed  or  reappointed.  Interim 
Reports,  whether  intended  for  publication  or  not,  must  be  sub- 
mitted in  writing.  Each  Sectional  Committee  shall  ascertain 
whether  a  Report  has  been  made  by  each  Research  Committee 
appointed  on  their  recommendation,  and  shall  report  to  the 
Committee  of  Recommendations  on  or  before  the  Monday  of 
the  Annual  Meeting. 


RESEARCH    COMMITTEES.  IX 

6.  In  each  Research  Committee  to  which  a  grant  of  money   Grants. 
has  been  made,  the  Chairman  is  the  only  person  entitled  to  call    Qhairman"    ^ 
on  the  General  Treasurer  for  such  portion  of  the  sum  granted 

as  from  time  to  time  may  be  required. 

Grants   of    money   sanctioned   at    the   Annual    Meeting    (*)  Expire  on 
expire  on  June  30  following.     The  General  Treasurer  is  not 
authorised,  after  that  date,  to  allow  any  claims  on  account  of 
such  grants. 

The  Chairman  of  a  Research  Committee  must,  before  (c)  Accounts 
the  Annual  Meeting  next  following  the  appointment  of  f^  ^ancf'''^^ 
the  Research  Committee,  forward  to  the  General  Ti-easurer 
a  statement  of  the  sums  that  have  been  received  and  ex- 
pended, together  with  vouchers.  The  Chairman  must  then 
return  the  balance  of  the  grant,  if  any,  which  remains  un- 
expended ;  provided  that  a  Research  Committee  may,  in  the 
first  year  of  its  appointment  only,  apply  for  leave  to  retain 
an  unexpended  balance  when  or  before  its  Report  is  presented, 
due  reason  being  given  for  such  application.* 

When  application   is   made  for   a  Committee   to   be   re-   {d)  Addi- 
appointed,  and  to  retain  the  balance  of  a  former  graiit,  and    ^°°*     ^^"^  • 
also  to  receive  a  further  grant,  the  amount  of   such  further 
grant  is  to  be  estimated   as   being  sufficient,  together  with 
the  balance  proposed  to  be  retained,  to  make  up  the  amount 
desired. 

In  making  grants  of  money  to  Reseai'ch  Committees,  the  (e)  Caveat. 
Association  does  not  contemplate  the  payment  of  personal 
expenses  to  the  Members. 

A  Research  Committee,  whether  or  not  in  receipt  of  a 
grant,  shall  not  raise  money,  in  the  name  or  under  the  auspices 
of  the  Association,  without  special  permission  from  the  General 
Committee. 

7.  Members  and  Committees  entrusted  with  sums  of  money   Disposal  of 
for  collecting  specimens  of  any  description  shall  include  in  their  ^pparatu'^^ 
Reports  particulars  thereof,  and  shall  reserve  the  specimens  ire. 

thus  obtained  for  disposal,  as  the  Council  may  direct. 

Committees  are  required  to  furnish  a  list  of  any  ap- 
paratus which  may  have  been  purchased  out  of  a  grant  made 
by  the  Association,  and  to  state  whether  the  apparatus  is 
likely  to  be  useful  for  continuing  the  research  in  question  or 
for  other  specific  purposes. 

All  instruments,  drawings,  papers,  and  other  property  of 
the  Association,  when  not  in  actual  use  by  a  Committee,  shall 
be  deposited  at  the  Office  of  the  Association. 

*  Amended  by  the  General  Committee  at  Dundee,  1912. 


RULES    OF   THE    BRITISH    ASSOCIATION. 


Chapter    V. 

Tlie  Council. 

Constitution.  1.  The  Council  shall  consist  of  ex  officio  Members  and  of 

Ordinary  Members  elected  annually  by  the  General  Com- 
mittee. 

(i)  The  ex  officio  Members  are — the  Trustees,  past  Presi- 
dents of  the  Association,  the  President  and  Vice- 
Presidents  for  the  year,  the  President  and  Vice- 
Presidents  Elect,  past  and  present  General  Treasurers 
and  General  Secretaries,  past  Assistant  General 
Secretaries,  and  the  Local  Treasurers  and  Local 
Secretaries  for  the  ensuing  Annual  Meeting. 

(ii)  The  Ordinary  Members  shall  not  exceed  twenty- five  in 
number.  Of  these,  not  more  than  twenty  shall  have 
served  on  the  Council  as  Ordinary  Members  in  the 
previous  year. 

Functions.  2.  The  Council  shall  have  authority  to  act,  in  the  name  and 

on  behalf  of  the  Association,  in  all  matters  which  do  not  con- 
flict with  the  functions  of  the  General  Committee. 

In  the  interval  between  two  Annual  Meetings,  the  Council 
shall  manage  the  affairs  of  the  Association  and  may  fill  up 
vacancies  among  the  General  and  other  Officers,  until  the  next 
Annual  Meeting. 

The  Council  shall  hold  such  meetings  as  they  may  think 
fit,  and  shall  in  any  case  meet  on  the  first  day  of  the  Annual 
Meeting,  in  order  to  complete  and  adopt  the  Annual  Report, 
and  to  consider  other  matters  to  be  brought  before  the  General 
Committee. 

The  Council  shall  nominate  for  election  by  the  General 
Committee,  at  each  Annual  Meeting,  a  President  and  General 
Officers  of  the  Association. 

Suggestions  for  the  Presidency  shall  be  considered  by  the 
Council  at  the  Meeting  in  February,  and  the  names  selected 
shall  be  issued  with  the  summonses  to  the  Council  Meeting  in 
March,  when  the  nomination  shall  be  made  from  the  names 
on  the  list. 

The  Council  shall  have  power  to  appoint  and  dismiss 
such  paid  officers  as  may  be  necessary  to  carry  on  the  work 
of  the  Association,  on  such  terms  as  they  may  from  time  to 
time  determine. 


THE  COUNCIL.  XI 

3.  Election  to  the  Council  shall  take  place  at  the  same   Elections, 
time  as  that  of  the  Officers  of  the  Association. 

(i)  At  each  Annual  Election,  the  following  Ordinary- 
Members  of  the  Council  shall  be  ineligible  for  i-e- 
election  in  the  ensuing  year  : 

(a)  Three  of  the  Members  who  have   served   for  the 

longest  consecutive  period,  and 

(b)  Two  of  the  Members  who,  being  resident  in  or  near 

London,  have  attended  the  least  number  of  meet- 
ings during  the  past  year. 
Nevertheless,  it  shall  be  competent  for  the  Council,  by 
an  unanimous  vote,  to    reverse    the    proportion  in    the 
order  of  retirement  above  set  forth. 

^ii)  The  Council  shall  submit  to  the  General  Committee, 
in  their  Annual    Report,  the   names    of  twenty-three 
Members  of  the  Association  whom  they  recommend  for 
election  as  Members  of  Council, 
(iii)  Two   Members    shall  be  elected  by  the   General  Com- 
mittee,  without  nomination  by  the  Council  ;  and  this 
election  shall  be  at  the  same  meeting  as  that  at  which  the 
election  of  the  other  Members  of  the  Council  takes  place. 
Any  member   of   the  General    Committee   may  propose 
another  member  thereof  for  election  as  one  of  these  two 
Members  of  Council,  and,  if  only  two  are  so  proposed, 
they   shall  be  declared  elected  ;    but,  if  more  than  two 
are  so  proposed,  the  election  shall  be  by  show  of  hands, 
unless  five  Members  at  least  require  it  to  be  by  ballot. 


Chapter  VI. 

The  President,  General  Officers,  and  Staff. 

1.  The  President  assumes  office   on  the  fix'st  day  of  the   The  Presi- 
Annual  Meeting,  when  he   delivers  a  Presidential  Address.   *^®'^*- 

He   resigns   office  at  the    next   Annual    Meeting,    when   he 
inducts  his  successor  into  the  Chair. 

The  President  shall  preside  at  all  meetings  of  the  Associa- 
tion or  of  its  Council  and  Committees  which  he  attends  in  his 
capacity  as  President.  In  his  absence,  he  shall  be  represented 
by  a  Vice-President  or  past  President  of  the  Association. 

2.  The  General  Officers  of  the  Association  are  the  General   General 
Treasurer  and  the  General  Secretaries.  '^^^^' 


Xll 


KULES    OF   THE    BRITISH    ASSOCIATION. 


The  Geneial 
Treasurer. 


The  General 
.Secretaries. 


The  Assistant 
Secretary. 


Assistant 
Treasurer. 


It  shall  be  competent  for  the  General  Officers  to  act,  in 
the  name  of  the  Association,  in  any  matter  of  urgency  which 
cannot  be  brought  under  the  consideration  of  the  Council  ; 
and  they  shall  report  such  action  to  the  Council  at  the  next 
meeting. 

3.  The  General  Treasurer  shall  be  responsible  to  the 
General  Committee  and  the  Council  for  the  financial  affairs 
of  the  Association. 

4.  The  General  Secretaries  shall  control  the  "eneral 
organisation  and  administration,  and  shall  be  responsible  to 
the  General  Committee  and  the  Council  for  conducting  the 
correspondence  and  for  the  general  routine  of  the  work  of 
the  Association,  excepting  that  which  relates  to  Finance. 

5.  The  Assistant  Secretary  shall  hold  office  during  the 
pleasure  of  the  Council.  He  shall  act  under  the  direction 
of  the  General  Secretaries,  and  in  their  absence  shall  repre- 
sent them.  He  shall  also  act  on  the  directions  which  may 
be  given  him  by  the  General  Treasurer  in  that  part  of  his 
duties  which  relates  to  the  finances  of  the  Association. 

The  Assistant  Secretary  shall  be  charged,  subject  as  afore- 
said :  (i)  with  the  general  organising  and  editorial  work,  and 
with  the  administrative  business  of  the  Association  ;  (ii)  with 
the  control  and  direction  of  the  Office  and  of  all  persons 
therein  employed  ;  and  (iii)  with  the  execution  of  Standing 
Orders  or  of  the  directions  given  him  by  the  General  Officers 
and  Council.  He  shall  act  as  Secretary,  and  take  Minutes,  at 
the  meetings  of  the  Council,  and  at  all  meetings  of  Com- 
mittees of  the  Council,  of  the  Committee  of  Recommendations, 
and  of  the  General  Committee. 

6.  The  General  Treasurer  may  depute  one  of  the  StaflF,  as 
Assistant  Treasurer,  to  carry  on,  under  his  direction,  the 
routine  work  of  the  duties  of  his  office. 

The  Assistant  Treasurer  shall  be  charged  with  the  issue  of 
Membership  Tickets,  the  payment  of  Grants,  and  such  other 
work  as  may  be  delegated  to  him. 


Chapter  VII. 
Finance. 


Financial 
Statements. 


1.  The  General  Treasurer,  or  Assistant  Treasurer,  shall 
receive  and  acknowledge  all  sums  of  money  paid  to  the 
Association.  He  shall  submit,  at  each  meeting  of  the 
Council,  an  interim  statement  of  his  Account ;    and,   after 


FINANCE.  Xlll 

June  30  in  each  year,  he  shall  prepare  and  submit  to  the 
General  Committee  a  balance-sheet  of  the  Funds  of  the 
Association. 

2.  The  Accounts  of  the    Association    shall   be   audited,   Audit, 
annually,  by  Auditors  appointed  by  the  General  Committee. 

3.  The   General  Treasurer  shall  make  all  ordinary  pay-    Expenditure, 
ments    authorised    by   the    General    Committee    or   by   the 

Council. 

4.  The  General  Treasurer  is  empowered  to  draw  on  the   Investments, 
account   of    the    Association,   and   to  invest   on    its  behalf, 

part  or  all  of  the  balance  standing  at  any  time  to  the  credit 
of  the  Association  in  the  books  of  the  Bank  of  England, 
either  in  Exchequer  Bills  or  in  any  other  temporary  invest- 
ment, and  to  change,  sell,  or  otherwise  deal  with  such  tem- 
porary investment  as  may  seem  to  him  desirable. 

5.  In  the  event  of  the  General  Treasurer  being  unable.   Cheques. 
from  illness  or  any  other  cause,  to  exercise  the  functions  of 

his  office,  the  President  of  the  Association  for  the  time  being 
and  one  of  the  General  Secretaries  shall  be  jointly  empowered 
to  sign  cheques  on  behalf  of  the  Association. 


Chapter  VIII. 

The  Annual  Meetings. 

1.  Local  Committees  shall  be  formed  to  assist  the  General   Local  Offi- 

(->iii'c   fi  n  fi 

Officers  in  making  arrangements  for  the  Annual  Meeting,  and  Qommittees 
shall  have  power  to  add  to  their  number. 

2.  The  General  Committee  shall  appoint,  on  the  recom- 
mendation of  the  Local  Reception  or  Executive  Committee  for 
the  ensuing  Annual  Meeting,  a  Local  Treasurer  or  Treasurers 
and  two  or  more  Local  Secretaries,  who  shall  rank  as  officers 
of  the  Association,  and  shall  consult  with  the  General  Officers 
and  the  Assistant  Secretary  as  to  the  local  arrangements 
necessary  for  the  conduct  of  the  meeting.  The  Local  Treasurers 
shall  be  empowered  to  enrol  Members  and  Associates,  and  to 
receive  subscriptions. 

3.  The  Local  Committees  and  Sub-Committees  shall  under-   Functions, 
take  the  local  organisation,  and  shall  have  power  to  act  in  the 

name  of  the  Association  in  all  matters  pertaining  to  the  local 
arrangements  for  the  Annual  Meeting  other  than  the  work  of 
the  Sections. 


XIV 


RULES   OF   THE   BRITISH   ASSOCIATION. 


The 

Sections. 


Sectional 
Officers. 


Rooms, 


Sectional 
Committees. 

Constitution. 


Privilege  of 
Old  Members. 


Daily 

Co-optation. 


Chapter   IX. 
Tlie    Work  of  the  Sections. 

1.  The  scientific  work  of  the  Association  shall  be  trans- 
acted under  such  Sections  as  shall  be  constituted  from  time 
to  time  by  the  General  Committee. 

It  shall  be  competent  for  any  Section,  if  authorised  by  the 
Council  for  the  time  being,  to  form  a  Sub-Section  for  the 
purpose  of  dealing  separately  with  any  group  of  communica- 
tions addressed  to  that  Section. 

2.  There  shall  be  in  each  Section  a  President,  two  or 
more  Vice-Presidents,  and  two  or  more  Secretaries.  They 
shall  be  appointed  by  the  Council,  for  each  Annual  Meet- 
ing in  advance,  and  shall  act  as  the  Officers  of  the  Section 
from  the  date  of  their  appointment  until  the  appoint- 
ment of  their  successors  in  office  for  the  ensuing  Annual 
Meeting. 

Of  the  Secretaries,  one  shall  act  as  Recorder  of  the  Section, 
and  one  shall  be  resident  in  the  locality  where  the  Annual 
Meeting  is  held. 

3.  The  Section  Rooms  and  the  approaches  thereto  shall 
not  be  used  for  any  notices,  exhibitions,  or  other  purposes 
than  those  of  the  Association. 

4.  The  work  of  each  Section  shall  be  conducted  by  a 
Sectional  Committee,  which  shall  consist  of  the  following  : — 

(i)  The  Officers  of  the  Section  during  their  term  of  office. 

(ii)  All  past  Presidents  of  that  Section. 

(iii)  Such  other  Members  of  the  Association,  present  at 
any  Annual  Meeting,  as  the  Sectional  Committee, 
thus  constituted,  may  co-opt  for  the  period  of  the 
meeting  : 

Provided  always  that — 

(a)  Any  Member  of  the  Association  who  has  served  on 
the  Committee  of  any  Section  in  any  previous  year, 
and  who  has  intimated  his  intention  of  being  present 
at  the  Annual  Meeting,  is  eligible  as  a  member  of 
that  Committee  at  their  first  meeting. 

(6)  A  Sectional  Committee  may  co-opt  members,  as  above 
set  forth,  at  any  time  during  the  Annual  Meeting, 
and  shall  publish  daily  a  revised  list  of  the  members. 


THE    WORK   OF   THE   SECTIONS.  XV 

(c)  A  Sectional  Committee  may,  at  any  time  during  the   Additional 
Annual  Meeting,  appoint  not  more  than  three  persons  Jice-Presi- 
present  at  the  meeting  to  be  Vice-Presidents  of  the 
Section,  in  addition   to   those   previously  appointed 
by  the  Council. 

5.  The  chief  executive  officers  of  a  Section  shall  be  the  Executive 
President  and  the  Recorder. ,  They  shall  have  power  to  act  on  Functions 
behalf  of  the  Section  in  any  matter  of  urgency  which  cannot 

be  brought  before  the  consideration  of  the  Sectional  Com- 
mittee ;  and  they  shall  report  such  action  to  the  Sectional 
Committee  at  its  next  meeting. 

The  President  (or,  in  his  absence,  one  of  the  Vice-Presi-    Of  President 
dents)  shall  preside  at  all  meetings  of  the  Sectional  Committee 
or  of  the  Section.     His  ruling  shall  be  absolute  on  all  points 
of  order  that  may  arise. 

The  Recorder  shall  be  responsible  for  the  punctual  trans-  and  of 
mission  to  the  Assistant  Secretary  of  the  daily  programme  of  ^^^order, 
his  Section,  of  the  recommendations  adopted  by  the  Sectional 
Committee,  of  the  printed  returns,  abstracts,  reports,  or  papers 
appertaining  to  the  proceedings  of  his  Section  at  the  Annual 
Meeting,  and  for  the  correspondence  and  minutes  of  the 
Sectional  Committee. 

6.  The  Sectional  Committee  shall  nominate,  before  the  Organising 
close  of  the  Annual  Meeting,  not  more  than  six  of  its  own  Committee, 
members  to  be  members  of  an  Organising  Committee,   with 

the  officers  to  be  subsequently  appointed  by  the  Council,  and 
past  Presidents  of  the  Section,  from  the  close  of  the  Annual 
Meeting  until  the  conclusion  of  its  meeting  on  the  iirst  day  of 
the  ensuing  Annual  Meeting. 

Each  Organising  Committee  shall  hold  such  meetings  as 
are  deemed  necessary  by  its  President  for  the  organisation 
of  the  ensuing  Sectional  proceedings,  and  shall  hold  a  meeting 
on  the  first  Wednesday  of  the  Annual  Meeting  :  to  nominate 
members  of  the  Sectional  Committee,  to  confirm  the  Pro- 
visional Programme  of  the  Section,  and  to  report  to  the 
Sectional  Committee. 

Each  Sectional  Committee  shall  meet  daily,  unless  other-  Sectional 
wise  determined,  during  the  Annual  Meeting  :  to  co-opt 
members,  to  complete  the  arrangements  for  the  next  day,  and 
to  take  into  consideration  any  suggestion  for  the  advance- 
ment of  Science  that  may  be  offered  by  a  member,  or  may 
arise  out  of  the  proceedings  of  the  Section. 

No  paper  shall  be  read  in  any  Section  until  it  has  been   Papers  and 
accepted  by  the  Sectional  Committee  and  entered  as  accepted   Reports. 
on  its  Minutes. 


XVI 


RULES   OF   THE   BRITISH   ASSOCIATION. 


Kecommen- 
dations. 


Publication. 


Copyright. 


Any  report  or  paper  read  in  any  one  Section  may  be  read 
also  in  any  other  Section. 

No  paper  or  abstract  of  a  paper  shall  be  printed  in  the 
Annual  Report  of  tlie  Association  unless  the  manuscript  has 
been  received  by  the  Recorder  of  the  Section  before  the  close 
of  the  Annual  Meeting. 

It  shall  be  within  the  competence  of  the  Sectional  Com- 
mittee to  review  the  recommendations  adopted  at  preceding 
Annual  Meetings,  as  published  in  the  Annual  Reports  of  the 
Association,  and  the  communications  made  to  the  Section  at 
its  current  meetings,  for  the  purpose  of  selecting  definite 
objects  of  research,  in  the  promotion  of  which  individual  or 
concerted  action  may  be  usefully  employed  ;  and,  further,  to 
take  into  consideration  those  branches  or  aspects  of  knowledge 
on  the  state  and  progress  of  which  reports  are  required  :  to 
make  recommendations  and  nominate  individuals  or  Research 
Committees  to  whom  the  preparation  of  such  reports,  or  the  task 
of  research,  may  be  entrusted,  discriminating  as  to  whether, 
and  in  what  respects,  these  objects  may  be  usefully  advanced 
by  the  appropriation  of  money  from  the  funds  of  the  Associa- 
tion, whether  by  reference  to  local  authorities,  public  institu- 
tions, or  Departments  of  His  Majesty's  Government.  The 
appointment  of  such  Research  Committees  shall  be  made  in 
accordance  with  the  provisions  of  Chapter  IV. 

No  proposal  arising  out  of  the  proceedings  of  any  Section 
shall  be  referred  to  the  Committee  of  Recommendations  unless 
it  shall  have  received  the  sanction  of  the  Sectional  Com- 
mittee. 

7.  Papers  ordered  to  be  printed  in  extenso  shall  not  be 
included  in  the  Annual  Report,  if  published  elsewhere  prior 
to  the  issue  of  the  Annual  Report  in  volume  form.  Reports 
of  Research  Committees  shall  not  be  published  elsewhere 
than  in  the  Annual  Report  without  the  express  sanction  of 
the  Council. 

8.  The  copyright  of  papers  ordered  by  the  General  Com- 
mittee to  be  printed  in  extenso  in  the  Annual  Report  shall 
be  vested  in  the  authors  ;  and  the  copyright  of  the  reports 
of  Research  Committees  appointed  by  the  General  Committee 
shall  be  vested  in  the  Association. 


ADMISSION   OF  MEMBERS   AND   ASSOCIATES. 


xvn 


Applications. 


Chapter  X. 

Admission  of  Members  and  Associates. 

1.  No  technical  qualitication  shall  be  required  on  the 
part  of  an  applicant  for  admission  f.s  a  Member  or  as  an 
Associate  of  the  British  Association  ;  but  the  Council  is 
empowered,  in  the  event  of  special  circumstances  arising,  to 
impose  suitable  conditions  and  restrictions  in  this  respect. 

*  Every  person  admitted  as  a  Member  or  an  Associate  Obligations 
shall  conform  to  the  Rules  and  Regulations  of  the  Association, 
any  infringement  of  which  on  his  part  may  render  him  liable 
to  exclusion  by  the  Council,  who  have  also  authority,  if  they 
think  it  necessary,  to  withhold  from  any  person  the  privilege 
of  attending  any  Annual  Meeting  or  to  cancel  a  ticket  of 
admission  already  issued. 

It  shall  be  competent  for  the  General  Officers  to  act,  in 
the  name  of  the  Council,  on  any  occasion  of  urgency  which 
cannot  be  brought  under  the  consideration  of  the  Council ; 
and  they  shall  report  such  action  to  the  Council  at  the  next 
Meeting. 

2.  All  Members  are  eligible  to  any  office  in  the  Association, 
(i)  Every  Life  Member  shall  pay,  on  admission,  the  sum 

of  Ten  Pounds. 

Life  Members  shall  receive  gratis  the  Annual 
Reports  of  the  Association, 
(ii)  Every  Annual  Member-  shall  pay,  on  admission,  the 
•  sum  of  Two  Pounds,  and  in  any  subsequent  year 

the  sum  of  One  Pound. 

Annual  Members  shall  receive  ^'raizs  the  Report 
of  the  Association  for  the  year  of  their  admission 
and  for  the  years  in  which  they  continue  to  pay, 
vnthout  intermission,  their  annual  subscription.  An 
Annual  Member  who  omits  to  subscribe  for  any 
particular  year  shall  lose  for  that  and  all  future 
years  the  privilege  of  receiving  the  Annual  Reports 
of  the  Association  gratis.  He,  however,  may  resume 
his  other  privileges  as  a  Member  at  any  subsequent 
Annual  Meeting  by  paying  on  each  such  occasion 
the  sum  of  One  Pound, 
(iii)  Every  Associate  for  a  year  shall  pay,  on  admission, 
the  sum  of  One  Pound. 


Conditions 
and  Privileges 
of  Member- 
ship. 


1914 


Amended  by  the  General  Committee  at  Dublin,  1908. 


xvm 


RULES   OF   THE   BRITISH   ASSOCIATION. 


Associates  sliall  not  receive  the  Annual  Report 
gratuitously.  They  shall  not  be  eligible  to  serve  on 
any  Committee,  nor  be  qualified  to  hold  any  office  in 
the  Association, 
(iv)  Ladies  may  become  Members  or  Associates  on  the 
same  terms  as  gentlemen,  or  can  obtain  a  Lady's 
Ticket  (transferable  to  ladies  only)  on  the  payment 
of  One  Pound. 
Correspond-  3.  Corresponding    Members    may   be   appointed    by   the 

ing  Members.  General  Committee,  on  the  nomination  of  the  Council.     They 
shall  be  entitled  to  all  the  privileges  of  Membership. 

4.  Subscriptions  are  payable  at  or  before  the  Annual 
Meeting.  Annual  Members  not  attending  the  meeting  may 
make  payment  at  any  time  before  the  close  of  the  financial 
year  on  June  30  of  the  following  year. 

5.  The  Annual  Report  of  the  Association  shall  be  forwarded 
gratis  to  individuals  and  institutions  entitled  to  receive  it. 

Annual  Members  whose  subscriptions  have  been  inter- 
mitted shall  be  entitled  to  purchase  the  Annual  Report 
at  two-thirds  of  the  publication  price  ;  and  Associates  for  a 
year  shall  be  entitled  to  purchase,  at  the  same  price,  the 
volume  for  that  year. 

Volumes  not  claimed  within  two  years  of  the  date  of 
publication  can  only  be  issued  by  direction  of  the  Council. 


Annual  Sub- 
scriptions. 


The  Annual 
Report. 


Affiliated 
Societies. 


Associated 
Societies. 


Chapter   XL 

Corresponding  Societies  :    Conference  of  Delegates. 

Corresponding  Societies  are  constituted  as  follows  : 

1.  (i)  Any  Society  which  undertakes  local  scientific  inves- 
tigation and  publishes  the  results  may  become  a 
Society  affiliated  to  the  British  Association. 

Each  Affiliated  Society  may  appoint  a  Delegate, 
who  must  be  or  become  a  Member  of  the  Associa- 
tion and  must  attend  the  meetings  of  the  Conference 
of  Delegates.  He  shall  be  ex  officio  a  Member  of 
the  General  Committee, 
(ii)  Any  Society  formed  for  the  purpose  of  encouraging 
the  study  of  Science,  which  has  existed  for  three 
years  and  numbers  not  fewer  than  fifty  members, 
may  become  a  Society  associated  with  the  British 
Association. 


CORRESPONDING  SOCIETIES :  CONFERENCE  OF  DELEGATES,     xix 

Each  Associated  Society  shall  have  the  right 
to  appoint  a  Delegate  to  attend  the  Annual  Con- 
ference. Such  Delegates  must  be  or  become  either 
Members  or  Associates  of  the  British  Association, 
and  shall  have  all  the  rights  of  Delegates  appointed 
by  the  Affiliated  Societies,  except  that  of  member- 
ship of  the  General  Committee. 

2.  Application  may  be  made  by  any  Society  to  be  placed  Applications. 
on  the  list  of  Corresponding  Societies.     Such  application  must 

be  addressed  to  the  Assistant  Secretary  on  or  before  the  1st  of 
June  preceding  the  Annual  Meeting  at  which  it  is  intended 
it  should  be  considered,  and  must,  in  the  case  of  Societies 
desiring  to  be  affiliated,  be  accompanied  by  specimens  of  the 
publications  of  the  results  of  local  scientific  investigations 
recently  undertaken  by  the  Society. 

3.  A   Corresponding   Societies    Committee    shall   be   an-   Coeke- 
nually   nominated   by   the    Council   and    appointed   by   the  spondixo 
General  Committee,  for   the  purpose  of  keeping  themselves  commi^tteb. 
generally  informed  of  the  work  of  the  Corresponding  Socie- 
ties and  of  superintending  the  preparation  of  a  list  of  the 

papers  published  by  the  Affiliated  Societies.  This  Com- 
mittee shall  make  an  Annual  Report  to  the  Council,  and 
shall  suggest  such  additions  or  changes  in  the  list  of  Corre- 
sponding Societies  as  they  may  consider  desirable. 

(i)  Each  Corresponding  Society  shall  forward  every  year  Procedure, 
to  the  Assistant  Secretary  of  the  Association,  on  or 
before  June  1,  such  particulars  in  regard  to  the 
Society  as  may  be  required  for  the  information  of 
the  Corresponding  Societies  Committee, 
(ii)  There  shall  be  inserted  in  the  Annual  Report  of  the 
Association  a  list  of  the  papers  published  by 
the  Corresponding  Societies  during  the  preceding 
twelve  months  which  contain  the  results  of  local 
scientific  work  conducted  by  them— those  papers 
only  being  included  which  refer  to  subjects  coming 
under  the  cognisance  of  one  or  other  of  the  several 
Sections  of  the  Association. 

4.  The  Delegates  of  Corresponding  Societies  shall  consti-   Conpebenck 
tute  a  Conference,  of  which  the  Chairman,  Vice-Chairman,   ^^  ^^le- 
and  Secretary  or  Secretaries  shall  be  nominated  annually  by   '^^'^^®- 

the  Council  and  appointed  by  the  General  Committee.  The 
members  of  the  Corresponding  Societies  Committee  shall  be 
ex  offi,cio  members  of  the  Conference. 

(i)  The  Conference  of  Delegates  shall  be  summoned  by   Procediueand 
the  Secretaries  to  hold  one  or  more  meetings  durinor   Functions. 

a2 


XX  RULES    OF   THE   BRITISH   ASSOCIATION. 

each  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Association,  and  shall 
be  empowered  to  invite  any  Member  or  Associate 
to  take  part  in  the  discussions. 

(ii)  The  Conference  of  Delegates  shall  be  empowered  to 
submit  Resolutions  to  the  Committee  of  Recom- 
mendations for  their  consideration,  and  for  report 
to  the  General  Committee, 
(iii)  The  Sectional  Committees  of  the  Association  shall 
be  requested  to  transmit  to  the  Secretaries  of  the 
Conference  of  Delegates  copies  of  any  recommenda- 
tions to  be  made  to  the  General  Committee  bearing 
on  matters  in  which  the  co-operation  of  Corre- 
sponding Societies  is  desirable.  It  shall  be  com- 
petent for  the  Secretaries  of  the  Conference  of 
Delegates  to  invite  the  authors  of  such  recom- 
mendations to  attend  the  meetings  of  the  Confeience 
in  order  to  give  verbal  explanations  of  their  objects 
and  of  the  precise  way  in  which  they  desire  these 
to  be  carried  into  effect, 
(iv)  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  Delegates  to  make 
themselves  familiar  with  the  purport  of  the  several 
recommendations  brought  before  the  Conference, 
in  order  that  they  may  be  able  to  bring  such  re- 
commendations adequately  before  their  respective 
Societies. 

(v)  The  Conference  may  also  discuss  propositions 
regarding  the  promotion  of  more  systematic  ob- 
servation and  plans  of  operation,  and  of  greater 
uniformity  in  the  method  of  publishing  results. 


Chapter  XII. 

Amendments  and  New  Rules. 

Alterations.  Any    alterations    in    the   Rules,    and     any    amendments 

or  new  Rules  that  may  be  proposed  by  the  Council  or 
individual  Members,  shall  be  notified  to  the  General  Com- 
mittee on  the  first  day  of  the  Annual  Meeting,  and  referred 
forthwith  to  the  Committee  of  Recommendations ;  and,  on  the 
report  of  that  Committee,  shall  be  submitted  for  approval  at 
the  last  meeting  of  the  General  Committee. 


XXI 


TEUSTEES,  GENERAL  OFFICERS,  &c.,  1831-3  914. 


TRUSTEES. 


1832-70  (Sir)  R.  1.  Mukchison  (Bart.). 

F.R.S. 
1832-62  John  Tayloe,  Esq..  F.R.S. 
1832-39  C.  Babbage,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 
1839-44  F.  Baily,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 
1844-58  Rev.  G.  Peacock,  F.R.S. 
1858-82  General  E.  Sabine,  F.R.S. 
1862-81  Sir  P.  Egekton,  Bart.,  F.R.S. 

GENERAL 

1831        Jonathan  Gray,  Esq. 
1832-62  John  Tayloe,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 
1862-74  W.  Spottiswoode,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 
1874-91  Prof.  A.  W.  Williamson,  F.R.S. 


1872-   /Sir  J.  Lubbock,   Bart,    (after- 

1913  (      wards  Lord  Avebuby),  F.R.S. 

1881-83  W.  Spottiswoode,  Esq.,  Pres. 

R.S. 
1883-      Lord  Rayleigh,  F.R.S. 
1883-98  Sir    Lyon    (afterwards     Lord) 

Platfaie,  F.R.S. 
1898-      Prof.  (Sir)  A.  W.  Ruckeb,  F.R.S. 
1913-       Major  P.  A.  MacMahon,  F.R.S. 

TREASURERS. 

1891-98  Prof.    (Sir)    A.    W.    Ruckee, 

F.R.S. 
1898-1904  Prof.  G.  C.  Foster,  F.R.S. 
1904-      Prof.  John  Perky,  F.R.S. 


GENERAL    SECRETARIES. 


1832 
1835 


35 


-36 


1836-37 


Rev.  W. 
F.R.S. 

Rev.  W. 
F.R.S., 
F.R.S. 

Rev.   W. 


Veenon   Haecourt, 

Veenon  Haecourt, 
and  F.  Baily,  Esq., 


1837-39 


1839-45 


1845- 
1850- 


1852- 
1853- 
1859- 
1861- 
1862- 

1863- 

1865- 
1866- 


1868-71 


Veenon  Haecourt, 

F.R.S.,  and  R.  I.  Muechison, 

Esq.,  F.R.S. 
R.  I.  Muechison,  Esq.,  F.R.S., 

and  Rev.  G.  Peacock,  F.R.S. 
Sir  R.   I.  Muechison,  F.R.S., 

and  Major  E.  Sabine,  F.R.S. 
.50  Lieut.-Colonel  E.  Sabine.F.R.S. 
52  General  E.  Sabinb,  F.R.S.,  and 

J.F.  ROYLE,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 
J.  F.  ROYLB,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 
General  E.  Sabine,  F.R.S. 
Prof.  R.  Walker,  F.R.S. 
W.  Hopkins,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 
W.  Hopkins,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 

Prof.  J.  Phillips,  F.R.S. 

65  W.  Hopkins,  Esq.,  F.R.S., 

F.  Galton,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 

66  F.  Galton,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 
68  F.  Galton,   Esq.,   F.R.S., 

Dr.  T.  A.  HiEST,  F.R.S. 
Dr.  T.  A.  HiEST,  F.R.S.,  and  Dr. 
T.  Thomson,  F.R.S. 


-53 

-59 
-61 
-62 
-63 


and 


and 


and 


1871-72 

1872-76 

1876-81 

1881-82 

1882-83 
1883-95 

1895-97 


1897-  i 

1900  t 

1900-02 


1902-03 
1903-13 

1913- 


Dr.T.THOMSON,F.R.S.,andCapt. 

Douglas  Galton,  F.R.S. 
Capt.  D.  Galton,  F.R.S.,  and 

Dr.  Michael  Fostee,  F.R.S. 
Capt.  D.  Galton,  F.R.S.,  and 

Dr.  P.  L.  Sclatbe,  F.R.S. 
Capt.  D.  Galton,  F.R.S. ,  and 

Prof.  F.  M.  Balfoue,  F.R.S. 
Capt.  Douglas  Galton,  F.R.S. 
Sir  Douglas  Galton,  F.R.S., 

and  A.  G.  Veenon  Harcouut, 

Esq.,  F.R.S. 
A.  G.  Veenon  HARCOUET,Esq., 

F.R.S.,     and     Prof.     E.     A. 

Schafer,  F.R.S. 
Prof.  SCHAFEE,  F.R.S.,  and  Sir 

W.C.Robeets-Austen,F.R.S  . 
Sir   W.    C.    Robeets-Austen, 

F.R.S.,  and  Dr.  D.  H.  Scott, 

F.R.S. 
Dr.  D.  H.   Scott.  F.R.S.,  and 

MajorP.  A.  MacMahon,  F.R.S. 
Major  P.  A.  MacMahon,  F.R.S., 

and  Prof.  W.  A.  Heedman, 

F.R.S. 
Prof.  W.  A.  Hebdman,  F.R.S., 

and  Prof .  H.H.TUENER,  F.R.  S. 


ASSISTANT   GENERAL   SECRETARIES,   &c. :    1831-1904. 


1831 
1832 


1881-85  Prof.  T.  G.  Bonney,  F.R.S., 
Secretary. 

1885-90  A.  T.  Atchison,  Esq.,  M.A., 
Secretary/. 

1890  G.  Griffith,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Acting 
Secretary. 

1890-1902  G.  Griffith.  E.sq..  M.A. 

1902-04  J.  G.  Gaeson,  Esq.,  M.D. 

ASSISTANT   SECRETARIES. 
1878-80  J.  E.  H.  Gordon,  Esq.,  B.A.         I    1909-      O.  J.  R.  Howaeth,  Esq.,  M.A. 
1904-09  A.  SiLVA  White,  Esq.  \ 


John  Phillips,  Esq.,  Secretary. 
Prof.    J.    D.    Forbes,    Acting 
Secretary. 
1832-62  Prof.  John  Phillips,  F.R.S. 
1862-78  G.  Griffith,  Esq.,  M.A. 
1881        G.  Griffith,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Acting 
Secretary. 


xxii  PRESIDENTS   AND   SECRETARIES   OF   SECTIONS    (1901-13). 


Presidents  and  Secretaries  of  the  Sections  of  the  Association, 

1901-1913. 

(The  List  of  Sectional  Officers  for  191-1  will  be  found  on  p.  xlvi.) 


Date  and  Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 
(^Bec.  =  Eecorder) 


SECTION   A.  1— MATHEMATICS   AND  PHYSICS. 


1901. 
1902. 
1903. 
1904. 

1905. 
1906. 
1907, 
1908. 

1S^9. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 


Glasgow  ... 

Belfast 

Southport 
Cambridge 


Major  P.  A.  MacMahon,  F.R.S. 
— Bep.  of  Astronomy,  Prof. 
H.  H.  Turner,  F.R.S. 

Prof.  J.  Purser,LL.D.,M.R.I.A. 
— Bep.  of  Astronomy,  Prof. 
A.  Sciiuster,  F.R.S. 

C.  Vernon  Boys,  V.n.S.—Bep. 
of  Astro7iomy  and  Meteor- 
ology,Br. W.N.  Shaw.F.R.S. 

Prof.  H.  Lamb,  F.n.S.— Sub- 
Section  of  Astronomy  and 
Cosmical    Physics,    Sir    J. 
Eliot,  K.C.I.E.,  F.R.S. 
SoutliAfrica  Prof.   A.    R.   Forsyth,   M.A., 
F.R.S. 
i 
York Principal  E.  H.Griffiths.F.R.S. 

Leicester...  Prof.  A.   E.  H.   Love,   M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Dublin Dr.  W.  N.  Shaw,  F.R.S 

Winnipeg  Prof.  E.  Rutherford,  F.R.S.... 
Sheffield  ...Prof.  E.  W.  Hobson,  F.R.S.... 
Portsmouth j  Prof.  H.  H.  Turner,  F.R.S.  ... 
Dundee    ...-Prof.  H.  L.  Callendar,  F.R.S. 


1913.  Birmingham  Dr.  H.  F.  Baker,  F.R.S 


H.  S.  Carslaw,  C.  H.Lees  (lieo.),\V. 
Stewart,  Prof.  L.  R.  Wilberforce. 

H.  S.  Carslaw,  A.  R.  Hinks,  A. 
Larmor,  C.  H.  Lees  {Rcc),  Prof. 
W.  B.  Morton,  A.  W.  Porter. 

D.  E.  Benson,  A.  R.  Hinks,  R.  W. 
H.  T.  Hudson,  Dr.  C.  H.  Lees 
{Rec),  .1.  Loton,  A.  W.  Porter. 

A.  R.  Hinks,  R.  W.  H.  T.  Hudson, 

Dr.  C.  H.  Lees  {Rec.\  Dr.  W.  J.  S. 

Lockyer,  A.  W.  Porter,  W.  C    D. 

Whetham. 
A.  R.  Hinks,  S.  S.  Hough,  R.  T.  A. 

Innes,  J.  H.  Jeans,  Dr.  C.  H.  Lees 

(J?ec.). 
Dr.  L.  N.  G.  Filon,  Dr.  J.  A.  Harker, 

A.  R.  Hinks,  Prof.  A.  W.  Porter 

{Rec),  H.  Dennis  Taylor. 

E.  E.  Brooks,  Dr.  L.  N.  G.  Filon, 
Dr.  J.  A.  Harker,  A.  R.  Hinks, 
Prof.  A.  W.  Porter  {Rec). 

Dr.   W.   G.   Duffield,  Dr.  L.  N.  G. 

Filon,     B.     Gold,    Prof.    J.    A. 

McCleUand,  Prof.  A.  W.    Porter 

{Rec.),  Prof.  E.  T.  Whittaker. 
Prof.   F.  Allen,  Prof.  J.  C.  Fields, 

E.  Gold,  F.  Horton,  Prof.  A.  W. 

Porter  {Rec.'),  Dr.  A.  A.  Rambaut. 
H.  Bateman,  A.  S.  Eddington,  E. 

Gold,  Dr.   F.   Horton,  Dr.  S.  R. 

Milner,  Prof.  A.  W.  Porter  {Rec). 
H.  Bateman,  Prof.  P.  V.  Bevan,  A.  S. 

Eddington,  E.  Gold,  Prof.  A.  W. 

Porter  {Rec),  P.  A.  Yapp. 
Prof.  P.  V.  Bevan,  E.  Gold,  Dr.  H.  B. 

Heywood,  R.  Norrie,  Prof.  A.  W. 

Porter  (i?''c.),  W.   G.  Robson,  F. 

J.  M.  Stratton. 
Prof.  P.  V.  Bevan  (Rec),  Prof.  A.  S. 

Eddington,   E.   Gold,    Dr.   H.    B. 

Heywood,  Dr.  A.  O.  Rankine,  Dr. 

G.  A.  Shakespear. 


'  Section  A  was  constituted  under  this  title  in  1835,  when  the  sectional  division 
was  introduced.     The  previous  division  was  into  '  Committees  of  Sciences.' 


PRESIDENTS   AND   SECRETARIES   OF   SECTIONS   (1901-13).        xxiii 


Date  and  Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 
{Rec.  =  Recorder) 


SECTION    B.2— CHEMISTRY. 


1901. 
1902. 

1903. 

1904. 

1905. 

1906. 

1907. 

1908. 

1909. 

1910. 

1911. 
1912. 
1913. 


Glasgow  ... 
Belfast 


Southport 

Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 

York 

Leicester . . . 

Dublin 

Winnipeg. . . 
Sheffield  ... 

Portsmouth 
Dundee  ... 
Birmingham 


Prof.    Percy   F.    Frankland, 

F.R.S. 
Prof.  E.  Divers,  F.R.S 


Prof.  W.  N.  Hartley,  D.Sc, 
F.R.S. 

Prof.  Sydney  Young.F.R.S.... 


George  T.  Beilby 


Prof.  Wyndham  R.  Dunstan, 
F.R.S. 

Prof.  A.  Smithells,  F.R.S.    ... 


Prof.  F.  S.  Kipping,  F.R.S. ... 


Prof.  H.  E.  Armstrong,  F.R.S, 


J.  E.  Stead,  F.R.S.    ... 


Suh-section  of  Aqrtculture- 

A.  D.  Hall,  F.R.S. 
Prof.  J.  Walker,  F.R.S 


Prof.  A.  Senier,  M.D 


Prof.  W.  P.  Wynne,  F.R.S. 


W.  C.  Anderson,  G.  G.  Henderson, 

W.  J.  Pope,  T.  K.  Rose  {Rec). 
R,  F.   Blake,  M.  O.   Forster,  Prof. 

G.  G.  Henderson,  Prof.  W.  J.  Pope 

{Rec). 
Dr.  M.  O.  Forster,  Prof.  G.  G.  Hen- 
derson, J.  Ohm,  Prof.  W.  J.  Pope 

{Rec). 
Dr.  M.  O.  Forster,  Prof.  G.  G.  Hen- 
derson,   Dr.    H.    O.  Jones,  Prof. 

W.  J.  Pope  iRec). 
W.  A.  Caldecott,  Mr.  M.  O.  Forster, 

Prof.  G.  G.  Henderson  {Rec),  C.  F. 

Juritz. 
Dr.  E.  F.Armstrong,  Prof.  A.W.  Cross- 
ley,  S.  H.  Davies,  Prof.  W.  J.  Pope 

{RecX 
Dr.  E.  F.  Armstrong,  Prof.  A.  W. 

Crossley  (Reo.%  J.  H.  Hawthorn, 

Dr.  F.  M.  Perkin. 
Dr.  E.  F.  Armstrong  (Rec),  Dr.  A. 
j     McKenzie,  Dr.  F.  M.  Perkin,  Dr. 
i    .J.  H.  Pollock. 
Dr.  E.  F.  Armstrong  (Rec),  Dr.  T. 

M.  Lowry,  Dr.  F.  M.  Perkin,  J.  W. 

Shipley. 
Dr.    E.  F.  Armstrong  (Rec),  Dr.  T. 

M.  Lowry,  Dr.  F.  M.  PerKn,  W. 

E.  S.  Turner. 
Dr.  C.    Crowther,   J.   Goldinar,    Dr. 

E.  J.  Russell. 
Dr.    E.    F.   Armstrong  {Rec),    Dr. 

C.    H.    Desch,   Dr.  T.  M.  Lowry, 

Dr.  F.  Beddow. 
Dr.  E.  F.  Armstrong  (Rec),  Dr.  C. 

H.  Desch,  Dr.  A.  Holt,  Dr.  J.  K. 

Wood. 
Dr.  E.  F.  Armstrong  (Rec),  Dr.  C.  H. 

Desch,    Dr.     A.    Holt,     Dr.     H. 

McCombie. 


SECTION   C.3 -GEOLOGY. 

1901.  Glasgow  ...  John  Home,  F.R.S H.   L.   Bowman,   H.   W.  Monckton 

(Rec). 

1902.  Belfast Lieut.-Gen.   C.  A.  McMahon,  H.  L.   Bowman,   H.  W.   Monckton 

F.R.S.  (Rec),  J.   St.  J.  Phillips,  H.  J. 

Seymour. 

1903.  Southport      Prof.    W.    W.    Watts,    M.A.,  H.  L.  Bowman,  Rev.  W.  L.  Carter, 

M.Sc.  J.  Lomas,  H.  W.  Monckton  (Rec). 


^  'Chemistrv  and  Mineralogy,'  1835-1894. 
»  '  Geology  and  Geography,'  1835-1850. 


xxiv        PRESIDExVTS   AND   SECRETARIES   OF   SECTIONS    (1901-13). 


Date  and  Place 


Presidents 


1904.  Cambridge  :  Aubrey  Strahan,  F.H.S 

1905.  SouthAfrica  Prof.  H.  A.  Miers,  M.A.,  D.Sc, 
F.R.S. 


Secretaries 
(^Rec.  =  Recorder) 


1906.  York 


G.  W.  Lamplugh,  F.R.S 


1907.  Leicester...  Prof.  J.  W.  Gregory,  F.R.S.. 


1908.  Dublin. 


1909.  Winnipeg... 

1910.  Sheffield  ... 


Prof.  John  Joly,  F.R.S 


Dr.    A.    Smith    Woodward, 
F.R.S. 

Prof.  A.  P.  Coleman,  F.R.S... 


1911.  Portsmouth  A.  Harker,  F.R.S 


1912.  Dundee    ...  Dr.  B.  N.  Peach,  F.R.S 


1913.  Birmingham 


Prof.  E.  J.  Garwood,  M.A.  ... 


H.  L.  Bowman  (^Rec),  Rev.  W.  L. 

Carter,  J.  Lomas,  H.  Woods. 
H.  L.  Bowman  (Rec),  J.  Lomas,  Dr. 

Molengraaff,  Prof.  A.  Young,  Prof. 

R.  B.  Young. 
H.  L.  Bowman  {Rer.),  Rev.  W.  L. 

Carter,  Rev.  W.  Johnson.  J.  Lomas. 
Dr.  F.  W.  Bennett,  Rev.  W.  L.  Carter, 

Prof.  T.  Groom,  J.  Lomas  (.Bet?.) 
Rev.  W.  L.  Carter,  J.  Lomas  (Rec). 

Prof.  S.  H.  Reynolds,  H.  J.  Sey- 
mour. 
W.  L.  Carter  (  Rec),  Dr.  A.  R.  D  werry- 

house,  R.  T.  Hodgson,  Prof.  S.  H. 

Reynolds. 
W.  L.  Carter  (Rec.'),  Dr.  A.  R.  Dwerry- 

house,   B.    Hobson,    Prof.    S.   H. 

Reynolds. 
Col.  C.  W.  Bevis,  W.  L.  Carter  ( Rec), 

Dr.  A.    R.    Dwerryhouse,  Prof.  S. 

H.  Reynolds. 
Prof.  W.  B.  Boulton,  A.  W.  R.  Don, 

Dr.    A.    R.    Dwerryhouse    {Rec), 

Prof.  S.  H.  Reynolds. 
Prof.    W.   S.     Boulton,    Dr.    A.    R. 

Dwerryhouse     (Rec),    F.     Raw, 

Prof.  S.  H.  Reynolds. 


SECTION   D.i— ZOOLOGY. 


1901. 
1902. 
1903. 


Glasgow  ... 

Belfast 

Southport 


Prof.  G.  B.  Howes,  F.R.S. 
Prof.  S.  J.  Hickson,  F.R.S. 


1904.  Cambridge    William  Bateson,  F.R.S. , 


1905. 
1906. 

1907. 

1908. 

1909. 


SouthAfrica 
York 


Prof.  J.  Cossar  Ewart,  F.R.S.;  J.  G.  Kerr  (Rec),  J.  Rankin,  J.  Y. 

Simpson. 
Prof.  J.  G.  Kerr,  R.  Patterson,  J.  Y. 

Simpson  (Rec). 
Dr.  J.   H.    Ashworth,    J.  Barcroft, 

A.   Quayle,    Dr.    J.    Y.    Simpson 

(Re6.),  Dr.  H.  W.  M.  Tims. 
Dr.  J.  H.  Ashworth,  L.  Doncaster, 

Prof.  J.  Y.  Simpson  (Rec),  Dr.  H. 

W.  M.  Tims. 
Dr.  Pakes,  Dr.  Purcell,  Dr.  H.  W.  M. 

Tims,  Prof.  J.  Y.  Simpson  (Rec). 
Dr.  J.  H.  Ashworth,  L.  Doncaster. 

Oxley  Grabham,  Dr.  H.W.  M.  Tims 

(Rec). 
Dr.  J.  H.  Ashworth,  L.   Doncaster, 

E.  E.  Lowe,  Dr.  H.  W.   M.  Tims 
1     (Rec). 
Dr.  S.  F.  Harmer,  F.R.S Dr.  J.  H.  Ashworth.  L.  Doncaster, 

Prof.  A.  Fraser,  Dr.  H.  W.  M.  Tims 

(Rec). 
Dr.  A.  E.  Shipley,  F.R.S.    ...  C.  A.  Baragar,  C.  L.  Boulenger,  Dr. 

J.    Pearson,    Dr.  H.  W.  M.  Tims 

(Rec). 


G.  A.  Boulenger,  F.R.S. 
J.  J.  Lister,  F.R.S 


Leicester  ...  Dr.  W.  E.  Hoyle,  M.A 

Dublin 

Winnipeg.. 


*  '  Zoology  and  Botany,"  1835-1847  ;  'Zoology  and  Botany,  including  Physiology,' 
1848-1865  ;' Biologj-,' 1866-1894. 


PRESIDENTS   AND   SECRETARIES   OF   SECTIONS    (1901-13). 


XXV 


Date  and  Place 


1910.  Sheffield  .. 

1911.  Portsmouth 

1912.  Dundee    ... 

1913.  Birmingham 


Presidents 


Prof.  G.  C.  Bourne,  F.E.S. 


Prof.  D'Arcj'   W.  Thompson, 
C.B 


Secretaries 
{Rec.  =  Recorder) 


Dr.  J.  H.  Ashworth,  L.  Doncaster, 
T.  J.  Evans,   Dr.  H.  W.  M.  Tims 
iRec.-). 
Dr.  J.  H.  Ashworth,  C.  Foran,  R.  D. 
Laurie,  Dr.  H.W.  M..  Tims  {Re c). 
Dr.    P.    Chalmers    Mitchell,  |  Dr.  J.  H.  Ashworth,  K.  D.  Laurie, 
F.R.S.  Miss  D.  L.  Mackinnon,  Dr  H.  W. 

M.  Tims  {Rec.'). 

Dr.  H.  F.  Gadow,  F.R.S 'Dr.   J.     H.    Ashworth,   Dr.    C.    L. 

Boulenger,  R.  D.  Laurie,  Dr.   H. 
W.  M.  Tims  {Rec). 


SECTION   E.5— GEOGEAPHY. 


1901. 

Glasgow  ... 

1902. 

Belfast 

1903. 

Southport... 

1904. 

Cambridge 

190.5. 

SouthAfrica 

1906. 

York 

1907. 

Leicester... 

1908. 

Dublin 

1909. 

Winnipeg... 

1910. 

Sheffield  ... 

1911 

Portsmouth 

1912. 

Dundee    ... 

1913 

Birmingham 

Dr.  H.  R.  Mill,  F.R.G.S 

SirT.  H.  Holdich,  K.C.B.    .. 


Capt.  E.  VV.  Creak,  R.N.,  C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Douglas  W.  Freshfield 


Adm.  Sir  W.  J.  L.  Wharton, 
R.N.,  K.C.B.,  F.E.S. 

Rt.  Hon.  Sir  George  Goldie, 

K.C.M.G.,  F.R.S. 
George  G.  Chisholm,  M.A.  ... 

Major   E.   H.   Hills,  C.M.G., 

R.E. 
Col.  SirD.  Johnston.K.C.M.G., 

C.B.,  R.E. 
Prof.  A.  J.  Herbertson,  M.A., 

Ph.D. 
Col.  C,  F.  Close,  R.E.,  C.M.G. 

Col.     Sir     C.     M.     Watson, 

K.C.M.G. 
Prof.  H.  N.  Dickson,  D.Sc. ... 


H.  N.  Dickson  {Rec),  E.  Heawood, 
G.  Sandeman,  A.  C.  Turner. 

G.  G.  Chisholm  {Rec),  E.  Heawood, 
Dr.  A.  J.  Herbertson,  Dr.  J.  A. 
Lindsay. 

E.  Heawood  {Rec),  Dr.  A.  J.  Her- 
bertson, E.  A.  Reeves,  Capt.  J.  C. 
Underwood. 

E.  Heawood(i2ef.),Dr.A. J. Herbert- 
son,  H.  Y.  Oldham,  E.  A.  Reeves. 

A.  H.  Cornish-Bowden,  F.  Flowers, 
Dr.  A.  J.  Herbertson  {Rec),  H.  Y. 
Oldham. 

E.  Heawood  {Rec),  Dr.  A.  J.  Her- 
bertson, E.  A.  Reeves,  G.  Yeld. 

E.  Heawood  {Rec),  O.  J.  R.  How- 
arth,  E.  A.  Reeves,  T.  Walker. 

W.  F.  Bailey,  W.  J.  Barton,  O.  J.  R. 
Howarth  {Rec),  E.  A.  Reeves. 

G.  G.  Chisholm  {Rec),  J.  McFar- 
lane,  A.  Mclntyre. 

Rev.  W.  J.  Barton  {Rec),  Dr.  R. 
Brown,  J.  McFarlane,  E.  A.  Reeves. 

J.  BIcFarlane  {Rec),  E.  A.  Reeves, 
W.  P.  Smith. 

Rev.  W.  J.  Barton  {Rec),  J.  McFar- 
lane, E.  A.  Reeves,  D.  Wylie. 

Rev.  W.  J.  Barton  {Rec  ),  P.  E.  Mar- 
tineau,  J.  McFarlane, E.A.Reeves. 


SECTION   F.6— ECONOMIC   SCIENCE   AND   STATISTICS. 

1901.  Glasgow  ...  Sir  R.  GifEen,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S.    W.   W.  Blackie,  A.  L.  Bowley,  E. 

Cannan  {Rec),  S.  J.  Chapman. 

1902.  Belfast     ...E.  Cannan,  M. A.,  LL.D jA.    L.    Bowley   {Rec),  Prof.    S.   J. 

I     Chapman,  Dr.  A.  Duffin. 


"  Section  E  was  that  of  '  Anatomy  and  Medicine,'  1835-1840  ;  of  '  Physiology  ' 
(afterwards  incorporated  in  Section  D),  1841-1847.  It  was  assigned  to  '  Geography 
and  Ethnology,'  1851-1868  ;  '  Geography,'  1869. 

"  'Statistics,'  1835-1855. 


XXvi        PRESIDENTS    AND    SECRETARIES    OF    SECTIONS    (1901-13). 


Date  and  Place 

1903.  Southport 

1904.  Cambridge 

1905.  SouthAfrica 

1906.  York 

1907.  Leicester... 

1908.  Dublin 

1909.  Winnipeg... 

1910.  Sheffield  ... 

1911.  Portsmouth 

1912.  Dundee    ... 

1913.  Birmingham 


Presidents 


E.  W.  Brabrook,  C.B. 


Prof.  Wm.  Smart,  LL.D. 


Rev.  W.  Cunningham,  D.D. 
D.Sc. 

A.  L.  Bowley,  M.A 


Prof.  W.  J.  Ashley,  M.A. 


Secretaries 
{Ree.  -  Recorder) 


W.  M.  Ac  worth,  M.A 

Suh-seotio)i  of  Agriculture — 

Et.  Hon.  Sir  H.  Plunkett. 
Prof.  S.  J.  Chapman,  M.A.  ... 

Sir     H.     Llewellyn     Smith, 

K.C.B.,  M.A. 
Hon.  W.  Pember  Reeves 

Sir  H.H.  Cunynghame,  K.C.B. 

Rev.  P.  H.  Wicksteed,  M.A. 


A.   L.   Bowley   {Rec),    Prof.   S.   J. 
Chapman,  Dr.  B.  W.  Ginsburg,  G. 
Lloyd. 
J.  E.  Bidwell,  A.  L.  Bowley  {Reo.), 
Prof.  S.  J.  Chapman,  Dr.   B.  W. 
Ginsburg. 
'R.  ^  Ababrelton,  A.  L.  Bowley  (^Rec), 
I     Prof.  H.   E.  S.  Fremantle,  H.  O. 
I     Meredith. 

Prof.   S.  J.  Chapman  {Rec),  D.  H. 
Macgregor,    H.    0.   Meredith,  B. 
S.  Rowntree. 
Prof.  S.  J.  Chapman  {Rec),  D.  H. 
Macgregor,  H.  0.  Meredith,  T.  S. 
Taylor. 
W.  G.  S.  Adams,  Prof.  S.  J.  Chap- 
j     man  (Rec),  Prof.  D.  H.  Macgre- 
1     gor,  H.  O.  Meredith. 
A.  D.  Hall,  Prof.  J.  Percival,  J.  H. 

Priestley,  Prof.  J.  Wilson. 
Prof.  A.  B.  Clark,  Dr.  W.  A.  Mana- 

han.  Dr.  W.  R.  Scott  (Rec). 
C.  R.   Fay,   H.  O.  Meredith  (Rec), 

Dr.  W.  R.  Scott,  R.  Wilson. 
C.  R.  Fay,  Dr.  W.  R.  Scott  (Rec), 

H.  A.  Stibbs. 
C.  R.  Fay,  Dr.  W.  R.  Scott  (Rec),  E. 

Tosh. 
C.  E.    Fay,  Prof.  A.  W.  Kirkaldy, 
■     Prof.  H.  0.  Meredith,  Dr.  W.  R. 
I      Scott  (Rer.). 


SECTION   G.'— ENGINEERING. 


1901.  Glasgow  ...  R.  E.  Crompton,  M.Inst.C.E. 


1902. 
1903. 

1904. 

1905. 

1906. 

1907. 

1908. 

1909. 

1910. 
1911. 


Belfast     ... 
Southport 

Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 

York 

Leicester... 

Dublin 

Winnipeg. . . 

Sheffield    .. 
Portsmouth 


Prof.  J.  Perry,  F.R.S 

C.  Hawksley,  M.Inst.C.E.    ... 

Hon.  C.  A.  Parsons,  F.R.S. ... 

Col.  Sir    C.   Scott- Moncrieff, 

G.C.S.I.,  K.C.M.G.,  R.E. 
J.  A.  Bwing,  F.R.S 

Prof.  Silvanus  P.  Thompson, 

F.R.S. 
Dugald  Clerk,  F.R.S 

Sir  W.    H.    White,    K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Prof.    W.    E.    Dalby,    M.A., 

M.Inst.C.E. 
Prof.     J.    H.    Biles,    LL.D., 

D.Sc. 


H.  Bamf ord,  W.  E.  Dalby,  W.  A.  Price 

(Rec). 
M.  Barr,  W.  A.  Price  (Rec),  J.  Wylie. 
Prof.  W.  E.  Dalby,  W.  T.  Maccall, 

W.  A.  Price  (Rec). 
J.  B.  Peace,W.  T.  Maccall,  W.  A.  Price 
1     {Rec). 

W.  T.  Maccall,W.  B.  Marshall  (Rec), 
\     Prof.  H.  Payne,  E.  Williams. 
W.  T.  Maccall,  W.  A.  Price  (Bee), 

J.  Triffit. 
Prof.   B.   G.    Coker,   A.  C.    Harris, 
j     W.  A.  Price  (Rec>,  H.  E.Wimperis. 
Prof.  E.  G.  Coker,  Dr.  W.  E.  Lilly, 

W.  A.  Price  (.Hec),  H.  E.  Wimperis. 

E.  B.  Brydone-Jack,  Prof.  E.  G.Coker, 
Prof.  E.  W.  Marchant,  W.  A.  Price 
(Rec). 

F.  Boulden,  Prof.  E.  G.  Coker  (Rec), 
i     A.  A.  Rowse,  H.  E.  Wimperis. 

H.  Ashley,  Prof.  E.  G.  Coker  (Rec), 
A.  A.  Rowse,  H.  E.  Wimperis. 


Mechanical  Science,'  1836-1900. 


PRESIDENTS   AND    SECRETARIES    OF   SECTIONS    (1901-13).         XXVU 


Date  and  Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 
{Ree.  =  Recorder) 


1912.  Dundee    ... 

1913.  Birmingham 


Prof.  A.  Barr,  D.Sc Prof.  B.  G.  Coker  (^Rec),  A.  E.  Ful- 
ton, H.  Eichardson,  A.  A.  Rowse, 
H.  E.  Wimperis. 

Prof.  Gisbert  Kapp,  D.Eng....  Prof.  E.  G.  Coker  {Rec),  J.  Purser, 

A.  A.  Rowse,  H.  E.  Wimperis. 


SECTION   H.*"— ANTHROPOLOGY. 


1901.  Glasgow  ...Prof.     D.    J.     Cunningham,  W.  Crooke,  Prof.  A.  F.  Dixon,  J.  F. 
j      F.R.S.  Gemmill,  J.  L.  Myres  (Ree.). 

Dr.  A.  C.  Haddon,  F.R.S.    ...  R.    Campbell,   Prof.    A.   F.    Dixon 

J.  L.  Myres  (Rcc). 
E.    N.    Fallaize,   H.   S.    Kingsford, 
E.  M.  Littler,  J.  L.  Myres  (Rec). 
W.  L.  H.  Duckworth,  E.  N.  Fallaize, 
H.  S.  Kingsford,  J.  L.  Myres  {Rec). 
A.  R.  Brown,  A.  von  Dessauer,  E.  S. 
Hartland  {Rec.). 

1906.  York E.  Sidney  Hartland,  F.S. A....  Dr.    G.   A.    Auden,   E.  N.   Fallaize 

I  {Rec.),^.  S.  Kingsford,  Dr.  F.  C. 


1902.  Belfast 

1903.  Southport...  Prof.  J.  Symington,  F.R.S. 

1904.  Cambridge    H.  Balfour,  M.A 

1905.  SouthAfrica'Dr.  A.  C.  Haddon,  F.R.S. 


Shrubsall. 

C.  J.  BiUson,  E.  N.  Fallaize  {Rec), 
H.  S.  Kingsford,  Dr.  F.  C.  Shrub- 
sall. 

E.  N.  Fallaize  {Rec),  H.  S.  Kings- 
ford, Dr.  F.  C.  Shrubsall,  L.  E. 
Steele. 

H.  S.  Kingsford  {Bee),  Prof.  C.  J. 
Patten.  Dr.  F.  C.  Shrubsall. 

E.  N.  Fallaize  {Rec),  H.  S.  Kings- 
ford, Prof.  C.  J.  Patten,  Dr.  F.  C. 
I  Shrubsall. 

1911.  Portsmouth  W.  H.  R.  Elvers,  M.D.,  F.R.S.  E.  N.  Fallaize  (Rec),  H.  S.  Kings- 

ford, E.W.  Martindell,  H.  Rundle, 
Dr.  F.  C.  Shrubsall. 

1912.  Dundee    ...  Prof.  G.  Elliot  Smith,  F.R.S.    D.  D.  Craig,  E.  N.  Fallaize  {Rec),  E. 

\V.  Martindell,  Dr.  F.  C.  Shrubsall. 

1913.  Birmingham  Sir  Richard  Temple,  Bart.  ...  E.  N.  Fallaize  {Rec),  E.  W.  Martin- 

dell, Dr.  F.  C.  Shrubsall,  T.  Yeates. 


1907.  Leicester  ..  D.  G.  Hogarth,  M.A 

1908.  Dublin  Prof.  W.  Ridgeway,  M.A. 

1909.  Winnipeg...  Prof.  J.  L.  Myres,  M.A.    ., 

1910.  Sheffield  ...  W.  Crooke,  B.A 


SECTION   1.9— PHYSIOLOGY  (including  Experimentai. 
Pathology  and  Experimental  Psychology). 


Prof.J.  G.McKendrick,  F.R.S.  W.  B.  Brodie,  W.  A.  Osborne,  Prof. 

i      W.  H.  Thompson  (5«f.). 
Prof.     W.     D.     Halliburton,  J.    Barcroft,    Dr.    W.    A.    Osborne 
F.R.S.  {Rec),  Dr.  C.  Shaw. 

J.  Barcroft  {Bee),  Prof.  T.  G.  Brodie, 

Dr.  L.  E.  Shore. 
J.   Barcroft   {Rec),  Dr.   Baumann, 
Dr.  Mackenzie,  Dr.  G.  W.  Robert- 
son, Dr.  Stanwell. 


1901.  Glasgow  .. 

1902.  Belfast     .. 

1904.  Cambridge    Prof.  C.  S.  Sherrington,  F.R.S. 

1905.  SouthAfrica  Col.  D.  Bruce,  C.B.,  F.R.S.  ... 


«  Established  1884. 


'  Established  1894. 


xxviii      PRESIDENTS   AND   SECRETARIES   OF   SECTIONS    (1901-13). 


Date  and  Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 
{Rec.  =  Recorder) 


1906.  York Prof.  P.  Gotch,  F.R.S. , 


1907.  Leicester ...  Dr.  A.  D.  Waller,  F.R.S. 


1908.  Dublin, 


Dr.  J.  Scott  Haldane,  F.R.S. 


1909.  Winnipeg...,  Prof.  E.  H.  Starling,  F.RS.... 

1910.  Sheffield  ...  Prof.  A.  B.  Macallum,  F.R.S. 

1911.  Portsmouth  Prof .  J.  S.  Macdonald,  B.A. 

1912.  Dundee    ...  Leonard  Hill,  F.R.S 

1913.  Birmingham  Dr.    F.    Gowland    Hopkins, 

I      F.R.S. 

I 


J.  Barcroft  (Mec),  Dr.  J.  M.  Hamill, 
1  Prof.  J.  S.  Macdonald,  Dr.  D.  S. 
I      Long. 

Dr.  N.  H.  Alcock,  J.  Barcroft  (Bee), 
':     Prof.   J.   S.    Macdonald,    Dr.    A. 

Warner. 
Prof.  D.  J.  Coffey,  Dr.  P.  T.  Herring, 

Prof.  J.  S.  Macdonald,  Dr.  H.  E. 

Roaf  (Bee). 
Dr.  N.  H.  Alcock  (Rec),  Prof.  P.  T. 

Herring,  Dr.  W.  Webster. 
Dr.  H.  G.  M.  Henry,  Keith  Lucas, 

Dr.  H.  E.  Roaf  (Rec),  Dr.  J.  Tait. 
Dr.   J.    T.   Leon,   Dr.  Keith  Lucas, 

Dr.  H.  E.  Roaf  (Rec.),  Dr.  J.  Tait. 
Dr.  Keith  Lucas,   W.   Moodie,    Dr. 

H.  E.  Roaf  (Rec),  Dr.  J.  Tait. 
C.  L.  Burt,  Prof.  P.  T.  Herring,  Dr. 

T.    G.   Maitland,  Dr.  H.  E.  Roaf 

(Rec),  Dr.  J.  Tait. 


1901. 

Glasgow  ... 

1902. 

Belfast     ... 

1903. 

Southport 

1904. 

Cambridge 

1905. 

SouthAfrica 

1906. 

York 

1907. 

Leicester... 

1908. 

Dublin 

1909. 

Winnipeg... 

SECTION   K.'o— BOTANY 

Prof.  I.  B.  Balfour,  F.R.S.  . 


Prof.  J.  R.  Green,  F.R  S 

A.  C.  Seward,  F.R.S 

Francis  Darwin,  F.R.S 

Subsection   of  Agricvlture- 

Dr.  W.  Somerville. 
Harold  Wager,  F.R.S 

Prof.  F.  W.  Oliver,  F.R.S.  . 

Prof.  J.  B.  Farmer,  F.R.S.  . 
Dr.  F.  F.  Blackman,  F.R.S.. 


Lieut.-Col.   D.   Prain,   CLE 

F.R.S. 
Sub-section  of  Agnculturc- 

Major  P.  G.  Craigie,  C.B. 


1910.  Sheffield  ...  Prof.  J.  W.  H.  Trail,  F.R.S 

1911.  Portsmouth  Prof.  F.  E.  Weiss,  D.Sc 


Sub-section  of  Agriculture- 
W.  Bateson,  M.A.,  F.R.S. 


..  D.  T.  Gwynne-Vaughan,  G.  F.  Scott- 
Elliot,   A.    C.   Seward  (Rec),  H. 

Wager. 
..  A.  G.  Tansley,  Rev.  C.  H.  Waddell, 

H.  Wager  (Rec),  R.  H.  Yapp. 
..  H.  Ball,    A.  G.  Tansley,   H.  Wager 

(Rec),  R.  H.  Yapp. 
..   Dr.  F.  F.  Blackman,  A.  G.  Tansley, 
-       H.  Wager  (Rec  ),  T.  B.  Wood,  R.  H. 

Yapp. 
..  R.  P.  Gregory,   Dr.    Marloth,   Prof. 

Pearson,  Prof.  R.  H.  Yapp  (Rec). 
..   Dr.  A.  Burtt,  R.  P.  Gregory,  Prof. 

A.  G.  Tansley  (Rec),  Prof.  R.  H. 

Yapp. 
..  W.  Bell,  R.  P.  Gregory,  Prof.  A.  G. 

Tansley  (Rec),  Prof.  R.  H.  Yapp. 
..   Prof.  H.  H.  Dixon,  R.  P.  Gregory, 

A.  G.  Tansley  (Bcc),  Prof.  R.  H. 

Yapp. 
Prof.  A.  H.  R.  Buller,  Prof.  D.  T. 

Gwynne-Vaughan,  Prof.  R.  H.  Yapp 

(Rec). 
W.  J.  Black,  Dr.  E.  J.  Russell,  Prof. 

J.  Wilson. 

B.  H.  Bentley,  R.  P.  Gregory,  Prof. 
D.  T.  Gwynne-Vaughan,  Prof. 
K.  H.  Yapp  (Rec). 

C.  G.  Delahunt,  Prof.  D.  T.  Gwynne- 
Vaughan,  Dr.  C.  E.  Moss,  Prof. 
R.  H.  Yapp  (Rec). 

J.  Golding,  H.  R.  Pink,  Dr.  E.  .J. 
Russell. 


'»  Established  ISQ.^i. 


PRESIDENTS    AND    SECKETAEIES    OF    SECTIONS    (1901-13).        Xxix 


Date  and  Place 


Presidents 


Secretaries 
(^f(?.  =  Eecorder) 


1912.  Dundee    ...  Prof.  F.  Keeble,  D.Sc J.  Brebner,   Prof.    D.  T.    Gwynne- 

Vaughan  (Rec),  Dr.  C.  E.  SIoss, 
D.  Thoday. 

1913.  Birmingham  Miss  Ethel  Sargant,  F.L.S....  W.  B.  Grove,  Prof.  D.  T.  Gwynne- 

Vaughan  (Bee),  Dr.  C.  E.  Moss, 

I     D.  Thoday. 


SECTION   L.— EDUCATIONAL  SCIENCE. 


1901. 

1902. 

1903. 

1904. 

1905. 
1906. 
1907. 


Glasgow  ... 

Belfast     ... 

Southport  .. 

Cambridge 

SouthAfrica 

York 

Leicester . . . 


1908.  Dublin  , 


1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 

1913, 


Winnipeg. . . 
Sheffield  ... 
Portsmouth 
Dundee    ... 


Birmingham 


Sir  John  E.  Gorst,  F.K.S.    ... 


Prof.  H.  E.Armstrong,  F.R.S. 


Sir  W.  de  W.  Abney,  K.C.B., 
F.R.S. 

Bishop  of  Hereford,  D.D.    ... 


Prof.  Sir  R.  C.  Jebb,  D.C.L., 

M.P. 
Prof.  M.  E.  Sadler,  LL.D.    ... 

Sir  Philip  Magnus,  M.P 


Prof.  L.  C.  Miall,  F.R.S 

Rev.  H.B.Gray,  D.D 

Principal  H.  A.  Miers,  F.R.S. 

Rt.    Rev.  J.  E.  C.  Welldon, 

D.D. 
Prof.  J.  Adams,  M.A 


Principal     E.     H.     Griffiths, 
F.R.S. 


R.  A.  Gregory,  W.  M.  Heller,  R.  Y. 

Howie.    C.    W.    Kimmins,    Prof. 

H.  L.  Withers  (Bee). 
Prof.  R.  A.  Gregory,  W.  M.  Heller 

(Bee),    R.   M.   Jones,  Dr.  C.  W. 

Kimmins,  Prof.  H.  L.  Withers. 
Prof.  R.  A.  Gregory,  W.  M.  Heller 

(Rec),  Dr.  C.  W.  Kimmins, Dr. H. 

L.  Snape. 
J.  H.  Flather,  Prof.  R.  A.  Gregory, 

W.   M.    Heller  (Bee),  Dr.   C.  W. 

Kimmins. 
A. D.Hall, Prof. Hele-Shaw,  Dr. C.W. 

Kimmins  (Bee),  J.  R.  Whitton. 
Prof.  R.  A.  Gregory,  W.  M.  Beller 

(Bee),  Hugh  Richardson. 
W.  D.  Eggar,  Prof.  R.  A.  Gregory 

(Bee),  J.  S.  Laver,  Hugh  Rich- 
ardson. 
Prof.  E.  P.  Culverwell,  W.  D.  Eggar, 

George    Fletcher,     Prof.     R.     A. 

Gregory  (Bee),  Hugh  Richardson. 
W.   D.    Eggar,   R.    Fletcher,  J.    L. 

Holland  ci?e(?.),  Hugh  Richardson. 
A.  J.  Arnold,   W.   D.  Eggar,  J.  L. 

Holland  (Bee),  Hugh  Richardson. 
W.    D.    Eggar,   O.   Freeman,   J.  L. 

Holland  (Bee),  Hugh  Richardson. 
D.  Berridge,  Dr.  J.  Davidson,  Prof. 

J.  A.  Green  (  Ree),  Hugh  Richard- 
son. 
I  D.  Berridge,  Rev.  S.  Blofeld,  Prof. 

J.  A.  Green  (Bee),  H.  Richard- 
son. 


SECTION   M.— AGRICULTURE. 


1912.  Dundee    ...  T.  H.  Middleton,  M.A 

1913.  Birmingham  Prof.  T.  B.  Wood,  M.A.    .. 


(  Dr.  C.  Crowther,  J.  Golding,  Dr.  A. 
I     Lauder,  Dr.  E.  J.  Russell  (Bee). 
\\V.  E.  Collinge,    Dr.    C.   Crowther, 
i      J.  Golding,  Dr.  E.  J.  Russell  (Bee). 


XXX       CHAIRMEN   AND   SECRETARIES   OF   CONFERENCES   OF    DELEGATES. 


CHAIRMEN  AND  SECRETARIES  of  the  CONFERENCES  OF 
DELEGATES  OF  CORRESPONDING  SOCIETIES,  1901-14.' 


Date  and  Place 

1901. 

Glasgow  ... 

1902 

Belfast 

1903. 

Southport .. 

1904. 

Cambridge 

1905. 

London    ... 

1906 

York 

1907. 

Leicester ... 

1908. 

DnbUn 

1909. 

London    ... 

1910. 

Sheffield  ... 

1911. 

Portsmouth 

1912. 

Dundee    ... 

1913. 

Birmingham 

1914. 

Le  Havre... 

Chairmen 


F.  W.  Eudler,  F.G.S 

Prof.  W.  W.  Watts,  F.G.S.  .. 

W.  Whitaker,  F.R.S 

Prof.  E.  H.  Griffiths,  F.R.S. 
Dr.    A.     Smith    Woodward 

F.R.S. 
Sir  Edward  Brabrook,  C.B. 

H.  J.  Mackinder,  M.A 

Prof.  H.  A.  Miers,  F.R.S.... 
Dr.  A.  C.  Had  don,  F.R.S. 

Dr.  Tempest  Anderson 

Prof.  J.  W.  Gregory,  F.R.S. 
Prof.  F.  0.  Bower,  F.R.S. 
Dr.    P.    Chalmers    Mitchell 

F.R.S. 
Sir  H.  George  Fordham 


Secretaries 


Dr.  J.  G.  Grarson,  A.  Somerville. 

E.  J.  Bles. 

F.  W.  Rudler. 
F.  W.  Rudler. 
F.  W.  Rudler. 


1 


F.  W.  Rudler. 
F.  W.  Rudler,  I.S.O. 
W.  P.  D.  Stebbing. 
W.  P.  D.  Stebbing. 
W.  P.  D.  Stebbing. 
W.  P.  D.  Stebbing. 
W.  P.  D.  Stebbing. 
W.  P.  D.  Stebbing. 

W.  Mark  Webb. 


EVENING  DISCOUESES,   1901-1914. 


Date  and  Place 


1901.  Glasgow  .., 

1902.  Belfast     ... 

1903.  Southport.., 

1904.  Cambridge 

190.5.  South 

Africa : 
Cape  Town     ... 

Durban 

Pietermaritz- 

burg. 
Johannesburg 

Pretoria 

Bloemfontein.., 

Kimberley 

Bulawayo 


Lecturer 


Subject  of  Discourse 


. [Prof.  W.  Ramsay, F.R.S The    Inert     Constituents     of    the 

I  Atmosphere. 

Francis  Darwin,  F.R.S The  Movements  of  Plants. 

,   Prof.  J.  J.  Thomson,  F.R.S....  Becquerel  Rays  and  Radio-activity. 
Prof.  W.  F.  R.  Weldon,  F.R.S.  Inheritance. 

.  Dr.  R.  Munro     Man  as  Artist  and  Sportsman  in  the 

Palaeolithic  Period. 

Dr.  A.  Rowe  The  Old  Chalk  Sea,  and  some  of  its 

Teachings. 
Prof.  G.  H.  Darwin,  F.R.S....  Ripple- Marks  and  Sand-Dunes. 

Prof.  H.  F.  Osborn    Palaeontological   Discoveries  in  the 

Rocky  Mountains. 

,   Prof.  E.  B.  Poulton,  F.R.S. ...  W.  J.  BurcheU's  Discoveries  in  South 

;  Africa. 

C.  Vernon  Boys,  F.R.S Some  Surface  Actions  of  Fluids. 

, '  Douglas  W.  Freshfield The  Mountains  of  the  Old  World. 

Prof.  W.  A.  Herdman,  F.R.S.  Marine  Biology. 

Col.  D.  Bruce,  C.B.,  F.R.S....  Sleeping  Sickness. 

H.  T.  Ferrar  The  Cruise  of  the  'Discovery.' 

Prof.  W.  E.  Ayrton,  F.R.S. ...  The  Distribution  of  Power. 

Prof.  J.  O.  Arnold Steel  as  an  Igneous  Rock. 

.  A.  E.  Shipley,  F.R.S Fly-borne  Diseases  :  Malaria,  Sleep- 
ing Sickness,  &c. 
.  A.  R.  Hinks    The  Milky  Way  and  the  Clouds  of 

j  Magellan. 

.  Sir  Wm.  Crookes,  F.R.S Diamonds. 

Prof.  J.  B.  Porter  The    Bearing    of    Engineering   on 

I  Jlining. 

,  D.  RandaU-MacIver The  Ruins  of  Rhodesia. 


Established  1885. 


EVENING   DISCOURSES. 


XXXI 


Date  and  Place 

1906.  York 

1907.  Leicester.. 


1908.  Dublin.... 

1909.  Winnipeg. 


1910.  Sheffield 


Lecturer 


Dr.  Tempest  Anderson 

Dr.  A.  D.  Waller,  F.R.S 

W.  Duddell,  F.R.S 

Dr.  F.  A.  Dixey 

Prof.  H.  H.  Turner,  F.R.S.  ... 

Prof.  W.  M.  Davis     

Dr.  A.  B.  H.  Tutton,  F.R.S.... 


Prof.  W.  A.  Herdman,  F.R.S. 
»  Prof.  H.  B.  Dixon,  F.R.S. ... 
'  Prof.  J.  H.  Poynting,  F.R.S. 

.  Prof.  W.  Stirling,  M.D 

D.  G.  Hogarth   

1911.  Portsmouth  Dr.  Leonard  Hill,  F.R.S 

Prof.  A.  C.  Seward,  F.R.S.  ... 

1912.  Dundee    ...iProf.  W.  H.  Bragg,  F.R.S.  ... 

jProf.  A.  Keith,  M.D 

1913.  Birmingham  SirH.  H.  Cunynghame,K.C.B. 

Dr.     A.    Smith    Woodward, 
F.R.S. 
1014    .^ii.sfir3,li3i ' 

Adelaide    I  Sir  Oliver  J.  Lodge,  F.R.S.... 

Prof.  W.J.  Sollas,  F.R.S.    ... 
Melbourne ' Prof .  E.  B.  Poulton,  F.R.S  ... 

iDr.F.  W.  Dyson,  F.R.S.     ... 
Sydney  ...[Prof.  G.  Elliot  Smith,  F.R.S. 

Sir  E.  Rutherford,  F.R.S.    ... 
Brisbane      Prof.  HE.  Armstrong,  F.R.S. 

Prof.  G.  W.  O.  Howe  


Subject  of  Discourse 

Volcanoes. 

The  Electrical   Signs  of  Life,  and 
their  Abolition  by  Chloroform. 

The  Ark  and  the  Spark  in  Radio- 
telegraphy. 

Recent  Developments  in  the  Theory 
of  Mimicry. 

Halley's  Comet. 

The  Lessons  of  the  Colorado  Canyon. 

The  Seven  Styles  of  Crystal  Archi- 
tecture. 

Our  Food  from  the  Waters. 

The  Chemistry  of  Flame. 

The  Pressure  of  Light. 

Types  of  Animal  Movement. - 

New  Discoveries  about  the  Hittites. 

The  Physiology  of  Submarine  Work. 

Links   with   the  Past  in  the  Plant 
World. 

Radiations  Old  and  New. 

The  Antiquity  of  Man. 
;  Explosions  in  Mines  and  the  Means 
of  Preventing  them. 

Missing     Links     among      Extinct 
Animals. 

The  Ether  of  Space. 
Ancient  Hunters. 
Mimicry. 

Greenwich  Observatory. 
Primitive  Man. 
Atoms  and  Electrons. 
The  Materials  of  Life. 
Wireless  Telegraphy. 


LECTUKES  TO   THE   OPEKATIVE   CLASSES. 


Date  and  Place 


1901.  Glasgow  ... 

1902.  Belfast 

190.3.  Southport... 

1904.  Cambridge.. 

1906.  York 

1907.  Leicester... 

1908.  Dublin 

1910.  Sheffield  ... 

1911.  Portsmouth 


Lecturer 


H.  J.  Mackinder,  M.A., 


Prof.  L.  C.  Miall,  F.R.S. 
Dr.  J.  S.  Flett    


Dr.  J.  B.  Marr,  F.R.S 

Prof.  S.  P.  Thompson,  F.R.S. 

Prof.  H.  A.  Miers,  F.R.S 

Dr.  A.  E.  H.  Tutton,  F.R.S. 

C.  T.  Heycock,  F.R.S 

Dr.  H.  R.  Mill    


Subject  of  Lecture 


of  Men  by  Lanrl 


The  Movements 

and  Sea. 
Gnats  and  Mosquitoes. 
Martinique  and   St.   Vincent ; 

Eruptions  of  1902. 
The  Forms  of  Mountains. 
The  Manufacture  of  Light. 
The  Growth  of  a  Crystal. 
The  Crystallisation  of  Water. 
Metallic  Alloys. 
Rain. 


the 


'  '  Popular  Lectures,'  delivered  to  the  citizens  of  Winnipeg. 
*  Repeated,  to  the  public,  on  Wednesday,  September  7. 


XXXll 


LECTURES   TO    TEE    OPERATIVE    CLASSES. 


PUBLIC    OK   CITIZENS'   LECTUEES. 


Date  and  Place 

Lecturer 

Subject  of  Lecture 

1912. 

Dundee    ... 

Prof.  B.Moore,  D.Sc 

Science  and  National  Health. 

Prof.  E.  C.  K.  Gonner,  M.A. 

Prices  and  Wages. 

Prof.  A.  Fowler,  F.R.S 

The  Sun. 

1913. 

Birmingham 

Dr.  A.  C.  Haddon,  F.Pt.S.    ... 

The  Decorative  Art  of  Savages. 

Dr.  Vaughan  Cornish  

The  Panama  Canal. 

Leonard  Doncaster,  M.A.    ... 

Recent  Work  on  Heredity  and  its 
Application  to  Man. 

Dr.  W.  Pvosenhain,  F.R.S.    ... 

Metals  under  the  Microscope. 

Frederick  Soddy,  F.R.S 

The  Evolution  of  Matter. 

1914. 

Australia : 

Perth      ... 

Prof.  W.  A.  Herdman,  F.R.S. 

Why  we  Investigate  the  Ocean. 

Prof.  A.  S.  Eddington,  F.R.S. 

Stars  and  their  Movements. 

H.  Balfour,  M.A 

Primitive  Methods  of  Making  Fire. 

Piof.  A.  D.  Waller,  F.R.S.  ... 

Electrical  Action  of  the  Human 
Heart. 

C.  A.  Buckmaster,  M.A 

Mining  Education  in  England. 

Adelaide 

Prof.  E.  C.  K.  Gonner,  M.A. 

Saving  and  Spending. 

Melbourne 

Dr.  W.  Rosenhain,  F.R.S.    ... 

Making  of  a  Big  Gun. 

Prof.  H.  B.  Dison,  F.R.S.    ... 

Explosions. 

Sydney  ... 

Prof.  B.  Moore,  F.R.S 

Brown  Earth  and  Brisrht  Sunshine. 

Prof.  H.  H.  Turner,  P.R.S.  ... 

Comets. 

Brisbane 

Dr.  A.  C.  Haddon,  F.R.S.    ... 

Decorative  Art  in  Papua. 

GRAN  IS    OF    MONFA'. 


xxxiu 


Geupral  Statement  of  Su7ns  wJdch  have  been  paid  on  account  of 
Grants  for  Scientific  Purposes,  1901-1913. 


1901. 

Electrical  Standards    

Seismological  Observations... 

Wave-length  Tables 

Isomorphous  Sulphonic  De- 
rivatives of  Benzene    

Life-zones  in  British  Car- 
boniferous Rocks  

Underground  Water  of  North- 
west Yorkshire 

Exploration  of  Irish  Caves... 

Table  at  the  Zoological  Sta- 
tion, Naples  

Table  at  the  Biological  La- 
boratory, Plymouth  

Index  Generum  et  Specierum 
Animalium 

Migration  of  Birds    

Terrestrial  Surface  Waves  ... 

Changes  of  Land-level  in  the 
Phlegr^an  Fields 

Legislation  regulating  Wo- 
men's Labour 

Small  Screw  Gauge 

Resistance  of  Road  Vehicles 
to  Traction 

Silchester  Excavation  

EthnoloiJ-ical  Survey  of 
Canada    

Anthropological  Teaching  ... 

Exploration  in  Crete    

Physiological  Effects  of  Pep- 
tone  

Chemistry  of  Bone  Marrov?... 

Suprarenal  Capsules  in  the 
Rabbit 

Fertilisation  in  Phajophycea; 

Morphology,  Ecology,  and 
Taxonomy  of  Podoste- 
maceffi 

Corresponding  Societies  Com- 
mittee  


£ 

«. 

d. 

45 

0 

0 

75 

0 

0 

4 

14 

0 

35 

0 

0 

20 

0 

0 

50 

0 

0 

15 

0 

0 

100 

0 

0 

20 

0 

0 

75 

0 

0 

10 

0 

0 

5 

0 

0 

50 

0 

0 

I 

15 

0 

0 

45 

0 

0 

75 

0 

0 

10 

0 

0 

ao 

0 

0 

5 

0 

0 

145 

0 

0 

30 

0 

0 

5 

15 

11 

5 

0 

0 

15 

0 

0 

20 

0 

0 

15 

0 

0 

£920    9  11 


1902. 

Electrical  Standards 40     0     0 

Seismological  Observations...     35     0     0 

Investigation  of  the  Upper 
Atmosphere  by  means  of 
Kites    ". 75    0    0 

Magnetic  Observations  at  Fal- 
mouth      80    0    0 

Relation  between  Absorption 
Spectra  and  Organic  Sub- 
stances         20    0    0 

1914. 


£ 

s. 

d. 

Wave-lenoth  Tables 

5 

0 

0 

Life-zones     in     British    Car- 

boniferous Rocks  

10 

0 

0 

Exploration  of  Irish  Caves  ... 

45 

0 

0 

Table     at      the      Zoological 

Station,  Naples 

100 

0 

0 

Index  Generum  et  Specierum 

Animalium 

100 

0 

0 

Migration  of  Birds    

15 

0 

0 

Structure  of   Coral  Reefs   of 

Indian  Ocean 

50 

0 

0 

Compound  Ascidians   of  the 

Clyde  Area 

9r, 

n 

(■> 

Terrestrial  Surface  Waves  ... 

15 

0 

0 

Legislation    regulating    Wo- 

men's Labour 

30 
20 

0 
0 

0 

Small  Screw  Gauge  

0 

Resistance  of  Road  Vehicles 

to  Trac  ti  on 

50 

0 

n 

Ethnological        Survey        of 

Canada    

15 
30 

100 

0 
0 
0 

0 

Ag&  of  Stone  Circles 

0 

Exploration  in  Crete 

0 

Anthropometric  Investigation 

of  Native  Egyptian  Soldiers 

15 

0 

0 

Excavations   on    the    Roman 

Site  at  Gelligaer    

5 

0 

0 

Changes  in  Hemoglobin    

15 

0 

0 

Work   of   Mammalian   Heart 

under  Influence  of  Drugs... 

20 

0 

0 

Investigation   of   the  Cyano- 

phycefe    

10 

0 

n 

Reciprocal  Influence  of  Uni- 

versities and  Schools    

5 

0 

0 

Conditions  of   Healtli  essen- 

tial to  carrying  on  Work  in 

Schools    

2 

0 

0 

Corresponding  Societies  Com- 

mittee   

15 

0 

n 

£947 

0 

0 

1903. 

Electrical  Standards 3.5     0     0 

Seismological  Observations...     40     0     0 

Investigation  of  the  Upper 
Atmosphere  by  means  of 
Kites    75     0     0 

Magnetic  Observations  at  Fal- 
mouth      40     0     0 

Study  of  Hydro-aromatic  Sub- 
stances         20     0     0 

Erratic  Blocks    10     0     0 

Exploration  of  Irish  Caves  ...     40     0     0 

Underground  Waters  of  North - 

west  Yorkshire  40     0     0 

b 


XXXIV 


GENERAL    STATEMENT. 


£     s.    d. 

Life-zones  in  British  Car- 
boniferous Rocks  5     0     0 

Geological  Photographs  10    0    0 

Table  at  the  Zoological  Sta- 
tion at  Naples    100    0    0 

Index  Generum  et  Specierum 

Animalium 100     0     0 

Tidal   Bore,  Sea  Waves,  and 

Beaches  15     0    0 

Scottish    National   Antarctic 

Expedition 50     0     0 

Legislation  affecting  Women's 

Labour    25     0     0 

Researches  in  Crete 100    0     0 

Age  of  Stone  Circles 3  13     2 

Anthropometric  Investigation       5     0     0 

Anthropometry  of  the  Todas 
and  other  Tribes  of  Southern 
India 50     0     0 

The  State  of  Solution  of  Pro- 

teids 20     0     0 

Investigation  of   the   Cyano- 

phycere    25     0     0 

Respiration  of  Plants    12     0     0 

Conditions  of  Health  essential 

for  School  Instruction  5     0     0 

Corresponding  Societies  Com- 
mittee      20    0    0 

£845  13~^2 


1904. 

Seismological  Observations...     40    0     0 

Investigation  of  the  Upper 
Atmosphere  by  means  of 
Kites    50    0    0 

Magnetic  Observations  at 
Falmouth    60 

Wave-lengthTables  of  Spectra     10 

Study  of  Hydro-aromatic  Sub- 
stances          25 

Erratic  Blocks    10 

Life-zones  in  British  Car- 
boniferous Rocks   35 

Fauna  and  Flora  of  the 
Trias    10 

Investigation  of  Fossiliferous 
Drifts   50 

Table  at  the  Zoological  Sta- 
tion, Naples    100 

Index  Generum  et  Specierum 
Animalium 60 

Development  in  the  Frog 15 

Researches  on  the  Higher 
Crustacea    15 

British  and  Foreign  Statistics 
of  International  Trade 25 

Resistance  of  Road  Vehicles 
to  Traction 90 

Researches  in  Crete  100 

Researches  in  Glastonbury 
Lake  Village  25    0    0 


0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

£    s.  d. 

Anthropometric  Investigation 

of  Egyptian  Troops    8  10     0 

Excavations  on  Roman  Sites 

in  Britain    25     0     0 

The  State  of  Solution  of  Pro- 

teids 20     0     0 

Metabolism     of      Individual 

Tissues 40     0     0 

Botanical  Photographs 4     8  11 

Respiration  of  Plants 15     0     0 

Experimental       Studies       in 

Heredity 35     0     0 

Corresponding  Societies  Com- 
mittee      20     0     0 

£887  18  11 


1905. 

Electrical  Standards 40     0     0 

Seismological  Observations ...     40     0    0 

Investigation  of  the  Upper 
Atmosphere  by  means  of 
Kites  40    0     0 

Magnetic  Observations  at  Fal- 
mouth      50    0    0 

Wave-length  Tables  of  Spec- 
tra           5     0     0 

Study      of     Hydro-aromatic 

Substances      25     0     0 

Dynamic  Isomerism 20     0     0 

Aromatic  Nitroamines 25     0     0 

Fauna  and  Flora  of  the  British 
Trias    10    0    0 

Table  at  the  Zoological  Sta- 
tion, Naples    100    0     0 

Index  Generum  et  Specierum 

Animalium 75     0     0 

Development  of  the  Frog    ...     10     0     0 

Investigations  in  the  Indian 

Ocean 150    0    0 

Trade  Statistics 4     4     8 

Researches  in  Crete 75     0    0 

Anthropometric  Investiga- 
tions of  Egyptian  Troops...     10    0    0 

Excavations  on  Roman  Sites 

in  Britain    10     0     0 

Anthropometriclnvestigations    10    0     0 

Age  of  Stone  Circles 30    0    0 

The  State  of  Solution  of  Pro- 
teids 20     0     0 

Metabolism     of     Individual 

Tissues    30    0     0 

Ductless  Glands 40     0    0 

Botanical  Photographs 3  17     6 

Physiology  of  Heredity 35     0     0 

Structure  of  Fossil  Plants    ...     50     0     0 
Corresponding  Societies  Com- 
mittee      20    0    0 

£928     2     2 


GRANTS   OF  MONEV. 


XXXV 


1906. 

£    s.   d. 

Electrical  Standards 25    0     0 

Seismological  Observations...     40     0    0 

Magnetic  Observations  at  Fal- 
mouth      50     0     0 

Magnetic    Survey    of    South 
Africa  99  12     6 

Wave-length  Tables  of  Spectra      5     0    0 

Study  of  Hydro-aromatic  Sub- 
stances      25     0     0 

Aromatic  Nitroamines  10     0     0 

Fauna  and  Flora  of  the  British 

Trias    .  7     8  11 

Cry,stalline  Rocks  of  Anglesey    30    0    0 

Table  at  the  Zoological  Sta 
tion,  Naples    100    0     0 

Index  Animalium  75     0    0 

Development  of  the  Frog 10    0    0 

Higher  Crustacea  15     0     0 

Freshwater   Fishes  of   South 

Africa  50     0     0 

Rainfall  and  Lake  and  River 

Discharge    10    0     0 

Excavations  in  Crete    100    0    0 

Lake  Village  at  Glastonbury     40     0     0 

Excavations  on  Roman  Sites 
in  Britain    30     0    0 

Anthropometric       Investiga- 
tions in  the  British  Isles  ...     30    0    0 

State  of  Solution  of  Proteids     20    0     0 

Metabolism     of     Individual 
Tissues     20    0    0 

Effect  of  Climate  upon  Health 
andDisease 20    0     0 

Research  on    South    African 
Cycads 14  ]9     4 

Peat  Moss  Deposits  25     0    0 

Studies  suitable  for  Elemen- 
tary Schools    5     0    0 

Corresponding  Societies  Com- 
mittee      25     0    0 

i882     0     9 
1907. 

Electrical  Standards    50     0     0 

Seismological  Observations...     40    0     0 

Magnetic     Observations     at 
Falmouth    40    0    0 

Magnetic    Survey    of    South 
Africa 25     7     6 

Wave-length       Tables       of 
,  Spectra    10    0     0 

Study     of     Hydro  -  aromatic 

Substances 30     0     0 

D3'namic  Isomerism 30    0    0 

Life   Zones   in    British   Car- 
boniferous Rocks 10     0    0 

Erratic  Blocks  ..     10     0     0 

Fauna  and  Flora  of   British 
Trias    10    0     0 

Faunal  Succession  in  the  Car- 
boniferous    Limestone     of  , 
South- West  England    15     0     0 


£     s.  d. 
Correlation  and  Age  of  South 

African  Strata,  &c 10    0     0 

Table     at     the      Zoological 

Station,  Naples 100    0    0 

Index  Animalium 75     0    0 

Development  of   the  Sexual 

Cells     1  11     8 

Oscillations  of  the  Land  Level 

in  the  Mediterranean  Basin     50    0     0 
Gold  Coinage  in  Circulation 

in  the  United  Kingdom   ...       8  19     7 
Anthropometric       Investiga- 
tions in  the  British  Isles...     10    0    0 
Metabolism     of     Individual 

Tissues    45     0    0 

The  Ductless  Glands    25     0    0 

EfEect  of  Climate  upon  Health 

andDisease    55    0    0 

Physiology  of  Heredity    30     0    0 

Research   on    South  African 

Cycads 35     0    0 

Botanical  Photographs 5     0     0 

Structure  of  Fossil  Plants  ...       5     0     0 

Marsh  Vegetation.. 15     0     0 

Corresponding  Societies  Com- 
mittee      16  14     1 

£757  12~l6 


1908. 

Seismological  Observations ...     40    0     0 
Further  Tabulation  of  Bessel 

Functions    15     0    0 

Investigation  of  Upper  Atmo- 
sphere by  means  of  Kites...     25     0    0 
Meteorological    Observations 

on  Ben  Nevis 25     0    0 

Geodetic  Arc  in  Africa 200    0     0 

Wave-length  Tables  of  Spectra     10    0    0 
Study  of  Hydro-aromatic  Sub- 
stances      30    0    0 

Dynamic  Isomerism  40    0    0 

Transformation    of  Aromatic 

Nitroamines    30    0    0 

Erratic  Blocks    17  16     6 

Fauna  and   Flora  of  British 

Trias    10    0    0 

Faunal  Succession  in  the  Car- 
boniferous Limestone  in  the 

British  Isles    10     0     0 

Pre-Devonian  Rocks 10     0    0 

Exact  Signiticance  of   Local 

Terms  5     0    0 

Composition    of     Charnwood 

Rocks 10     0     0 

Table  at  the  Zoological  Station 

atNaples 100    0    0 

Index  Animalium  75     0    0 

Hereditary  Experiments  10    0     0 

Fauna  of   Lakes   of    Central 

Tasmania    40     0    0 

Investigations  in  the  Indian 

Ocean   50    0    0 

b2 


XXXVl 


GENERAL  STATEMENT. 


£  s.  d. 

Exploration  in  Spitsbergen  ...  30  0  0 

Gold  Coinage  in  Circulation 

in  the  United  Kingdom 3  7  6 

Electrical  Standards     50  0  0 

Glastonbury  Lake  Village    ...  30  0  0 

Excavations  on  Roman  Sites 

in  Britain    15  0  0 

Age  of  Stone  Circles 50  0  0 

Anthropological    Notes     and 

Queries     40  0  0 

Metabolism      of      Individual 

Tissues 40  0  0 

The  Ductless  Glands 13  14  8 

Effect  of  Climate  upon  Health 

andDisease 33  0  0 

Body  Metabolism  in  Cancer. . .  30  0  0 

Electrical  Phenomena  and 
Metabolism  of  Arum  Spa- 
dices     10  0  0  j 

Marsh  Vegetation 15  0  0  ' 

Succession  of  Plant  Remains  18  0  0   ' 

Corresponding  Societies  Com- 
mittee    25  0  0 

£1,137  18  8 


1909. 

Seismological  Observations  ..     CO    0    0   ; 

Investigation  of  the  Upper  At- 
mosphere by  means  of  Kites     10     0     0   ^ 

Magnetic      Observations    at  I 

Falmouth    50    0    0 

Establishing    a     Solar     Ob- 
servatory in  Australia 50     0     0 

Wave-length  Tables  of  Spectra      9  16     0 

Study  of  Hydro-aromatic  Sub- 
stances         15    0    0 

Dynamic  Isomerism 35     0     0 

Transformation  of  Aromatic  ; 

Nitroamines  10     0    Q)  \ 

Electroanalysis 30    0     0   I 

Fauna  and  Flora  of   British 

Trias    8     0    0 

Faunal  Succession  in  the  Car-  1 

boniferous  Limestone  in  the  i 

British  Isles   8     0     0   ! 

Palaeozoic  Rocks  of  Wales  and  | 

the  West  of  England    9     0     0 

Igneous  and  Associated  Sedi- 
mentary Rocks  of  Glensaul     11   13     9 

Investigations  at  Biskra 50    0    0 

Table  at  the  Zoological  Station 

at  Naples    100     0     0 

Heredity  Experiments 10     0     0 

Feeding    Habits    of    British 

Birds   5     0     0 

Index  Animalium 75     0     0 

Investigations  in  the  Indian 

Ocean  35    0    0 

■Gaseous  Explosions  75     0    0  ' 

Excavations  on  Roman  Sites 
in  Britain    5     0    0 


£  s.   d. 

Age  of  Stone  Circles 30  0     0 

Researches  in  Crete 70  0     0 

The  Ductless  Glands    35  0     0 

Electrical  Phenomenaand Me- 
tabolism of  J  r«?/t  <S/ya(^ice«  10  0     0 

Reflex  Muscular  Rhythm 10  0    0 

Anaesthetics    25  0    0 

Mental  and  Muscular  Fatigue  27  0    0 

Structure  of  Fossil  Plants  ...  5  0     0 

Botanical  Photographs 10  0     0 

Experimental        Study        of 

Heredity 30  0     0 

Symbiosis       between       Tur- 

bellarian  Worms  and  Alga3  10  0     0 

Survey  of  Clare  Island 65  0     0 

Curriculaof  Secondary  Schools      5  0     0 
Corresponding  Societies  Com- 
mittee   21  0     0 

£1,014  9     9 

1010.       —'""'"""■ 

Measurement  of  Geodetic  Arc 

in  South  Africa 100  0     0 

Republication   of     Electrical 

Standards  Reports  100  0     0 

Seismological  Observations...  60  0     0 

Magnetic     Observations      at 

Falmouth    23  0     0 

Investigation   of   the    Upper 

Atmosphere    25  0     0 

Study  of  Hydro-aromatic  Sub- 
stances      25  0     0 

Dynamic  Isomerism 35  0     0 

Transformation    of  Aromatic 

Nitroamines   15  0     0 

Electroanalysis 10  0     0 

Faunal  Succession  in  the  Car- 
boniferous Limestone  in  the 

British  Isles   10  0     0 

South  African  Strata   5  0     0 

Fossils  of  Midland  Coalfields  25  0     0 

Table  at  the  Zoological  Sta- 
tion at  Naples  100  0    0 

Index  Animalium 75  0     0 

Heredity  Experiments 15  0     0 

Feeding   Habits    of    British 

Birds    5  0     0 

Amount  and  Distribution  of 

Income    15  0     0 

Gaseous  Explosions 75  0     0 

Lake  Villages  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Glastonbury...  5  0     0 

Excavations  on  Roman  Sites 

in  Britain 5  0     0 

Neolithic    Sites  in   Northern 

Greece ..  3  0     0 

The  Ductless  Glands  40  0     0 

Body  Metabolism  in  Cancer...  20  0    0 

Anaesthetics    25  0     0 

Tissue  Metabolism   25  0     0 

Mentaland  Muscular  Fatigue  18   17     0 

Electromotive  Phenomena  in 

Plants 10  0     0 


GRANTS   OF   MONEY, 


XXXVll 


£  s.  d. 

Structure  of  Fossil  Plants    ...     10  0  0 

Experimental        Study       of 

Heredity 30  0  0 

Survey  of  Clare  Island 30  0  0 

Corresponding  Societies  Com- 
mittee      20  0  0 

£963  17  0 


1911. 

Seismological    Investigations     60    0    0 

Magnetic     Observations     at 

Falmoutli    25     0     0 

Investigation   of    the    Upper 

Atmosphere    25     0     0 

Grant  to  International  Com- 
mission on  Pli}-sical  and 
Chemical  Constants 30     0     0 

Study  of  Hydro-aromatic  Sub- 
stances         20     0     0 

Dynamic  Isomerism 25     0     0 

Transformation   of   Aromatic 

Nitroamines  15     0     0 

Electroanalysis 15     0     0 

Intiuence  of  Carbon,  kc,  on 

Corrosion  of  Steel 15     0     0 

CiTstalline  Rocks  of  Anglesey       2     0     0 

Mammalian  Fauna  in  Miocene 
Deposits,  Bugti  Hills,  Balu- 
chistan   ". 75     0     0 

Table  at  the  Zoological  Sta- 
tion at  Naples   100     0     0 

Index  Animalium 75     0     0 

Feeding    Habits    of    British 

Birds    5     0     0 

BelmuUet  Whaling  Station...     30     0     0 

Map  of  Prince  Charles  Fore- 
land      30     0     0 

Gaseous  Explosions 90     0     0 

Lake  Villages  in  the  neigli- 

bourhood  of  Glastonbury...       5     0     0 

Age  of  Stone  Circles 30    0    0 

Artificial  Islands  in  Highland 

Lochs 10     0     0 

The  Ductless  Glands 40     0     0 

Anesthetics   20    0     0 

Mental  and  Muscular  Fatigue     25     0     0 

Electromotive  Phenomena  in 
Plants 10    0     0 

Dissociation  of  Oxy-Hsemo- 
globin 25     0    0 

Structure  of  Fossil  Plants   ...     15     0     0 

Experimental        Stufly       of 

Heredity 15     0     0 

Suivey  of  Clare  Island 20     0    0 

Kegistration     of      Botanical 

Photographs  10     0     0 

Mental  and   Physical  Factors 

involved  in  Education 10     0     0 

Corresponding  Societies  Com- 
mittee      20     0     0 

£!)22     0     0 


0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

1912. 

£     s.    d. 

Seismological  Investigations      60     0     0 

Magnetic      Observations     at 

Falmouth    25     0     0 

Investigation   of   the   Upper 

Atmosphere    30     0     0 

Grant  to  International  Com- 
mission on  Physical  and 
Chemical  Constants 30     0     0 

Further  Tabulation  of  Bessel 

Functions  15     0     0 

Study  of  Hydro-aromatic 
Substances 20 

Dynamic  Isomerism 30 

Transformation  of  Aromatic 
Nitroamines  10 

Electroanalysis 10 

Study  of  Plant  Enzymes 30 

Erratic  Blocks   5 

Igneous  and  Associated  Rocks 
of  Glensaul,  &c 15 

I;ist  of  Characteristic  Fossils        5 

Sutton  Bone  Bed  15 

P.embridge      Limestone      at 

Creechbarrow  Hill    20     0     0 

Table  at  the  Zoological 
Station  at  Naples 50 

Index  Animalium 75 

Bel  mullet  Whaling  Station...     20 

Secondary  Sexual  Characters 
in  Birds  10 

Gaseous  Explosions  HO 

Lake  Villages  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Glaston- 
bury        5     0     0 

Artificial  Islands  in  High- 
land Lochs 10     0     0 

Physical  Character  of  Ancient 
Egyptians  10 

Excavation  in  Easter  Island       15 

The  Ductless  Glands    35 

Calorimetric  Observations  on 
Man 40 

Structure  of  Fossil  Plants    ...      15 

Experimental  Study  of 
Heredity 35 

Survey  of  Clare  Island 20 

Jurassic  Flora  of  Yorkshire        15 

Overlapping  between  Second- 
ary and  Higher  Educa- 
tion        1 

Curricula,  &c.,  of  Industrial 
and  Poor  Law  Schools 10 

Influence  of  School  Books 
upon  Eyesight  3 

Corresponding  Societies  Com- 
mittee      25 

Colled  ions  illustrating 
Natural  History  of  Isle  of 

Wight '. __^^^  J* 

£845     7     6 


0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 
0 
0 

0 
0 
0 

0 
0 

0 
0 

0 
0 
0 

0 
0 
0 

18 

6 

0 

0 

9 

0 

0 

0 

XXXVlll 


GENERAL   STATEMENT. 


0 

0 

0 

0 

9 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

11)13. 

£      s.  (I. 

Seismological  Investigations    130     0    0 

Investigation   of    the  Upper 

Atmosphere    25     0    0 

International  Committee  on 
Physical  and  Chemical 
Constants    40 

Calculation  of  Mathematical 
Tables 20 

Disposal  of  Copies  of  the 
'  Binary  Canon  '    4 

Study  of  Hydro-aromatic 
Substances     15 

Dynamic  Isomerism 25 

Transformation  of  Aromatic 
Nitroamines  15 

Study  of  Plant  Enzymes 25 

Correlation  of  Crystalline 
Form  with  Molecular  Struc- 
ture          25     0     0 

Study  of  Solubility  Pheno- 
mena       10 

List  of  Characteristic  Fossils       5 

Geology  of  Ramsey  Island  ...     10 

Fauna  and  Flora  of  Trias  of 
Western  Midlands    10 

Critical  Sections  in  Lower 
Palfeozoic  Rocks   15 

Belmullet  Whaling  Station...     20 

Nomenclature  Animalium 
Genera  et  Sub-genera 50 

Antarctic  Whaling  Industry       75 

Maps  for  School  and  Univer- 
sity Use 40 

Gaseous  Explosions 50 

Stress  Distributions  in  Engi- 
neering Materials 50    0    0 


0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

£.      s.  ii. 

Lake  Villages  in  the  Neigh- 
bourhood of  Glaston- 
bury      20    0    0 

Age  of  Stone  Circles    20     0    0 

Artificial  Islands  in  the  High- 
lands of  Scotland 5     0    0 

Excavations  on  Roman  Sites 
in  Britain  20    0     0 

Anthropometric  Investiga- 
tions in  Cyprus     50     0     0 

Palasolithic  Site  in  Jersey  ...     50     0     0 

The  Ductless  Glands    35     0    0 

Calorimetric  Observations  on 

Man 40    0    0 

Structure  and  Function  of  the 

Mammalian  Heart    30     0     0 

Binocular     Combination     of 

Kinematograph  Pictures...       0  17     0 

Structure  of  Fossil  Plants  ...     15     0     0 

Jurassic  Flora  of  Yorkshire  5     0     0 

Flora    of    the    Peat   of    tiie 

Kennet  Valley  15     0    0 

Vegetation  of  Ditcham  Park      14     4     3 

Physiology  of  Heredity    30     0     0, 

Breeding   Experiments   with 

(Enotheras     19  17     4 

Mental  and  Physical  Fac- 
tors involved  in  Educa- 
tion      20    0    0 

Influence  of  School  Books  on 

Eyesight 2     8     9 

Character,  Work,  and  Main- 
tenance of  Museums 10     0     0 

Corresf)onding  Societies  Com- 
mittee      25    0     0 

£■1,086  16     4 


REPORT    OF    THE    COUNCIL.  XXXIX 


EEPOET  OF  THE  COUNCIL,  1913-14. 

I.  The  Council  have  to  record  their  profound  sorrow  at  the  death  of 
Sir  David  Gill,  F.E.S.,  ex-President.  The  following  resolution  was 
conveyed  to  Lady  Gill  by  the  President :  — 

'  The  Council  deeply  regret  the  death  ol  their  late  distinguished 
President,  Sir  David  Gill,  whose  personality  was  so  widely 
appreciated,  and  whose  woi-k  for  Astronomy  at  the  Cape 
Observatory  elevated  it  to  the  first  rank ;  and  they  empower 
the  Officers  to  convey  to  Lady  Gill  and  his  family  their 
profound  sympathy. " 

IL  Professor  A.  Schuster,  F.E.S.,  has  been  unanimously  nomi- 
nated by  the  Council  to  fill  tEe  office  of  President  of  the  Association 
for  1915-16  (Manchester  Meeting). 

III.  Caird  Fund. — (a)  Eesolutions  referred  by  the  General 
Committee  to  the  Council  for  consideration  and,  if  desirable,  for  action, 
were  dealt  with  as  follows  :  — 

(1)  '  That  the  Council  be  asked  to  appoint  a  Committee  to  cany 
out  the  request  of  Sir  J.  K.  Caird  in  his  letter  of 
September  10  (viz.,  that  his  further  gift  of  £1,000  be  ear- 
marked for  the  study  of  Eadio- Activity  as  a  branch  of  Geo- 
physics).' 

It  was  resolved  to  appoint  the  following  Committee  to  carry  out  the 
above  request:  The  President  and  General  Officers,  Sir  E.  Eutherford, 
Mr.  F.  Soddy,  and  Sir  J.  J.  Thomson.  The  Committee  was  empowered 
to  add  to  its  number  and  to  modify  the  condition  attaching  to  the  above 
gift,  subject  to  the  approval  of  Sir  J.  K.  Caird. 

(2)  '  That  the  request  of  Section  A  (Mathematics  and  Physics) 
for  a  grant  from  the  Caird  Fund  of  £500  for  Eadio-telegraphic 
investigations  be  sent  to  the  Council  for  consideration  and 
action. ' 

It  was  resolved  that  the  above  request  be  granted,  and  that  the 
General  Treasurer  be  empowered  to  pay  the  sum  named  to  the  Chairman 
of  the  Committee  appointed  to  conduct  the  said  investigations. 

(3)  '  That  a  grant  of  £100  for  the  coming  year  be  made  to  the 
Committee  on  the  Naples  Table  from^  the  Caird  Fund,  and 
that  the  Council  be  requested  to  consider  the  advisability  of 
endowing  the  Committee  by  a  capital  sum  yielding  an  annual 
income  of  £100.' 

It  was  resolved  that  a  grant  of  £100  for  the  coming  year  be  made 
to  the  Committee  on  the  Naples  Table  from  the  Caird  Fund,  and  that 
a  grant  of  £100  be  made  annually  in  future  to  the  Committee,  subject 
to  the  adoption  of  its  annual  report. 


Xl  REPORT    OF    THE    COUNCIL. 

(4)  '  That  a  grant  of  £100  for  the  coming  year  be  made  to  the 
Committee  on  Seismological  Investigations  from  the  Caird 
Fund,  and  that  the  Council  be  asked  to  consider  the 
advisability  of  endowmg  the  Committee  by  a  capital  sum 
yielding  an  annual  income  of  £100.' 

It  was  resolved  that  a  grant  of  £100  for  the  coming  year  be  made 
to  the  Committee  on  Seismological  Investigations,  and  that  a  grant  of 
£100  be  made  annually  in  future  to  the  Committee,  subject  to  the 
adoption  of  its  annual  report. 

(b)  An  application  to  the  Council  from  the  '  Scotia  '  Publication 
Committee  (Scottish  Antarctic  Expedition)  for  a  grant  of  £400  from  the 
Caird  Fund  towards  the  expenses  of  the  publication  of  the  '  Scientific 
Results  of  the  Voyage  of  the  "  Scotia  "  '  was  considered,  and  it  was 
resolved  that  the  application  could  not  be  entertained. 

IV.  Resolutions  referred  to  the  Council  by  the  General  Committee 
at  Birmingham  for  consideration,  and,  if  desirable,  for  action,  were 
dealt  with  as  follows :  — 

From  Sections  A  and  E. 

'  That  the  terms  First  Order,  Second  Order,  Third  Order,  and 
Fourth  Order  of  triangulation,  as  connoting  definite  degrees 
of  precision,  be  used  to  describe  triangulation  even  though 
the  terms  now  in  use  {e.g.,  Major,  Minor,  &c.),  which  have 
only  a  local  significance,  are  also  employed. ' 

'  That  this  resolution  be  communicated  through  the  proper 
channels  to  (a)  the  Geodetic  Association,  and  (fe)  the  Institute 
of  Surveyors.' 

The  Council  approved  the  principle  of  the  above  resolution,  and 
resolved  that  Professor  H.  H.  Turner  and  Captain  H.  G.  Lyons  be 
appointed  a  Committee  to  communicate,  in  the  name  of  the  Council, 
with  the  Geodetic  Association  and  the  Institute  of  Surveyors.  The 
Committee  duly  canned  out  this  instruction. 

Fro7n  Section  I. 

'  The  Committee  of  Section  I  requests  the  Council  of  the 
Association  to  forward  to  the  Board  of  Trade  the  following 
resolution :  — 

(i)  That  Colour  Vision  Tests  are  most  efficiently  conducted 

by  means  of  what  is  known  as  the  "  Lantern  Test." 
(ii)  That  the  best  form  of  such  lantern  has  not  yet  been 

finally  decided  upon,   and  can  be  arrived  at  only  after 

further  expert  report, 
(iii)  That  the  actual  application  of  sight  tests  requires  the 

co-operation  of  an  ophthalmic  surgeon  with  a  practical 

navigator. ' 

The  Council,  after  careful  consideration  and  consultation  among 
members  specially  interested  in  this  question,  resolved  to  take  no  action. 


REPORT    OF    THE    COUNCIL.  xli 

From  Section  I. 

'  That  in  view  of  the  fact  that  numerous  deaths  continue  to  take 
place  from  anaesthetics  administered  by  unregistered  persons, 
the  Committee  of  the  Section  of  Physiology  of  the  British 
Association  appeals  to  the  Council  of  the  Association  to  repi'e- 
sent  to  the  Home  Office  and  to  the  Privy  Council  the  urgent 
need  of  legislation  to  protect  the  public  against  such 
unnecessary  risks.' 

The  Council  appointed  a  Committee  to  consider  and  report  upon 
the  above  resolution,  and  subsequently  adopted  the  following  resolution, 
which  was  transmitted  to  the  Home  Office:  — 

'  The  Council  of  the  British  Association  desire  to  urge  upon 
His  Majesty's  Government  the  necessity  of  introducing  legis- 
lation on  the  subject  of  the  administration  of  anaesthetics,  as 
recommended  by  the  Departmental  Committee  of  the  Home 
Office,  dated  March  18,  1910,  but  with  the  addition  to  Recom- 
mendation (3)  of  a  clause  permitting  administration  by  un- 
registered persons  under  the  immediate  supervision  of  a  person 
duly  qualified.  The  Council  would  point  out  that  the  recom- 
mendations of  the  General  Medical  Council  are  practically 
identical  with  those  of  the  Departmental  Committee,  and  that 
these  recommendations  have  been  approved  by  various 
academic  and  professional  bodies,  and  also  by  the  Council 
of  this  Association  in  1910.' 

V.  In  connection  with  the  Magnetic  Ee-survey  of  the  British  Isles, 
referred  to  in  the  Eeport  of  the  Council  for  1912-13,  the  Council 
agreed  to  the  proposal  of  the  Royal  Society  that  a  joint  supervising 
committee  of  the  Society  and  the  Association  be  appointed,  and  the 
following  members  were  appointed  to  represent  the  Association :  Sir 
Oliver  Lodge,  Prof.  J.  Periy,  Prof.  H.  H.  Turner,  Dr.  C.  Chree, 
Dr.  S.  Chapman,  Dr.  P.  W.  Dyson,  Dr.  R.  T.  Glazebrook. 

The  Council  empowered  the  General  Treasurer  to  pay  from  the 
Caird  Fund  a  sum  not  exceeding  £250  towards  the  cost  of  the  Survey. 

VI.  Australian  Meeting. — (i)  At  their  meeting  in  December  1913 
the  Council  were  informed  as  to  the  limit  of  the  total  number  of  the 
oversea  party  which  the  Australian  authorities  had  found  it  necessary 
to  propose,  having  regard  to  the  provision  of  suitable  travelling 
facihties,  &c.,  in  Australia.  The  Council  were  also  informed  that  by 
counting  all  doubtful  or  qualified  intimations  from  members,  and  all 
applications  for  new  membership,  the  limit  above  mentioned  was 
already  substantially  exceeded.  It  was  resolved  (a)  that  there  should 
be  no  more  admissions  to  the  oversea  party,  excepting  any  member 
whose  attendance  the  Australian  Committee  or  the  General  Officers  (in 
consultation,  if  necessary,  with  representatives  of  any  particular 
Section)  might  decide  to  be  of  special  importance  to  the  scientific 
work  of  the  meeting;  (b)  that  the  General  Secretaries  should  be 
empowered  to  desire  members   v/hose  intimations   were   qualified   by 


Xlii  REPORT    OF    THE    COUNCIL. 

doubt  to  express  their  definite  intentions  by  a  certain  date;  (c)  that 
the  General  Officers  should  be  emjDowered  to  take,  in  the  name  of  the 
Council,  any  other  measures  which  might  appear  necessary  to  effect 
a  reduction  in  the  total  number  of  the  oversea  party. 

(ii)  Previously  to  the  departure  of  Dr.  A.  0.  D.  Eivett,  General 
Organising  Secretary  in  Australia,  from  London  in  December  1913,  it 
was  resolved  that  the  thanks  of  the  Council  be  expressed  to  Dr.  Eivett 
for  the  assistance  he  had  rendered  in  connection  with  the  an-angements 
for  the  meeting  during  his  visit  to  England,  and  to  the  authorities  in 
Australia  under  whose  direction  he  had  paid  this  visit. 

VII.  The  Council  resolved  that  the  meetings  of  the  Conference  of 
Delegates  of  Corresponding  Societies  be  held  in  Havre  in  August  1914 
on  the  occasion  of  the  meeting  there  of  L 'Association  Frangaise  pour 
I'Avancement  des  Sciences. 

In  these  circumstances  the  Council  made  the  following  appoint- 
ments on  behalf  of  the  General  Committee  (in  place  of  nominations, 
as  usual) :  — 

Conference  of  Delegates. — Sir  H.  G.  Pordham  (Chairvmn) ,  Sir 
E.  Brabrook  {Vice-Chairman),  Mr.  "W.  Mark  Webb  (Secretary). 

The  following  nominations  are  made  by  the  Council:  — 

Corresponding  Societies  Committee. — Mr.  W.  Whitaker  (Chair- 
man), Mr.  W.  Mark  Webb  (Secretary),  Eev.  J.  O.  Bevan,  Sir  Edward 
Brabrook,  Sir  H.  G.  Fordham,  Dr.  J.  G.  Garson,  Principal  E.  H. 
Griffiths,  Dr.  A.  C.  Haddon,  Mr.  T.  V.  Holmes,  Mr.  J.  Hopkinson, 
Mr.  A.  L.  Lewis,  Eev.  T.  E.  E.  Stebbing,  and  the  President  and 
General  Officers  of  the  Association. 

VIII.  The  Council  have  received  an  intimation  from  the  Town 
Clerk  of  Cardiff  that  the  Council  and  other  authorities  in  that  city 
intend  to  present  an  invitation  to  the  Association  to  hold  there  its 
Meeting  in  1918. 


•'to 


IX.  The  Council  have  received  reports  from  the  General  Treasurer 
during  the  past  year.  In  consequence  of  the  early  removal  of  the  books, 
&c.,  from  London  to  Australia,  it  has  not  been  possible  to  prepare  the 
usual  annual  accounts.  These  will  be  audited  and  presented  to  the 
General  Committee  at  the  Manchester  Meeting  (1916). 

X.  The  retiring  members  of  the  Council  are:  — 

Sir  D.  Prain,  Prof.  C.  S.  Shen-ington,  Prof.  F.  T.  Trouton, 
Dr.  J.  E.  Marr,  Prof.  J.  B.  Farmer. 

The  Council  nominated  the  following  new  members:  — 
Dr.  F.  W.  Dyson, 
Miss  E.  E.  Saunders, 
Prof.  E.  H.  Starling, 

leaving  two  vacancies  to  be  filled  by  the  General  Committee  without 
nomination  by  the  Council. 


REPORT    OF    THE    COUNCIL. 


xlii 


The  full  list  of  nominations  of  ordinary  members  is  as  follows 


Prof.  H.  E.  Armstrong. 
Sir  E.  Brabrook. 
Prof.  W.  H.  Bragg. 
Dr.  Dugald  Clerk. 
Major  P.  G.  Craigie. 
W.  Crooke. 
Prof.  A.  Dendy. 
Dr.  F.  A.  Di.xey. 
Prof.  H.  B.  Dixon. 
Dr.  F.  W.  Dyson. 
Principal  E.  H.  Griffiths. 
Dr.  A.  C.  Haddon. 


A.  D.  Hall. 

Prof.    W.    D.    Halliburton. 

Sir  Everard  im  Thurn. 

Alfred  Lodge. 

Capt.  H,  G.  Lyons. 

Prof.  R.  Meldola. 

Prof.  J.  L.  Myres. 

Miss  E.  R.  Saunders. 

Prof.  E.  H.  Starling 

J.  J.  H.  Teall. 

Prof.  S.  P.  Thompson. 


XI.  The  General  Officers  have  been  nominated  by  the  Council 
as   follows:  — 

Gen&ral  Treasurer :   Prof.  J.  Perry. 
.   General  Secretaries  :   Prof.  W.  A.  Herdman. 

Prof.  H.  H.  Turner. 


XII.  The  foUowincf  have  been  admitted  as  members  of  the  General 


Committee :  — 

Prof.  H.  S.  Carslaw. 

Prof.  W.  J.  Dakin. 

Prof.  T.  W.  Edgeworth  David. 

Prof.  W.  G.  Duffield. 

Mr.  A.  du  Toit. 

Prof.  A.  J.  Ewart. 

Mr.  J.  T.  Ewen. 

Prof.  H.  J.  Fleure. 

Mr.  Willoughby  Gardner. 

Prof.  Kerr  Grant. 

Mr.  C.  Hedley. 

Prof.  W.  A.  Jollv. 

Dr.   C.  F.   Juritz. 


Prof.  T.  Lyle. 
Dr.  H.  McCombie. 
Mr.  J.  H.  Maiden. 
Dr.  R.  R.  Marett. 
Prof.  Orme  Masson. 
Dr.  N.  V.  Sidgwick. 
Prof.   C.   Michie  Smith. 
Prof.  W.  Baldwin  Spencer. 
Prof.  B.  D.  Steele. 
Prof.  E.  C.  Stirling. 
Dr.  W.  E.  Sumpner. 
Major  A.  J.  N.  Tremearne. 


I. 

rf. 

13 

3 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

2 

0 

0 

0 

0 

10 

16 

11 

xliv  GENERAL    TREASURER'S    ACCOUNT. 

Dr.  ■    THE  GENERAL  TREASURER  IN  ACCOUNT 

ADVANCEMENT  OF  SCIENCE, 

1913-1914.  RECEIPTS. 

£ 

Balance  brought  forward    1,375 

Life  Compositions  (including  Transfers)     549 

Annual  Subscriptions  782 

New  Annual  Members' Subscriptions  356 

Sale  of  Associates'  Tickets 1,266 

Sale  of  Ladies'  Tickets    290 

Sale  of  Publications  248 

Sir  James  Caird's  Gift  (Radio-activit}'  Investigation) 1,000 

Interest  on  Deposits  : 

Lloyds  Bank,  Birmingham     52 

Bank  of  Scotland,  Dundee - 

Unexpended  Balances  of  Grants  returned  :  £    s      i/. 

Fos3il  Plants    0  10     3 

Corresponding  Societies  Committee  114     8 

Jurassic  Flora 3  14     1 

Dividends  on  Investments :  -  5  19     0 

Consols  .- 134     4     8 

India  3  per  Cent.  Stock  101   14     0 

Great  Indian  Peninsula  Railway  '  B  '  Annuity     29     1      6 
Dividends  on 'Caird  Fund'  Investments :  -         265     0     2 
London  and  North-Western  Railway  Consoli- 
dated 4  per  Cent.  Preference  Stock 94     3     4 

London  and  South-Western  Railway  do.    do.     94     3     4 

India  3i  per  Cent.  Stock    86  11     8 

Canada  3i  per  Cent.  Registered  Stock 82     7  10 

357     6     2 

Australian  Government  Subsidy  :  1914  Meeting    15,000    0    0 

Mpiii,  :  Receipts  on  account  of  the  Australian  Meeting 
(1914),  amounting  to  £243,  are  not  included  in  tliis  account, 
but  are  paid  to  a  separate  (No.  2)  account  at  the  I!ank. 

Investmevf.'i. 

Nominal  Amount.  Value  SOth  June,  1914. 

&  s.     d.  £.  i.    d. 

6,70110     5       2|  per  Cent.  Consolidated  Stock 4,276     2  10 

3,600    0    0       India  3  per  Cent.  Stock 2,700     0    0 

879  14     9       £43  Great  Indian  Peninsula  Railway 

'B'  Annuity  (cost) 849     5     0 

2,627     0  10       India  3i  per  Cent.  Stock, 'Caird  Fund'      2,338     1     4 

2,500  0  0  London  and  North-Western  Railway 
Consolidated  4  per  Cent.  Preference 
Stock,  '  Caird  Fund  '  2,500     0     0 

2,500  0  0  London  and  South-Western  Railway 
Consolidated  4  per  Cent.  Preference 
Stock,  '  Caird  Fund '  2,475     0     0 

2,600  0  0  Canada3iper  Cent.  1930-1950  Regis- 
tered Stock,  '  Caird  Fund  '     2,225     0     0 

Sir  Frederick  Bram well's  Gift: — 

78  12     7  Self-cumulating  Consolidated  Stock,  - 

[To  be  awarded  in  1931  for  a  paper  £21,549  18     4 

dealing   with    the   whole   question 

of  the  Prime  Movers  of  1931,  and 

especially  with  the  then   relation 

between  steam  engines  and  internal 

combustion  engines.] 

John  Pbrey,  General  Treamrer. 


GENERAL    TREASURER'S    ACCOUNT.  xlv 


WITH  THE  BRITISH  ASSOCIATION  FOR  THE  Cr. 

July  1,  1913,  to  June  30,  1914. 

1913-1914.  PAYMENTS. 

£       s.      d. 

Rent  and  Office  Expenses 167     0     7 

Salaries,  &c 758  11     9 

Printing,  Binding,  &c 1,21.5     8   10 

Expenses  of  Birmingham  Meeting   165  11     2 

Payments  on  account  of  Australian  Meeting -14     4     9 

Grants  to  Research  Committees  : —  £    s.  a. 

Seismological  luvestigations 1 30    U  0 

luvestigatioii  of  the  Upper  Atmosphere 25     0  0 

Iiitertiatioual  Committee  on  Physical  aud  Chemical  Constants  40     0  0 

Calculation  of  Mathematical  Tables -'0     0  0 

Disposal  of  Copies  of  the  '  Binary  Canon  ' 4    9  0 

Study  of  Hydro-aromatic  Substances   15    0  0 

Dynamic  Isomerism  2.'*     0  0 

Transformation  of  Aromatic  Nitroamiues 15    0  0 

Study  of  Plant  Enzymes 25     0  0 

Correlation  of  Crystalline  Form  with  MolecnUr  Structnre 25    0  0 

Study  of  Solubility  Phenomena 10    0  0 

List  of  Characteristic  Fossils 5     0  U 

Gtolcgy  of  Ramsey  Island    ..  10    0  0 

Fauna  and  Flora  of  Trias  of  Western  Midlands    10    0  0 

Critical  Sections  iu  Lower  Palfeozoic  Eocks 15     0  0 

Belmullet  WhaUng  Station 20    0  0 

Nomenclature  Auimalium  Genera  et  Sub-genera 50    0  0 

Antarctic  WhaUng  Industry 75     0  0 

Maps  for  School  aud  Duiversity  Use    4U     0  0 

Gaseous  Explosions    50    0  0 

Strfss  Distributions  in  Engineering  Materials     50    0  0 

Lake  Villages  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Glastonbury    20    0  0 

Age  of  Stone  Circes 20     0  0 

Artificial  Islands  in  the  Highlands  <jf  Scotlai.d     5    0  0 

Excavations  ou  Roman  Sites  ill  Britain  20    0  0 

Anthi-opometric  luvestigatiOLS  in  Cyprus 50     0  0 

Palajolithic  Site  iu  Jersey   50    0  0 

The  Ductless  Glauds 35    0  0 

Calorimetric  Observations  on  Man   40    0  0 

Structure  and  Function  of  the  Mammalian  Heart 30     0  0 

Binocular  Combination  of  Kiuemalograph  Pictures    017  0 

Structiu-e  of  FossU  Plants 15    0  0 

J  urassio  Flora  of  Yorkshire 5    0  0 

Flora  of  the  Peat  of  the  Kennet  Valley  .. .    15    0  0 

Vegeta'  ion  of  Uitcham  Park 14    4  3 

Physiology  of  Heredity 30    0  0 

Bi  ceding  Experiments  with  (Enotheras 19  17  4 

Mental  and  Physical  Factoi s  involved  in  Education 20    0  0 

Influence  of  School  Books  on  Eyesight    2    8  9 

Character,  Work,  and  Maintenance  of  Museums 10    0  0 

Corresponding  Societies  Committee 25    0  0 

1,086   16     4 


Grants  made  from  '  Caird  Fund  ' 775     0     0 

Amounts    paid    to    Grantees    from    Australian    Government 

Subsidy:  1914  Meeting 14,950     0     0 

Balance  at  Lloyds  Bank,  Birmingham  (including  £       s,     a. 

accrued  Interest)  1,676  12     3 

Balance     at     Bank    of     England, 

Western    Branch :     On    General 

Account £933     1  10 

Li'M  Overspent  on  'Caird  Fund'...     226     6     6 


706  15     4 

Petty  Cash  in  li and 3  17     4 

2,387     4  11 

£21,549  18     4 
An  Account  a/"  £864  G*.  6(f.  is  outstandiuff  due  to  Messrf.  Spottiswoode  4"  Co. 

I  liave  examined  the  above  Account  with  the  Eooks  and  Vouchers  of  the  Association,  aud  certify  the 
same  to  be  correct.     I  have  also  verified  the  Balance  at  the  Bankers,  and  have  aseertained  that  the  Invest- 
ments are  registered  iu  the  names  cf  the  Trustees.  W.  B.  Keen,  Charteied  Accounla/il. 
Apptoved —  Z^fce;/i6tfr  2,  1914. 
Kdward  Bbabrook,  1    ,     ,.,    . 
Herbert  Mcleod,  '} -^''''''o'*- 


xlvi  GENERAL   MEETINGS. 

GENERAL    MEETINGS,    1914. 

The  General  Meetings  held  in  Australia  will  be  found  mentioned  in 
the  course  of  the  Narrative  on  pp.  679,  seqq.  A  Narrative  of  the  Visit  of 
Members  to  the  Meeting  of  L' Association  Fran9aise  at  Le  Havre,  with  an 
account  of  the  meetings  held  there,  is  given  on  p.  720. 


OFFICERS    OF    SECTIONS   AT  THE   AUSTRALIAN 
MEETING,    1914. 

SECTION   A. — MATHEMATICAL   AND   PHYSICAL   SCIENCE. 

President. — Prof.  F.  T.  Trouton,  F.R.S.  {in  absentia).  Vice-Presidents. — 
Prof.  E.  W.  Brown,  F.R.S. ;  Prof.  H.  S.  Carslaw,  F.R.S. ;  Sir  Oliver  J.  Lodge, 
F.R.S. ;  Prof.  A.  W.  Porter,  F.R  S. ;  Sir  E.  Rutherford,  F.R.S.  Secretaries.— 
Prof.  A.  S.  Eddington,  F.R.S.  (Recorder);  E.  Gold,  M.A. ;  Prof.  S.  B.  McLareo, 
M.A. ;  A.  O.  Rankine  D.Sc. ;  Prof.  T.  R.  Lyle,  F.R.S.  (Local  Sec,  Melbourne) ; 
Prof.  J.  A.  Pollock,  D.Sc.  (Local  Sec,  Sydney). 

SECTION   B. — CHEMISTRY. 

President, — Prof.  W.  J.  Pope,  F.R.S.  Vice-Presidents. — Prof.  F.  Clowes, 
D.Sc. ;  Prof.  H.  B.  Dixon,  F.R.S. ;  Prof.  Orme  Masson,  F.R.S. ;  Prof.  E.  H. 
Rennie,  D.Sc. ;  Prof.  B.  D.  Steele,  D.Sc.  Secretaries.— A.  Holt,  D.Sc.  (Recorder) ; 
N.  V.  Sidgwick,  D.Sc;  D.  Avery,  M.Sc.  (Local  Sec,  Melbourne);  Prof.  C. 
Fawsitt,  D.Sc.  (Local  Sec,  Sydney). 

SECTION   C. — GEOLOGY. 

President.— Frol  Sir  T.  H.  Holland,  K.C.I.E.,  F.R.S.  Vice-Presidents.— 
Prof.  W.  S.  Boulton,  D.Sc;  Prof.  T.  W.  Edgewortb  David,  C.M.G, ;  H. 
Herman  ;  Prof.  W.  J.  SoUas,  F.R.S. ;  Prof.  Woolnough,  D.Sc.  Secretaries.— 
A.  R.  Dwerryhouse,  D.Sc.  (Recorder)  ;  Prof.  S.  H.  Reyuolds,  M.A. ;  Prof.  E.  W. 
Skeats,  D.Sc.  (Local  Sec,  Melbourne);  E.  F.  Pittman,  A.R.S.M.  (Local  Sec, 
Sydney). 

SECTION   D. — ZOOLOGY. 

Preside7it. —VroL  A.  Dendy,  D.Sc,  F.R.S.  Vice-Presidents.— Frol  C.  B. 
Davenport;  Prof.  W.  A.  Haswell,  F.R.S.;  Prof.  H.  Jungersen;  Dr.  0.  Maas; 
Prof.  E.  A.  Mincbin,  F.R.S.;  Prof.  Baldwin  Spencer,  C.M.G.,  F.R.S.  Secre- 
taries.—Froi.  H.  AV.  Marett  Tims,  M.A.,  M.D.  (Recorder);  J.  H.  Ashwortb, 
D.Sc;  R.  Douglas  Laurie,  M.A. ;  T.  S.  Hall,  D.Sc.  (Local  Sec,  Melbourne)  ; 
Prof.  W.  A.  Haswell,  D.Sc,  F.R.S.  (Local  Sec,  Sydney). 

[^   ,  SECTION   E. —  GEOGRAPHY. 

President.— Siv  Charles  P.  Lucas,  K.C.B.,  K.C.M.G.  Vice-Presidents. — Prof. 
Guido  Cora;  Prof.  T.  W.  Edgewortb  David,  C.M.G. ;  Capt.  J.  K.  Davis;  Prof. 
W.  M.  Davis ;  Sir  John  Forrest ;  Prof.  A.  Penck.  Secretaries. — H.  Yule  Oldham, 
M.A.  (Recorder);  J.  McFarlane,  M.A. ;  J.  A.  Leacb,  M.Sc.  (Local  Sec,  Mel- 
bourne) ;  F.  Poate  (Local  Sec,  Sydney). 

SECTION   F. — ECONOMIC   SCIENCE   AND   STATISTICS. 

President.— PvoL  E.  C.  K.  Gouner,  M.A.  Vice-Presidents.— S.  Bali;  T.  R. 
Bavin;  Denison  Miller;  H.  Y.  Braddon ;  Harrison  Moore.  Secretaries. — Prof. 
A.  W.  Kirkaldy,M.A.,  M.Com.  (Recorder) ;  Prof.  H.  0.  Meredith,  M.A.,  M.Com. ; 
G.  H.  Knibbs,  C.M.G.  (Local  Sec,  Melbourne) ;  Prof.  R.  F.  Irvine,  M.A.  (Local 
Sec,  Sydney). 


OFFICERS   OF   SECTIONS,    1914.  xlvii 


SECTION    G. — ENGINEERING. 

President. — Prof.  E.  G.  Coker,  D.Sc.  Vice-Presidents. — W.  Davidson  ;  H. 
Deaue,  M.A. ;  Prof.  G.  Forbes,  F.R.S. ;  Col.  J.  Monash ;  Prof.  J.  E.  Petavel, 
F.R.S.  Secretaries.— Vrot'.  G.  W.  0.  Howe,  M.Sc.  (Becorder)  ;  Prof.  W.  M. 
Tliorutou,  D.Sc. ;  Prof.  II.  Payne  (Local  Sec,  Melbourne)  ;  Prof.  W.  H.  Warren 
(Local  Sec,  Sydney), 

SECTION   H. — ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President.— Siv  Everaid  im  Tbiirn,  C.B.,  K.C.M.G.  Vice-Presidents.— 
H.  Balfour,  M.A.  ;  Dr.  Etberidge;  Dr.  A.  0.  Haddou,  F.R.S.;  Prof.  F.  von 
Luschan  ;  Prof.  Baldwin  Spencer,  C.M.G.,  F.R.S. ;  Prof.  E.  0.  Stirling,  F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — R.  R.  Marett,  M.A.,  D.Sc.  (Becorder) ;  B.  Malinowski,  Ph.D. ; 
Prof.  R.  J.  A.  Berry,  M.D.  (Local  Sec,  Melbourne)  ;  Prof.  J.  T.  Wilson,  M.B,, 
F.R.S.  (Local  Sec,  Sydney). 

SECTION    I. —  PHYSIOLOGY. 

President.— VioL  Benjamin  Moore,  F.R.S.  Vice-Presidents.— Piot  W.  D- 
Halliburton,  F.R.S. ;  Prof.  Sir  E.  A.  Schafer,  F.R.S. ;  Prof.  E.  C.  Stirling, 
F.R.S.  Secretaries.— Vrol  P.  T.  Herring,  M.D.  (Becorder) ;  Prof.  T.  H.  Milroy, 
M.D.;  Prof.  W.  A.  Osborne,  D.Sc.  (Local  Sec,  Melbourne);  Prof.  Sir  T.  P. 
Anderson  Stuart,  M.D.,  LL.D.  (Local  Sec,  Sydney). 


SECTION   K. — BOTANY. 

President. — Prof.  F.  ().  Bower,  F.R.S.  Vice-Presidents. — J.  H.  Maiden, 
F.L.S. ;  Miss  E.  R.  Saunder.«,  F.L.S. ;  Prof.  A.  C.  Seward,  F.R.S.  Secretaries. — 
Prof.  T.  Johnson,  D.Sc.  (Becorder)  ;  Miss  E.  N.  Thomas,  D.Sc;  Prof.  A.  J. 
Ewart,  D.Sc.  (Local  Sec,  Melbourne);  Prof.  A.  Austruther  La'wson,Ph.D  ,D.Sc. 
(Local  Sec,  Sydney). 

SECTION    L. — EDUCATIONAL   SCIENCE. 

President. — Prof.  J.  Perry,  F.R.S.  Vice-Presidents. — Prof.  H.  E.  Armstrong, 
F.R.S. ;  C.  A.  Buckmaster,  M.A. ;  G.  T.  Moody,  D.Sc.  Secretaries.— FioL  J.  A. 
Green,  M.A.  (Becorder);  0.  A.  Buckmaster,  M.A. ;  J.  Smyth,  M.A.  (Local 
Sec,  Melbourne) ;  P.  Board,  M.A.  (Local  Sec,  Sjdney).  i 

SECTION   M. — AGRICULTURE. 

President.— A.  D.  Hall,  F.R.S.  Vice-Presidents.— E.  S.  Beaven,  F.C.S. ; 
Prof.  T.  B.  Wood,  M.A.  Secretaries.—].  Golding,F.I.C.  (Becorder) ;  A.  Lauder, 
D.Sc. ;  Piof.  T.  Cherry,  M.Sc.  (Local  Sec,  Melbourne) ;  Prof.  R.  D.  Watt,  M.A- 
(Local  Sec,  Sydney).  I 


CONFERENCE   OF   DELEGATES   OF   CORRESPONDING      I 
SOCIETIES  (HAVRE,  1914). 

Chairman. — Sir    H.    G.     Fordham.        Vice- Chairman. — Sir     E.     Brabrook. 
Secretary. — W.  Mark  Webb. 


xlviii 


ATTENDANCES   AND    RECEIPTS. 


Table  showing  the  Atteiidances  and 

Eeceijyts 

Date  of  Meeting 

1831,  Sept.  27  

1832,  June  19 

Where  held 
York    

Presidents 

!    Old  Life 
1   Members 

1 

r  - 

\  New  Life 
Members 

Viscount  Milton,  D.O.L.,  F.R.S. 
The  Rev.  W.  Buckland,  F.R.S.  .  .      . 

Crford   

1833,  June  25 

Cambridge    

The  Rev.  A.  Sedgwick,  F.R.S 





1834,  Sept.  8   

Edinburgli    

Sir  T.  M.  Brisbane,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S.  . 

— 



1835,  Aug.  10 

1836,  Aug.  22 

Dublin    

The  Rev.  Provost  LIoyd,LL.D.,  F.R.S. 
The  Marquis  of  Lansdowne,  F.R.S.  . 

— 

— 

Bristol    

1837,  Sept.  11 

1838,  Aug.  10 

Liverpool 

Newoastle-on-Tvne- . . 

The  Earl  of  Burlington,  F.R.S. 

— 

— 

The  Duke  of  Northumberiaud,  F.R.S. 

1839,  Aug.  26 

Birmingham    

TlieRev.W.  VernunHarcourt,  F.R.S. 

— 

— 

1840,  Sept.  ir 

Glasgow 

The  Marquis  of  Breadalbane,  F.R.S. 



. 

1841,  July  20  

Plymouth 

The  Rev.  W.  Whewell,  F.R.S 

169 

6.') 

1842,  June  23 

Manchester  

The  Loril  Francis  Egerton,  F.G.S. 

303 

169 

1843,  Aug.  17 

Cork   

The  Earl  of  Rosse,  F.R.S.   . 

109 

28 

1844,  Sept.  26 

1845,  June  19 

1846,  Sept.  10      ... 

York  

The  Rev.  G.  Peacock,  D.D.,  F.R.S. 
Sir  John  F.  W.Hersohel,  Bart..,  F.R.S. 
Sir  Roderick  I.Murchison,Bart.,F.R.S. 

226 
313 
241 

150 
36 
10 

Cambridge    

Southampton   

1847,  June  23 

Oxford    

Sir  Robert  H.  Inglis,  Bart.,  F.R.S. 

314 

18 

1848,  Aug.  9    

Swansea 

TheMarquisofNorthampton,Pres.R.S. 

149 

3 

1849,  Sept.  12 

Birmingham    

Tlie  Rev.  T.  R.  Robinson,  D.D.,  F.R.S. 

227 

12 

1850,  July  21  

1851,  July  2 

Edinburgh    

Sir  Darid  Brewster,  K.H.,  F.R.S 

G.  B.  Airv,  Astronomer  Royal,  F.R.S. 

235 
172 

9 
8 

Ipswich 

1852,  Sept.  1    

1853,  Sept.  3    

1854,  Sept.  20 

1855,  Sept.  12 

Belfast   

Lieut.-Geueral  Sabine,  F.R.S 

William  Hopkins,  F.R.S 

The  Earl  of  Harrowbv,  F.R.S 

The  Duke  of  Argyll,  F.R.S 

164 
141 
238 
194 

10 
13 
23 
33 

Hull    

Liverpool  

Glasgow 

1856,  Aug.  6    

Cheltenham 

Prof.  C.  G.  B.  Daubeny,  M.D.,  F.R.S.. . . 

182 

14 

1857,  Aug.  26  

1858,  Sept.  22 

1859,  Sept.  14 

1860,  June  27 

1861,  Sept.  4    

1862,  Oct.    1    

Dublin   

The  Rev.  H.  Llovd,  D.D.,  F.R.S 

Richard  Owen,  M.D.,  D.O.L.,  F.R.S.... 
H.R.H.  The  Prince  Consort   

236 
222 
184 
286 
321 
239 

15 
42 
27 
21 
113 
15 

Leeds 

Aberdeen  

Oxford  

The  Lord  Wrottesley,  M.A.,  F.R.S.  ... 

William  Fairbairn,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 

The  Rev.  Professor  Willis,M.A.,F.R.S. 

Manchester  

Cambridge    

18G3,  Aug.  26 

Newcastle-on-Ty  ne. . . 

Sir  William  G.  Armstrong.C.B.,  F.R.S. 

203 

36 

1864,  Sept.  13 

Bath   

Sir  Charles  Lyell,  Bart.,  M.A.,  P.H.S. 

287 

40 

1865,  Sept.  6    

Birmingham 

Prof.  J.  Phillips,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 

292 

44 

1866,  Aug.  22 

Nottingham 

WilUam  R.  Grove,  Q.C.,  F.R.S 

207 

31 

1867,  Sept.  4    

Dundee 

The  Duke  of  Buccleuch,  K.C.B.,F.R.S. 

1G7 

25 

1868,  Aug.  19 

Norwich    

Dr.  Joseph  D.  Hooker.  F.R.S 

196 

18 

1869,  Aug.  18 

Exeter    

Prof.  G.G.  Stokes,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S 

204 

21 

1870,  Sept.  14 

Liverpool  

Prof.  T.  H.  Huxley,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.  ... 

314 

39 

1871,  Aug.  2    

Edinburgh    

Prof.  Sir  W.  Thomson,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 

246 

28 

1872,  Aug.  14 

Brighton  

Dr.  W.  B.  Carpenter,  F.R.S 

245 

36 

1873,  Sept.  17 

Bradford 

Prof.  A.  W.  Williamson.  F  R.S 

212 

27 

1874,  Aug.  19 

Belfast  

Prof.  J.  Tyndall,  LL.D.,  F.R.S 

162 

13 

1875,  Aug.  25 

Bristol   

Sir  John  Hawkshaw,  F.R.S.  

239 

36 

1876,  Sept.  6    

Glasgow    

Prof.  T.  Andrews.  M.D.,  F.R.S 

221 

35 

1877,  Aug.  15 

Plymouth 

Prof.  A.  Thomson,  M.D.,  F.R.S 

173 

19 

1878,  Aug.  14 

Dublin    

W.  Spottiswoode,  M.A.,  F.R.S 

201 

18 

1879,  Aug.  20 

Sheffield 

Prof.  G.  J.  AUman,  M.D.,  F.R.S 

184 

16 

1880,  Aug.  25 

Swansea 

A.  C.  Ramsay,  LL.D.,  F.R.S 

144 

11 

1881,  Aug.  31 

York  

Sir  John  Lubbock,  Bart.,  F.R.S 

272 

28 

1882,  Aug.  23 

Southampton   

Dr.  C.  W.  Siemens,  F.R.S 

178 

17 

1883,  Sept.  19 

Southport 

Prof.  A.  Cavley,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S 

203 

60 

1884,  Aug.  27   

Montreal   

Prof.  Lord  Rayleigh,  F.R.S 

235 

20 

1885,  Sept.  9    

Aberdeen  

Sir  Lvou  Playfair,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S. 

225 

18 

1886,  Sept.  1    

1887,  Aug.  31 

1888,  Sept.  5    

Birmingham    

Sir  J.  W.  Dawson,  C.M.G.,  F.R.S 

Sir  H.  E.  Roscoe,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S.    

Sir  P.  J.  Bramwell,  F.R.S 

314 

428 
266 

25 
86 
36 

Manchester  

Bath  

1889,  Sept.  11 

Newcastle-ou-Tvne. . . 

Prof.  W.  H.  Flower,  C.B..  F.R.S.  

277 

20 

1890,  Sept.  3    

1891,  Aug.  19 

1892,  Aug.  3    

1893,  Sept.  13 

1894,  Aug.  8    

1895,  Sept.  11 

Leeds     .                

Sir  F.  A.  Abel,  C.B.,  F.R.S 

Dr.  W.  Huggins,  F.R.S 

Sir  A.  Geikie.  LL.D.,  F.R.S 

Prof.  J.  S.  Burdon  Sanderson,  F.R.S. 
The  Marquis  of  Salisbury ,K.G.,F.R.S. 
Sir  Douglas  Galton,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S.  ... 

259 
189 
280 
201 
327 
214 

21 
24 
14 
17 
21 
13 

OardifE   

Edinburgh    

Nottingham 

Oxford    

Ipswich 

1896,  Sept.  16 

Liverpool  

Sir  Joseph  Lister,  Bart.,  Pros.  R.S.  ... 

330 

31 

1897,  Aug.  18 

1898,  Sept.  7    

1899,  Sept.  13 

1900,  Sept.  5    

Toi-onto 

Sir  John  Evans,  K.O.B.,  F.R.S 

Sir  W.  Crookes,  F.R.S 

Sir  Michael  Foster,  K.C.B.,  Seo.R.S.... 
Sir  William  Turner,  D.O.L.,  F.R.S.  ... 

120 
281 
296 
267 

8 
19 
20 
13 

Bristol    

Dover  

Bradford    

•  Ladies  were  not  admitted  by  purchased  tickets  until  1843. 


t  Tickets  of  Admission  to  Sections  only. 
[Continued  on  p.  1. 


ATTENDANCES   AND    KECEIPTS. 


xlix 


at  Annual  Meetings  of  the  Association. 


Old 
Annual 

New 
Annual 

Asso- 
ciates 

Ladies 

Foreigners 

Total 

Amount 

received 

during  the 

Meeting 

Sums  paid 
on  account 
of  Grants 

Year 

Members 

Members 

for  Scientific 
Purposes 

— 

— 

— 

— 

353 

— 

1831 
1832 
1833 

_ 

z 

900 

z 

z 



— 

— 

_ 

— 

1298 

— 

£20  0  0 

1834 















167  0  0 

1835 



— . 

— 

— 

— 

1350 

— 

435  0  0 

1836 



. 



— 



1840 



922  12  6 

1837 



— . 

— 

1100* 

— 

2400 

— 

933  2  2 

1838 



— 

— 

— 

34 

1438 

— 

1595  11  0 

1839 



— , 

. — 

— 

40 

1353 

— 

1546  16  4 

1840 

46 

317 

— , 

60» 

— 

891 



1235  10  11 

1841 

75 

376 

33t 

331» 

28 

1315 

— 

1449  17  8 

1842 

71 

185 



160 

— 

_ 

— 

1565  10  2 

1843 

45 

190 

n 

260 

— 

— 

— 

981  12  8 

1844 

94 

22 

407 

172 

35 

1079 

_ 

831  9  9 

1845 

65 

39 

270 

196 

36 

857 

— 

685  16  0 

1846 

197 

40 

495 

203 

53 

1320 



208  5  4 

1847 

54 

25 

376 

197 

15 

819 

£707  0  0 

275  1  8 

1848 

93 

33 

447 

237 

22 

1071 

963  0  0 

159  19  6 

1849 

128 

42 

510 

273 

44 

1241 

1085  0  0 

345  18  0 

1850 

61 

47 

244 

141 

37 

710 

620  0  0 

391  9  7 

1851 

63 

60 

510 

292 

9 

1108 

1085  0  0 

304  6  7 

1852 

66 

57 

367 

236 

6 

876 

903  0  0 

205  0  0 

1853 

121 

121 

765 

524 

10 

1802 

1882  0  0 

380  19  7 

1854 

142 

101 

1094 

543 

26 

2133 

2311  0  0 

480  16  4 

1855 

104 

48 

412 

346 

9 

1115 

1098  0  0 

734  13  9 

1856 

156 

120 

900 

569 

26 

2022 

2015  0  0 

507  15  4 

1857 

111 

91 

710 

509 

13 

1698 

1931  0  0 

618  18  2 

1858 

125 

179 

1206 

821 

22 

2564 

2782  0  0 

684  11  1 

1859 

177 

59 

636 

463 

47 

1689 

1604  0  0 

766  19  6 

1860 

184 

125 

1589 

791 

15 

3138 

3944  0  0 

1111  5  10 

1861 

150 

57 

433 

242 

25 

1161 

1089  0  0 

1293  16  6 

1862 

154 

209 

1704 

1004 

25 

3335 

3640  0  0 

1608  3  10 

1863 

182 

103 

1119 

1058 

13 

2802 

2965  0  0 

1289  15  8 

1864 

215 

149 

766 

508 

23 

1997 

2227  0  0 

1591  7  10 

1865 

218 

105 

960 

771 

11 

2303 

2469  0  0 

1750  13  4 

1866 

193 

118 

1163 

771 

7 

2444 

2613  0  0 

1739  4  0 

1867 

226 

117 

720 

682 

45t 

2004 

2042  0  0 

1940  0  0 

1868 

229 

107 

678 

600 

17 

1856 

1931  0  0 

1622  0  0 

1869 

303 

195 

1103 

910 

14 

2878 

3096  0  0 

1572  0  0 

1870 

311 

127 

976 

754 

21 

2463 

2575  0  0 

1472  2  6 

1871 

280 

80 

937 

912 

43 

2533 

2649  0  0 

1285  0  0 

1872 

237 

99 

796 

601 

11 

1983 

2120  0  0 

1685  0  0 

1873 

232 

85 

817 

630 

12 

1951 

1979  0  0 

1151  16  0 

1871 

307 

93 

884 

672 

17 

2248 

2397  0  0 

960  0  0 

1875 

331 

185 

1265 

712 

25 

2774 

3023  0  0 

1092  4  2 

1S76 

238 

59 

446 

283 

11 

1229 

1268  0  0 

1128  9  7 

1877 

290 

93 

1285 

674 

17 

2578 

2615  0  0 

725  16  6 

1878 

239 

74 

529 

349 

13 

1404 

1425  0  0 

1080  11  11 

1879 

171 

41 

389 

147 

12 

915 

899  0  0 

731  7  7 

1880 

313 

176 

1230 

514 

24 

2557 

2689  0  0 

476  8  1 

1881 

253 

79 

516 

189 

21 

1253 

1286  0  0 

1126  1  11 

1882 

330 

323 

952 

841 

5 

2714 

3369  0  0 

1083  3  3 

1883 

317 

219 

826 

74 

26&60H.§ 

1777 

1855  0  0 

1173  4  0 

1884 

332 

122 

1053 

447 

6 

2203 

2256  0  0 

1385  0  0 

1885 

428 

179 

1067 

429 

11 

2453 

2532  0  0 

995  0  6 

1886 

510 

244 

1985 

493 

92 

3838 

4336  0  0 

1186  18  0 

1887 

399 

100 

639 

509 

12 

1984 

2107  0  0 

1511  0  5 

1888 

412 

113 

1024 

579 

21 

2437 

2441  0  0 

1417  0  11 

1889 

368 

92 

680 

334 

12 

1775 

1776  0  0 

789  16  8 

1890 

341 

152 

672 

107 

35 

1497 

1664  0  0 

1029  10  0 

1891 

413 

141 

733 

439 

50 

2070 

2007  0  0 

864  10  0 

1892 

328 

57 

773 

268 

17 

1661 

1653  0  0 

907  15  6 

1893 

435 

69 

941 

451 

77 

2321 

2175  0  0 

583  15  6 

1894 

290 

31 

493 

261 

22 

1324 

1236  0  0 

977  15  5 

1895 

383 

139 

1384 

873 

41 

3181 

3228  0  0 

not  6  1 

1896 

286 

125 

682 

100 

41 

1362 

1398  0  0 

1059  10  8 

1897 

327 

96 

1051 

639 

33 

2446 

2399  0  0 

1212  0  0 

1898 

324 

68 

54S 

120 

27 

1403 

1328  0  0 

1430  14  2 

1899 

297 

45 

801 

482 

9 

1915 

1801  0  0 

1072  10  0 

1900 

t  Including  Ladies.  |  Fellows  of  the  American  Association  were  admitted  as  Hon.  Members  for  this  Meeting 


1914. 


[Continued  on  p.  li. 
c 


ATTENDANCES   AND   RECEIPTS. 

Table  shoiving  the  Attendances  and  Receipts 


Date  of  Meeting 

Where  held 

Presidents 

Prof.  A.  W.  RUcker,  D.Sc.  SecR.S. ... 

Prof.  J.  Dewar,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.    

Sir  Norman  Lockyer,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S. 
Rt.  Hon.  A.  J.  Balfour,  M.P.,  F.R.S. 
Prof.  G.  H.  Darwin,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.  ... 
Prof.  E.  Ray  Lankester,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 

Sir  David  Gill,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S 

Dr.  Francis  Darwin,  F.R.S 

Prof.  Sir  J.  J.  Thomson,  F.R.S.    ; 

Rer.  Prof.  T.  6.  Bouuey,  F.R  S.   ... 
Prof.  Sir  W.  Rimsay,  K.C.B  ,  F.R.S. 

Prof.  E.  A.  Schafer.  F.R.S 

Sir  Oliver  J.  Lodge,  F.R.S 

Prof.  W.  Bateson,  F.R.S 

Old  Life 
Members 

New  Life 
Members 

1901,  Sept.  11 

1902,  Sept.  10  

1903,  Sept.  9    

1904,  Aug.  17 

1905,  Aug.  15 

1906,  Aug.  1    

1907,  July  31  

1908,  Sept.  2  

1909,  Aug.  25 

1910,  Aug.  31  

1911,  Aug.  30 

1912,  Sept.  4   

1913,  Sept.  10  ,...,. 

1914,  July-Sept.... 

Glasgow 

310 
243 
250 
419 
115 
322 
276 
294 
117 
293 
284 
288 
376 
172 

37 

Belfast  

21 

Southport  

21 

Cambridge 

32 

South  Africa    

York  

Leicester   

Dublin    

Winnipeg 

Sheffield 

40 
10 
19 
24 
13 
26 

Portsmouth 

Dundee 

Birmingham    

21 
14 
40 
13 

*S  Including  848  Members  of  the  South  African  Association. 
XX  Grants  from  the  Caird  Fund  are  not  included  in  this  and  subsequent  sums. 


ANALYSIS    OF    ATTENDANCES    AT 

[The  total  attendances  for  the  years  1832, 

Average  attendance  at  79  Meetings  :  1858. 

Average 
Attendance 
Average  attendance  at  5  Meetings  beginning  during  Jmie,  hetmecn 

1833  and  1860 1260 

Average  attendance  at  4  Meetings  beginning  during  July,  hetiveen 

1841  aM(^  1907 1122 

Average  attendance  at  32  Meetings  beginning  during  Avfjust,  hetween 

1836  aM^Z  1911 "...       1927 

Average   attendance   at   37   Meetings   beginning    during   September, 

between  1831  and  1913 1977 

Attendance  at  1  Meeting  held  in  October,  Cambridge,  1862  .         .       IIGI 


Meetings  beginning  during  August. 

Average  attendance  at — 

4  Bleetings  beginning  during  tlie  1st  week  in  AvijustC    1st-  7tli) 

5  „       „      „    „  2nd  „   „   ■„   (  8th-Uth) 
9     „       „      „    .,  3rd   , (l.'Jth-21st) 

14    „       „      „    „  4tli   „   „    „   (22nd-31st) 


1905 
2130 
1802 
1935 


ATTENDANCES   AND   RECEIPTS. 


at  Annual  Meetings  of  the  Association — (continued). 


Old 
Annual 
Members 


374 

314 

319 

449 

937t 

356 

339 

465 

290»» 

379 

349 

368 

480 

139 


New 
Annual 
Members 


131 

86 

90 

113 

411 

93 

61 

112 

162 

57 

61 

95 

149 

416011 


Asso- 
ciates 


Ladies 


794 

647 

688 
1338 

430 

817 

659 
1166 

789 

563 

414 
1292 
1287 

S39II     I 


246 
305 
365 
317 
181 
352 
251 
222 

90 
123 

81 
359 
291 


Foreigners 

Total 

20 

1912 

6 

1620 

21 

1754 

121 

2789 

16 

2130 

22 

1972 

42 

1647 

14 

2297 

7 

1468 

8 

1449 

31 

1241 

88 

2504 

20 

2643 

21 

5044!! 

Amount 

received 

during  the 

Meeting 


£2046  0 

1644  0 

1762  0 

2650  0 

2422  0 

1811  0 

1561  0 

2317  0 

1623  0 

1439  0 

1176  0 

2349  0 

2756  0 
4873 


Sums  paid 
on  account 

of  Grants 
for  Scientific 

Purposes 


£920  9  11 
947  0  0 
845  13  2 
887  18  11 
928  2  2 
882  0  9 
757  12  10 
1157  18  8 
1014  9  9 
963  17  0 
922  0  0 
845  7  6 
978  17  lit 


0  0  [1086  16  4 


Year 


1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 


**  Including  137  Members  of  tlie  American  Association. 
(I  Special  arrangements  were  made  for  Members  and  Associates  joining  locally  in  Australia,  gee 
p.  686.    The  numbers  include  80  Members  who  joined  in  order  to  att3nd  the  Meeting  of  L' Association 
Francaise  at  Le  Havre. 


THE    ANNUAL  MEETINGS,  1831-1913. 
1835,  1843,  and  1844  are  unknown.^ 


Meetings  beginnvig  during  September. 
Average  attendance  at — 

Average 
Attendance 
13  Meetings  beginning  during  the  1st  vt eek  yd.  September (^    1st-  7th).       2131 

17  „  „  „         „    2nd     , (   8th-14th).       1906 

5  „  „  „         „    3rd      „      „  „       (  15th-21st).       2206 

2  „  „  „         „    4th      „      „  „        (22nd-30th).       1025 

Meetings  beginning  during  June,  July,  and  October. 

Attendance  at  1  Meeting  (1845,  June  19)  beginning  during  the  3rd 

week  in  J?«!e  (15th-21st) 1079 

Average  attendance  at  4  Meetings  beginning  during  the  4th  week  in 

June  (22nd-30th) 1306 

Attendance  at  1  Meeting   (1851,  July   2)  beginning  during  the  1st 

week  in  Jiily  (lst-7th) 710 

Average  attendance  at  2  Meetings  beginning  during  the  3rd  week  in 

.hdy  (15th-21st)  ...  1066 

Attendance  at  1  Meeting  (1907,  July  31)  beginning  during  the  5th 

weekin  J«Zy  (29th-31st) 1647 

Attendance  at  1  Meeting  (1862,  October  1)  beginning  during  the  1st 

week  in  Oc«oJ<rr  (lst-7th) 1161 

1914.  c  2 


Ui 


RESEARCH   COMMITTEES. 


LIST  OF  GRANTS:  Australia,  1914. 


Research  Committees,  etc..  appointed  on  behalf  of  the  General 
Committee  at  the  Australian  Meeting  :  August,  1914. 

1.   Receiving  Grants  of  Money. 


Subject  for  Investigation,  or  Purpose 


Members  of  Committee 


Section  A.— MATHEMATICS   AND   PHYSICS. 


Seismological  Observations. 


Investigation  of  the  Upper  Atmo- 
sphere. 


Annual  Tables  of  Constants  and 
Numerical  Data,  chemical,  phy- 
sical, and  technological. 


Calculation      of 
Tables. 


Mathematical 


Chairman. — Prof  essorH. H.Turner. 

Secretary. — Professor  J.  Perry. 

Mr.  Horace  Darwin,  Mr.  C.  Davi- 
son, Dr.  R.  T.  Glazebrook,  Mr. 
M.  H.  Gray,  Professors  J.  W. 
Judd  and  C.  G.  Knott,  Sir  J. 
Larmor,  Professor  E.  Meldola, 
Mr.  W.  E.  Plummer,  Dr.  K.  A. 
Sampson,  Professor  A.  Schuster, 
Mr.  J.  J.  Shaw,  and  Mr.  G.  W. 
Walker. 


Chairman.— Dr.  W.  N.  Shaw. 

Secretary. — Mr.  E.  Gold. 

Mr.  C.  J.' P.  Cave,  Mr.  W.  H.  Dines, 

Dr.    R.   T.   Glazebrook,   Sir   J. 

Larmor,  Professor  J.  E.  Petavel, 

Professor  A.  Schuster,  and  Dr. 

W.  Watson. 


Chairman. — Sir  W.  Ramsay. 
Secretary. —  Dr.  W.  C.  McC.  Lewis. 


Chairman. — Professor  M.  J.  M. 
Hill. 

Secretary.-?volessoT  J.  W.  Nichol- 
son. 

Mr.  J.  R.  Airey,  Mr.  T.  W.  Chaundy, 
Professor  Alfred  Lodge,  Pro- 
fessor L.  N.  G.  Filon,  Sir  G. 
Greenhill,  and  Professors  E.  W. 
Hobson,  A.  E.  H.  Love,  H.  M. 
Macdonald,  and  A.  G.  Webster. 


Grants 


£ 
60 


s.d. 
0  0* 


25     0  0 


JO     0  0 


30     0  0 


»  In  addition,  the  Council  \va?  authorised  to  expend  a  sum  not  exceeding  £70  for  the  priuting  of 
circulars,  &c.,  in  connection  with  the  Committee  on  Seismological  Observations, 


RESEARCH   COMMITTEES. 
1.  Receivitig  Grants  of  Money — continued. 


mi 


Subject  for  Investigation,  or  Purpose 


Members  of  Committee 


Grants 


Section  B.— CHEMISTRY. 


The  Study  of  Hydro-Aromatic  Sub- 
stances. 


Dynamic  Isomerism. 


Tlie  Transformation  of  Aromatic 
Nitroamines  and  allied  sub- 
stances, and  its  relation  to 
Substitution  in  Benzene  De- 
rivatives. 

Tlie  Study  of  Plant  Enzymes, 
particularly  with  relation  to 
Oxidation. 


Correlation  of   Crystalline  Form 
with  Molecular  Structure. 


Study  of  Solubility  Phenomena. 


Chemical  Investigation  of  Natural 
Plant  Products  of  Victoria. 


The  Influence  of  Weather  Con- 
ditions upon  the  Amounts  of 
Nitrogen  Acids  in  the  Rainfall 
and  the  Atmosphere. 

Research  on  Non-Aromatic  Diazo- 
nium  Salts 


Cliairman. — ProfessorW.H.Perkin. 

Secretary. — Professor  A.  W.  Cross- 
ley. 

Dr.  M.  0.  Forster,  Dr.  Le  Sueur, 
and  Dr.  A.  McKenzie. 

Chairman. — Professor  H.  E.  Arm- 
strong. 

Secretary. — Dr.  T.  M.  Lowry. 

Professor  Sydney  Young,  Dr.  Desch, 
Dr.  J.  J.  Dobbie,  and  Dr.  M.  0. 
Forster. 

Chairman. — Professor  F.  S.  Kip- 
ping. 
Secretary. — ProfessorK.J.P.Orton. 
Dr.  S.  Ruhemann   and  Dr.  J.  T. 

Hewitt. 

Chairman. — Mr.  A.  D.  Hall. 

Secretary. — Dr.  E.  F.  Armstrong. 

Professor  H.  E.  Armstrong,  Pro- 
fessor F.  Keeble,  and  Dr.  E.  J. 
Russell. 

CJiairman. — Professor  W.  J.  Pope. 

Secretary. — Professor  H.  E.  Arm- 
strong. 

Mr.  W.  Barlow  and  Professor 
W.  P.  Wynne. 

Chairman. — Professor  H.  E.  Arm- 
strong. 

Secretary. — Dr.  J.  V.  Eyre. 

Dr.  E.  F.  Armstrong,  Professor  A. 
Findlay,  Dr.  T.  M.  Lowry,  and 
Professor  W.  J.  Pope. 

Chairman. — Professor  Orme  Mas- 
son. 

Secretary. — Dr.  Heber  Green. 

Mr.  J.  Cronin,  and  Mr.  P.  R.  H. 
St.  John. 

Chairma/ii. — Professor  Orme  Mas- 
son. 
Secretary. — Mr.  V.  G.  Anderson. 
Mr.  D.  Avery  and  Mr.  H.  A.  Hunt. 

Chairman, — Dr.  F.  D.  Chattaway. 
Secretary. — Professor  G.T.Morgan. 
Mr.  P.  G.  W.  Bayly  and  Dr.  N.  V. 
Sidgwick. 


£    s.  d. 
15    0  0 


40     0  0 


20     0  0 


30     0  0 


25    0  0 


10    0  0 


50    0  0 


40     0  0 


10    0  0 


c  :^ 


liv 


RESEARCH   COMMITTEES. 
1.  Receiving  Grants  of  Money — continued. 


Subject  for  Investigation,  or  Purpose 


Members  of  Committee 


Grants 


Section  C— GEOLOGY. 


To  investigate  the  Erratic  Blocks 
of  tlie  British  Isles,  and  to  take 
measures  for  their  preservation. 


To  consider  the  preparation  of  a 
List  of  Characteristic  Fossils. 


The  Old  Red  Sandstone  Rocks  of 
Kiltorcan,  Ireland. 


Fauna  and  Flora  of  the  Trias  of 
the  Western  Midlands. 


To  excavate  Critical  Sections  in 
the  Lower  Palaeozoic  Rocks  of 
England  and  Wales. 


Chairman.— Mr.  R.  H.  Tiddeman. 

Secretary. — Dr.  A.  R.  Dwerrj'house. 

Dr.  T.  G.  Bonney,  Mr.  F.  W. 
Harmer,  Rev.  S.  N.  Harrison, 
Dr.  J.  Home,  Mr.  W.  Lower 
Carter,  Professor  W.  J.  Sollas, 
and  Messrs.  W.  Hill,  J.  W. 
Stather,  and  J.  H.  Milton. 

Chairman. — Professor  P.  F.  Ken- 
dall. 

Secretary. — Mr.  W.  Lower  Carter. 

Mr.  H.  A.  Allen,  Professor  W.  S. 
Boulton,  Professor  G.  Cole,  Dr. 
A.  R.  Dwerryhouse,  Professors 
J.  W.  Gregory,  Sir  T.  H.  Hol- 
land, G.  A.  Lebour,  and  S.  H. 
Reynolds,  Dr.  Marie  C.  Stopes, 
Mr.  Cosmo  Johns,  Dr.  J.  E. 
Marr,  Dr.  A.  Vaughan,  Professor 
W.  W.  Watts,  Mr.  H.  Woods, 
and  Dr.  A.  Smith  Woodward. 

Chairman. — Professor    Grenville 

Cole. 
Secretary. — Professor  T.  Johnson. 
Dr.  J.  W.  Evans,  Dr.  R.  Kidston, 

and  Dr.  A.  Smith  Woodward. 

Chairman. — Mr.  G.  Barrow. 

Secretary. — Mr.  L.  J.  Wills. 

Dr.  J.  Humphreys,  Mr.  W.  Camp- 
bell Smith,  Mr.  D.  M.  S.  Watson, 
and  Professor  W.  W.  Watts. 

Chairman.  —  Professor    W.    W. 

Watts. 
Secretary.  —  Professor      W.      G. 

Fearnsides. 
Professor  W.  S.  Boulton,  Mr.  B.  S. 

Cobbold,  Mr.  V.  C.  Illing,  Dr. 

Lapworth,  and  Dr.  J.  E.  Marr. 


£    s.  d. 
5     0  0 


10    0  0 


10    0  0 


10     0  0 


1.5     0  0 


Section  D.— ZOOLOGY. 


To  investigate  the  Biological 
Problems  incidental  to  the  Bel- 
mullet  Whaling  Station. 


Chairman.— T)!-.  A.  B.  Shipley. 

Secretary. — Professor  J.  Stanley 
Gardiner. 

Professor  W.  A.  Herdman,  Rev.  W. 
Spotswood  Green,  Mr.E.S.  Good- 
rich, Professor  H.  W.  Marett 
Tims,  and  Mr.  R.  M.  Barringtou. 


45     0  0 


RESEARCH    COMMITTEES. 
1.  Receiving  Chants  of  Money — continued. 


Iv 


Subject  for  Investigation,  or  Purpose 


Nomenclator   Animalium  Genera 
et  Sub-genera. 


An  investigation  of  tlie  Biology  of 
the  Abrolhos  Islands  aod  the 
North-west  Coast  of  Australia 
(north  of  Shark's  Bay  to 
Broome),  with  particular  refer- 
ence to  the  Marine  Fauna. 

To  obtain,  as  nearly  as  possible,  a 
representative  Collection  of 
Marsupials  for  work  upon  (a) 
the  Reproductive  Apparatus  and 
Development,  (ft)  the  Brain. 


Members  of  Committee 


Chairman. — Dr.  (^iJhalmers  Mit- 
chell. 

SecrHar]/.—Hev.  T.  E.  R. Stebbing. 

Dr.  M.  Laurie,  Prof.  Marett  Tims, 
and  Dr.  A.  Smith  Woodward. 

Chairman. — Professor  W.  A.  Herd- 
man. 

Secretary. — Professor  W.  J.  Dakin. 

Dr.  J.  H.  Ashworth  and  Professor 
F.  0.  Bower. 


Chairman. — Professor  A.  Dendy. 

Secretaries Professors  T.  Flynn 

and  G.  E.  Nicholls. 

Professor  E  B.  Poulton  and  Pro- 
fessor H.  W.  Marett  Tims. 


Section  E.— GEOGRAPHY. 


To  investigate  the  Conditions 
determining  the  Selection  of 
Sites  and  Names  for  Towns, 
with  special  reference  to  Aus- 
tralia. 

I  The    Hydrographical    Survey    of 
I       St  or  Fjord,  Spitsbergen,  by  Dr. 
W.  S.  Bruce. 


To  aid  in  the  preparation  of  a 
Bathymetrical  Chart  of  the 
Southern  Ocean  between  Aus- 
tralia and  Antarctica. 


Chairman. —  Sir  C.  P.  Lucas. 
Secretary. — Mr.  H.  Yule  Oldham. 
Mr.  G.  G.  Chisholm,  Professor  A.  J. 

Herbertson,  and  Professor  J.  L. 

MyrfiS. 

Chairman. — Mr.  G.  G.  Chisholm. 
Secretary. — Mr.  J.  McFarlaiie. 
Dr.  R.  N.  Rudmose  Brown,  Capt. 

J.  K.  Davis,  and  Mr.  H.  Yule 

Oldham. 

Chairman. — Professor  T.W.  Edge- 
worth  David. 

Secretary. — Capt.  J.  K.  Davis. 

Professor  J.  W.  Gregory,  Sir  C.  P. 
Lucas,  and  Professor  Orme 
Masson. 


Grants 


£ 
25 


s.  d. 
0  0 


40     0  0 


100     0  0 


20     0  0 


50    0  0 


100    0  0 


Section  R— ECONOMIC   SCIENCE   AND   STATISTICS. 


The  question  of  Fatigue  from  the 
Economic  Standpoint,  if  pos- 
sible in  co-operation  with  Sec- 
tion I,  Sub-section  of  Psycho- 
logy. 


Chairman. — Professor  Muirhead. 

Secretary.—  Miss  B.  L.  Hutchins. 

Miss  A.  M.  Anderson,  Professor 
F.  A.  Bainbridge,  Mr.  E.  Cad- 
bury,  Professor  S.  J.  Chapman, 
Mr.  P.  Sargant  Florence,  Pro- 
fessor Stanley  Kent,  Miss  M.  C. 
Matheson,  Mrs.  Meredith,  Dr. 
C.  S.  Myers,  Mr.  J.  W.  Rams- 
bottom  and  Dr.  Jenkins  Robb. 


30     0  0 


Ivi 


RESEARCH   COMMITTEES. 
1.  Receiving  Grants  of  Money — continued. 


Section   G.— ENGINEEEING. 


The  Investigation  of  Gaseous  Ex- 
plosions, with  special  reference 
to  Temperature. 


To  report  on  certain  of  the  more 
complex  Stress  Distributions  in 
Engineering  Materials. 


Chairman. — Dr.  Dugald  Clerk. 

Secretary.—  Professor  W.  E.  Dalby. 

Professors  W.  A.  Bone,  F.  W.  Bur- 
stall,  H.  L.  Callendar,  E.  G. 
Coker,  and  H.  B.  Dixon,  Drs. 
R.  T.  Glazebrook  and  J.  A. 
Marker,  Colonel  H.  C.  L.  Holden, 
Professors  B.  Hopkinson  and 
J.  E.  Petavel,  Captain  H.  Riall 
Sankey,  Professor  A.  Smithells, 
Professor  W.  Watson,  Mr.  D.  L. 
Chapman,  and  Mr.  H.  B. 
Wimperis. 


Chairman. — Professor  J.  Perry. 

Secretaries.  —  Professors  E.  G. 
Coker  and  J.  E.  Petavel. 

Professor  A.  Barr,  Dr.  Chas.  Chree, 
Mr.  Gilbert  Cook,  Professor 
W.  E.  Dalby,  Sir  J.  A.  Ewing, 
Professor  L.  N.  G.  Filon,  Messrs. 
A.  R.  Fulton  and  J.  J.  Guest, 
Professors  J.  B.  Henderson  and 
A.  E.  11.  Love,  Mr.  W.  Mason, 
Sir  Andrew  Noble,  Messrs.  F. 
Rogers  and  W.  A.  Scoble,  Dr. 
T.  E.  Stanton,  and  Mr.  J.  S. 
Wilson. 


£ 
50 


s.d. 
0  0 


50    0  0 


Section  H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 


To  investigate  the  Lake  Villages 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Glas- 
tonbury in  connection  with  a 
Committee  of  the  Somerset 
Archaeological  and  Natural 
History  Society. 


To  conduct  Explorations  with  the 
object  of  ascertaining  the  Age 
of  Stone  Circles. 


To  investigate  the  Physical 
Characters  of  the  Ancient 
Egyptians. 


Chairman. — Professor  Boyd  Daw-       20    0  0 
kins. 

Secretary.— Mr.  Willoughby  Gard- 
ner. 

Professor  W.  Ridgeway,  Sir  Arthur 
J.  Evans,  Sir  C.  H.  Read,  Mr. 
H.  Balfour,  and  Dr.  A.  Bulleid. 

C/iairmau.— Sir  C.  H.  Read.  20    0  0 

Secretary. — Mr.  H.  Balfour. 

Dr.  G.  A.  Auden,  Professor  W. 
Ridgeway,  Dr.  J.  G.  Garson,  Sir 
A.  J.  Evans,  Dr.  R.  Munro,  Pro- 
fessors Boyd  Dawkins  and  J.  L. 
Myres,  Mr.  A.  L.  Lewis,  and 
Mr.  H.  Peake. 

Chairman.— Froiessoi    G.    Elliot  ;     34  16  6 

Smith.  { 

Secretary. — Dr.  F.  C.  Shrubsall.       | 

Dr.  F.  Wood-Jones,  Dr.  A.  Keith,  i 

and  Dr.  C.  G.  Seligman.  I 


RESEARCH   COMMITTEES. 
1.  Receiving  Grants  of  Money— continued. 


Irii 


Subject  for  Investigation,  or  Purpose 


To  conduct  Anthropometric  In- 
vestigations in  the  Island  of 
Cyprus. 

To  excavate  a  PalEeolithic  Site  in 
Jersej'. 


To  conduct  Archasological  Inves- 
tigations in  Malta. 


To  prepare  and  publish  Miss 
Byrne's  Gazetteer  and  Map  of 
the  Native  Tribes  of  Australia. 


Members  of  Committee 


Chairman. — Professor  J.  L.  Myres, 
Secretary. — Dr.  F.  C.  Shrubsall. 
Dr.  A.  C.  Haddon. 

Chairman. — Dr.  R.  R.  Marett. 

Secretary. — Colonel  Warton. 

Dr.  C.  W.  Andrews,  Mr.  H.  Bal- 
four, Dr.  Dunlop,  Mr.  G.  de 
Gruchy,  and  Professor  A. 
Keith. 

Chairman. — Professor  J.  L.  Myres. 
Secretary. — Dr.  T.  Ashby. 
Mr.  H.  Balfour,  Dr.  A.  C.  Haddon, 
and  Dr.  R.  R.  Marett. 

Chairman. — Professor      Baldwin 

Spencer. 
Secretary.— Dr:.  R.  R.  Marett. 
Mr.  H.  Balfour. 


Grants 


£    s.a. 

50    0  0 


50     0  0 


10    0  0 


20     0  0 


Section  I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 


The  Ductless  Glands. 


To  acquire  further  knowledge, 
Clinical  and  Experimental,  con- 
cerning Anaesthetics — general 
and  local — with  special  refer- 
ence to  Deaths  by  or  during 
Anaesthesia,  and  their  possible 
diminution. 

Electromotive  Phenomena  in 
Plants. 


To  investigate  the  Physiological 
and  Psychological  Factors  in 
the  production  of  Miners' 
Nystagmus. 


The  Significance  of  the  Electro- 
motive Phenomena  of  the  Heart. 


Chairman. — Sir  E.  A.  Schafer. 

Secretary.— Yioiessov  Swale  Vin- 
cent. 

Professor  A.  B.  Macallum,  Dr.  L.  E. 
Shore,and  Mrs.W. H.Thompson. 

Chairman. — Dr.  A.  D.  Waller. 
Secretary. Sir  F.  W.  Hewitt. 
Dr.  Blumfeld,  Mr.  J.  A.  Gardner, 
and  Dr.  G.  A.  Buckmaster. 


Cliairman. — Dr.  A.  D.  Waller. 
Secretary. — Mrs.  Waller. 
Professors  J.  B.  Farmer,  T.  John- 
son, and  Veley,  and  Dr.  F.  O'B. 

Ellison. 

Chairman. — Professor  J.  H.  Muir 

head. 
Secretary. — Dr.  T.  G.  Maitland. 
Dr.  J.  Jameson   Evans   and   Dr. 

C.  S.  Myers. 

Chairman. — Professor  W. D.  Halli- 
burton. 

Secretary. — Dr.  Florence  Buch- 
anan. 

Professor  A.  D.  Waller. 


35     0  0 


20     0  0 


20     0  0 


20     0  0 


20     0  0 


Iviii 


RESEARCH   COMMITTEES. 
1.  Eeceieinff  Grants  of  Moiiey — continued. 


Subject  for  Investigation,  or  Purpose 


Members  of  Committee 


Metabolism  of  Phosphates. 


Chairman. — Professor  W.  A.  Os- 
borne. 
Secretary. — Miss  Kincaid. 
Dr.  Rothera. 


Section  K.— BOTANY. 

The  Structure  of  Fossil  Plants.  C/<air7«a/i.— Professor  F.W.Oliver. 

Secretary. — Professor  F.  E.  Weiss. 
,  Mr.  E .  Newell  Arber,  Professor  A.  C. 
Seward,  and  Dr.  D.  H.  Scott. 

Experimental    Studies     in     the     C/<airwa«.— Professor  F.F.  Black- 
Physiology  of  Heredity.  man. 

!  Secretary.— Mr.  B.  P.  Gregory 
Professors    Bateson    and    Keeble 
and  Miss  E.  R.  Saunders. 

The  Renting  of  Cinchona  Botanic     C/(«'i>/Ha«.— Professor  F.  O.  Bower. 
Station  in  Jamaica.  Secretary.— VroiessoT  R.  H   Yapp. 

Professors  R.  Buller,  F.  W.  Oliver, 
and  F.  E.  Weiss. 

To  carry  out  a  Research  on  the  C/mr/«fl«.  — Professor  F.  0.  Bower. 

Influence   of  varying  percent-  Sfcretery.— Professor  A.  J.  E wart 

ages  of  Oxygen  and  of  various  i  Professor  F.  F.  Blackman. 
Atmospheric     Pressures    upon 
Geotropic  and  Heliotropic  Ir- 
ritability and  Curvature. 


The  Collection  and  Investigation 
of  Material  of  Australian  Cy 


Chairman. — Professor  A.  A.  Law- 

--  „_,  son. 

cadaceae,    especially     Bowenia      Secretary .—YtoUssor     T.    G.    B. 

from    Queensland  and   Macro-         Osborn. 

zaunia  from  West  Australia.  Professor  A.  C.  Seward. 


To    cut    Sections    of    Australian      Chairman. — Professor  Lang. 
Fossil    Plants,    with     especial      Secretary.— ?xoteasoT    T.    G.    B. 
reference    to    a     specimen    of  I       Osborn. 

Zygopteris       from      Simpson's  ,  Professor   T.   W.    E.    David    and 
Station,  Barraba,  N.S.W.  '       Professor  A.  C.  Seward. 


Grants 


£    s.  d. 
20     0  0 


15     0  0 


45     0  0 


25     0  0 


50     0  0 


25     0  0 


25     0  0 


Seci'ion  L.— educational  SCIENCE. 


To  inquire  into  and  report  upon 
the  methods  and  results  of 
research  into  the  Mental  and 
Physical  Factors  involved  in 
Education. 


Chairman. — Dr.  C.  S.  Myers. 

Secretary Professor  J.  A.  Green. 

Professor  J.  Adams,  Dr.  G.  A. 
Auden,  Sir  E.  Brabrook,  Dr.  W. 
Brown,  Mr.  C.  Burt,  Professor 
E.  P.  Culverwell,  Mr.  G.  F. 
Daniell,  Miss  B.  Foxley,  Pro- 
fessor R.  A.  Gregory,  Dr. 
C.  W.  Kimmins,  Professor  W. 
McDougall,  Dr.  T.  P.  Nunn, 
Dr.  W.  H.  R.  Rivers,  Dr.  F.  C. 
&hrubsall,Mr.H.Bompas  Smith, 
Dr.  C.  Spearman,  and  Mr.  A.  E. 
Twentyman. 


30     0  0 


KESEARCH   COMMITTEES. 
1.  Bectiving  Grants  of  Money — continued. 


lix 


The   Influence   of   School   Books 
upon  Eyesight. 


Chairman. — Dr.  G.  A.  Auden. 

Secretary. — Mr.  G.  F.  Daniell. 

Mr.  C.  H.  Bothamley,  Mr.  W.  D. 
Eggar,  Professor  K.  A.  Gregory, 
Mr.  J.  L.  Holland,  Dr.  AV.  E. 
Sumpner,  and  Mr.  Trevor  Walsh. 


To  inquire  into  and  report  on  the 
number,  distribution  and  re- 
spective values  of  Scholarships, 
Exhibitions,  and  Bursaries  held 
by  University  Students  during 
their  undergraduate  course,  and 
on  funds  private  and  open  avail- 
able for  their  augmentation. 

To  examine,  inquire  into,  and  re- 
port on  the  Character,  Work, 
and  Maintenance  of  Museums, 
with  a  view  to  their  Organisa- 
tion and  Development  as  In- 
stitutions for  Education  and 
Research ;  and  especially  to 
inquire  into  the  Requirements 
of  Schools. 


-Sir  Henry  Miers. 
-Professor  Marcus  Har- 


Chairman.- 

Secreitary.  - 
tog. 

Miss  Lilian  J.  Clarke,  Miss  B. 
Foxley,  Professor  H.  Bompas 
Smith,  and  Principal  Griffiths. 


Chairman. — Professor  J.  A.  Green. 

Secretaries.— 'Mt.  H.  Bolton  and 
Dr.  J.  A.  Clubb. 

Dr.  F.  A.  Bather,  Mr.  C.  A.  Buck- 
master,  Mr.  Ernest  Gray,  Mr. 
M.  D.  Hill,  Dr.  W.  E.  Hoyle, 
Professors  E.  J.  Garwood  and 
P.  Newberry,  Sir  Richard 
Temple,  Mr.  H.  Hamshaw 
Thomas,  Professor  F.  E.  Weiss, 
Mrs.  J.  White,  Rev.  H.  Browne, 
Drs.  A.  C.  Haddon  and  H.  S. 
Harrison,  Mr.  Herbert  R.  Rath- 
bone,  and  Dr.  W.  M.  Tattersall. 


CORRESPONDING   SOCIETIES. 


Corresponding  Societies  Com- 
mittee for  the  preparation  of 
their  Report. 


Chairman. — Mr.  W.  Whitaker. 

Secretary. — Mr.  W.  Mark  Webb. 

Rev.  J.  O.  Bevan,  Sir  Edward 
Brabrook,  Sir  H.  G.  Fordham, 
Dr.  J.  G.  Garson,  Principal  E.  H. 
Griffiths,  Dr.  A.  C.  Haddon,  Mr. 
T.  V.  Holmes,  Mr.  J.  Hopkinson, 
Mr.  A.  L.  Lewis,  Rev.  T.  R.  R. 
Stebbing,  and  the  President 
and  General  Officers  of  the 
Association. 


£    s.  d. 
5     0  0 


5    0  0 


20     0  0 


25     0  0 


Ix 


RESEARCH   COMMITTEES. 
2.  Not  receiving  Grants  of  Money* 


Subject  for  Investigation,  or  Purpose 


Members  of  Committee 


Section  A.— MATHEMATICS   AND   PHYSICS. 

Radiotelegraphic  Investigations.  Chairman. — Sir  Oliver  Lodge. 

Secretary. — Dr.  W.  H.  Eccles. 

Mr.  S.  G.  Brown,  Dr.  C.  Cliree,  Professor 
A.  S.  Eddington,  Dr.  Erskine-Murray, 
Professors  J.  A.  Fleming,  G.  W.  O. 
Howe,  H.  M.  Macdonakl,  and  J.  W. 
Mioholson,  Sir  H.  Norman,  Captain 
H.  R.  Saukey,  Dr.  A.  Schuster,  Dr. 
W.  N.  Shaw,  Professor  S.  P.  Tiiompson, 
find  Professor  H.  H.  Turner. 


To  aid  the  work  of  Establishing  a  Solar 
Observatory  in  Australia. 


♦Determination  of  Gravity  at  Sea. 


Chairman. — 

Secretary.— Dr.  W.  G.  Duffield. 

Rev.  A.  L.  Cortie,  Dr.  W.  J.  S.  Lockyer, 

Mr.  F.   McClean,   and   Professors   A. 

Schuster  and  H.  H.  Turner. 

Chairman. — Professor  A.  E.  Love. 
Secretary. — Professor  W.  G.  Duffield. 
Mr.  T.  \V.  Chaundy  and  Profes.sors  A.  S. 
Eddington  and  H.  H.  Turner. 


Section  B.— CHEMISTEY. 


Research  on  the  Utilization  of  Brown 
Coal  Bye-Products. 


To  report  on  the  Botanical  and  Chemical 
Characters  of  the  Eucalypts  and  their 
Correlation. 


Section  C- 

The  Collection,  Preservation,  and  Sj's- 
tematic  Registration  of  Photographs 
of  Geological  Interest. 


To  consider  the  Preparation  of  a  List 
of  Stratigraphical  Names,  used  in  the 
British  Isles,  in  connection  with  the 
Lexicon  of  Stratigraphical  Names  in 
course  of  preparation  by  the  Inter- 
national Geological  Congress. 


Chairman. — Professor  Orme  Masson. 
Secretary.— Mr.  P.  G.  W.  Bayly. 
Mr.  D.  Avery. 

Chairman. — Professor  H.  E.  Armstrong. 

Secretary.— Mr.  H.  G.  Smith. 

Dr.  Andrews,  Mr.  R.  T.  Baker,  Professor 
F.  O.  Bower,  Mr.  R.  H.  Cambage, 
Professor  A.  J.  Ewart,  Professor  C.  B. 
Fawsitt,  Dr.  Heber  Green,  Dr.  Cuth- 
bert  Hall,  Professors  Orme  Masson, 
Rennie,  and  Robinson,  and  Mr.  St. 
John. 

GEOLOGY. 

CJiairman. — Professor  J.  Geikie. 

Secretaries. — Professors  \V.  W.  Watts  and 
S.  H.  Reynolds. 

Mr.  G.  Bingley,  Dr.  T.  G.  Bonney,  Mr.  C. 
Y.  Crook,  Professor  E.  J.  Garwood, 
and  Messrs.  R.  Kidston,  A.  S.  Raid, 
J.  J.  H.  Teall,  R.  Welch,  and  W. 
Whitaker, 

Chairman. — Dr.  J.  E.  Marr. 
Secretary. — Dr.  F.  A.  Bather. 
Professor  Grenville  Cole,   Mr.    Bernard 

Hobson,    Professor    Lebour,     Dr.    J. 

Home,  Dr.  A.  Strahan,  and  Professor 

W.  W.  AVatts. 


*  Excepting  the  case  of  Committees  receiviug  grants  from  the  Caird  Fuud  (p.  Ixviii). 


RESEARCH   COMMITTEES. 
3.  JS'^ot  receiving  Orants  of  Monti/ — continued. 


ixi 


Subject  for  Investigation,  or  Purpose 


To  consider  the  Nomenclature  of  tlie 
Carboniferous.  l'ermo-Carboniferou.s, 
and  Permian  Rocks  of  the  Southern 
Hemisphere. 


Chairman.— VroteasoY  T.  W.  Edgeworth 
David. 

/Scfc-rc^rtry.— Professor  E.  W.  Skoats. 

Mr.  W.  S.  Dun,  Sir  T.  II.  llollaiui,  Pro- 
fessor llowchin,  Mr.  O.  W.  Lamplugh, 
and  Professor  W.  G.  Woolnough. 


Section  D.— ZOOLOGY. 


*To  aid  competent  Investigators  se- 
lected by  the  Coramittce  to  carry  on 
definite  pieces  of  work  at  the  Zoolo- 
gical Station  at  Naples. 


To  investigate  the  Feeding  Habits  of 
British  Birds  by  a  study  of  the 
contents  of  the  crops  and  gizzards 
of  botli  adults  and  nestlings,  and  by 
collation  of  observational  evidence, 
with  the  object  of  obtaining  precise 
knowledge  as  to  the  economic  status 
of  many  of  our  commoner  birds 
affecting  rural  science. 

To  defray  expenses  connected  with  work 
on  the  Inheritance  and  Development 
of  Secondary  Sexual  Characters  in 
Birds. 

To  summon  meetings  in  London  or  else- 
where for  the  consideration  of  mat- 
ters affecting  the  interests  of  Zoology 
or  Zoologists,  and  to  obtain  by  corre- 
spondence the  opinion  of  Zoologists 
on  matters  of  a  similar  kind,  with 
power  to  raise  by  subscription  from 
each  Zoologist  a  sum  of  money  for 
defraying  current  expenses  of  the 
Organisation. 

To  nominate  competent  Naturalists  to 
perform  definite  pieces  of  work  at 
the  Marine  Laboratory,  Plymouth. 


To  formulate  a  Definite  System  on 
which  Collectors  should  record  their 
captures. 


C/iairmdn.— Mr.  E.  S.  Goodrich. 

Sccretari/. —  Dr.  J.  H.  Ashworth. 

Mr.  G.  P.  Bidder,  Professor  V.  O.  Bower, 
Drs.  W.  B.  Hardy  and  S.  F.  Ilarmer, 
Professor  8.  J.  llickson,  Sir  E.  Ray 
Lankester,  Professor  W.  C.  Mcintosh, 
and  Dr.  A.  D.  Waller. 

Chairnitni. — Dr.  A.  E.  Shipley. 

Secretari/.— Mr.  H.  S.  Leigh. 

Mr.  J.  N.  Halbert,  Professor  Robert 
Newstead,  Messrs.  Clement  Reid, 
A.  G.  L.  Rogers,  and  F.  V.  Theobald, 
Profes.sor  F.  E.  Weiss,  Dr.  C.  Gordon 
Hewitt,  and  Professors  S.  J.  Hickson, 
F.  W.  Gamble,  G.  H.  Carpenter,  :ind 
J.  Arthur  Thomson. 

Chairman. — Professor  G.  C.  Bourne. 
Secretary. — Mr.  Geoffrey  Sraitii. 
Mr.  E.  S.  Goodrich,  Dr.   W.  T.  Caiman, 
and  Dr.  Marett  Tims. 

Chairmnn. — Sir  E.  Ray  Lankester. 

Seeretary. — Professor  S.  J.  Hickson. 

Professors  G.  C.  Bourne,  J.  Cossar  Ewart, 
M.  Hartog,  and  W.  A,  Herdman,  Mr. 
M.  D.  Hill,  Professors  J.  Graham  Kerr 
and  Minchin,  Dr.  P.  Chalmers  Mitchell, 
Professors  E.  B.  Poulton  and  Stanley 
Gardiner,  and  Dr.  A.  E.  Shipley. 


Chairman  and  Secretary. — Professor  A. 

Dendy. 
Sir  E.  Ray    Lankester,  Professor  J.   P. 

Hill,  and  Mr.  E.  S.  Goodrich. 


67(fl';vwi««.— Professor  J.  W.  H.  Trail. 

Secretary. — Mr.  F.  Balfour  Browne. 

Drs.  ScharflE  and  E.  J.  Blcs,  Professors 
G.  H.  Carpenter  and  B.  B.  Poulton, 
and  Messrs.  A.  G.  Tansley  and  R.  Iiloyd 
Praeger. 


*  See  note  on  preeeUiiiK  piige. 


Ixii 


RESEAECH   COMMITTEES. 
2.  Not  receiving  Grants  of  3Ioney — continued. 


Subject  for  Investigation,  or  Purpose 


Members  of  Committee 


A  Natural  History  Survej'  of  the  Isle 
of  Man. 


Cliairman. — Professor  W.  A.  Herdman. 

Secretary. — Mr.  P.  M.  C.  Kermode. 

Dr.   W.  T.  Caiman,   Rev.   J.   Davidson, 

Mr.  G.  W.  Lamplugh,  Professor  E.  W. 

MacBride,  and  Lord  Raglan. 


Section  E.— GEOGRAPHY. 


To  inquire  into  the  choice  and  style  of 
Atlas,  Textual,  and  Wall  Maps  for 
School  and  University  Dse. 


Chairman. — Professor  J.  L.  Myres. 

Secretary. — Rev.  VV.  J.  Barton. 

Professors  R.  L.  Archer  and  R.  N.  R. 
Brown,  Mr.  G.  G.  Cliisholm,  Professor 
H.  N.  Dickson,  Mr.  A.  R.  Hinks,  Mr. 
O.  J.  R.  Howarth,  Sir  Duncan  John- 
ston, and  Mr.  E.  A.  Reeves. 


Section  G.— ENGINEERING. 


To  consider  and  report   on  the  Stan- 
dardization of  Impact  Tests. 


Chairman. — Professor  W.  H.  Warren. 
Secretary. — Mr.  J.  Vicars. 
Mr.  Julius,  Professor  Gibson,  Mr.  Hough- 
ton, and  Professor  Pavne. 


Section  H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

The      Collection,     Preservation,      and  I  Chairman. — Sir  C.  H.  Read. 
Systematic    Registration    of    Photo-  :  Secretary. — 

graphs  of  Anthropological  Interest.      ,  Dr.  G.  A.  Auden,  Mr.  E.  Heawood,  and 

Professor  J.  L.  Myres. 


To  conduct  Archaological  and  Ethno- 
logical Researches  in  Crete. 


To  report  on  the  present  state  of  knovir- 
ledge  of  the  Prehistoric  Civilisation 
of  the  Western  Mediterranean  with 
a  view  to  future  research. 


To  conduct  Excavations  in  Easter  Island. 


To  report  on  PalEeolithic  Sites  in  the 
West  of  England. 


Chairman. — Mr.  D.  G.  Hogarth. 

Secretary. — Professor  J.  L.  Myres. 

Professor  R.  C.  Bosanquet,  Dr.  W.  L.  H.  i 
Duckworth,  Sir  A.  J.  Evans,  Professor  ' 
W.  Ridgeway,  and  Dr.  F.  C.  Shrubsall. 

Chairman. — Professor  W.  Ridge  waj-. 

Secretary. — Dr.  T.  Ashby. 

Dr.  W.  L.  H.  Duckworth,  Mr.  D.  G. 
Hogarth,  Sir  A.  J.  Evans,  Professor 
J.  L.  Mj-res,  and  Mr.  A.  J.  B.  Wace. 

Chairman. — Dr.  A.  C.  Haddon. 

Secretary. — Dr.  W.  H.  R.  Rivers. 

Mr.  R.  R.  Marett  and  Dr.  C.  G.  Seligman. 

Chairman. — Professor  Boyd  Dawk  ins. 
Secretary. — Dr.  W.  L.  H.  Duckworth. 
Professor  A.  Keith. 


RESEARCH   COMMITTEES. 
2.  Not  receiving  Grants  of  Money — continued. 


Ixiii 


Subject  for  InveBtigation,  or  Purpose 


The  Teaching  of  Anthropology. 


Members  of  Committee 


To  excavate  Early  Sites  in  Macedonia. 


To  report  on  the  Distribution  of  Bronze 
Age  Implements. 


To  investigate  and  ascertain  the  Distri- 
bution of  Artificial  Islands  in  the 
lochs  of  the  Highlands  of  Scotland. 


To  co-operate  with  Local  Committees 
in  Excavations  on  Roman  Sites  in 
Britain. 


Chairman. — Sir  Richard  Temple. 

Secretary. — Dr.  A.  C.  Haddon. 

Sir  E.  F.  im  Thurn,  Mr.  W.  Crooke,  Dr. 
C.  G.  Seligman,  Professor  Q.  Elliot 
Smith,  Dr.  R.  R.  Marett,  Professor 
P.  E.  Newberry,  Dr.  G.  A.  Auden, Pro- 
fessors T.  H.  Bryce,  P.  Thompson, 
R.  W.  Raid,  H.  J.  Fleure,  and  J.  L. 
Myres,  Sir  B.  C.  A.  Windle,  and  Pro- 
fessors R.  J.  A.  Berry,  Baldwin  Spencer, 
Sir  T.  Anderson  Stuart,  and  E.  C. 
Stirling. 

Chairma7i. — Professor  W.  Ridgeway. 
Secretary. — Mr.  A.  J.  B.  Wace. 
Professors  R.  C.   Bosanquet  and  J.   L. 
Myres. 

Chairman. — Professor  J.  L.  Myres. 

Secretary.— ^Ir.  H.  Peake. 

Professor  W.  Ridgeway,  Mr.  H.  Balfour, 
Sir  C.  H.  Read,  Professor  W.  Boyd 
Dawkins,  and  Dr.  R.  R.  Marett. 

Chairman. — Professor  Boyd  Dawkins. 
Secretary. — Prof.  J.  L.  Myres. 
Professors  T.  H.  Bryce  and  W.  Ridgeway, 
Dr.  A.  Low,  and  Mr.  A.  J.  B.  Wace. 

Chairman. — Professor  W.  Ridgeway. 
Secretary. — Professor  R.  C.  Bosanquet. 
Dr.  T.  Ashby,  Mr.  Willoughby  Gardner, 
and  Professor  J.  L.  Myres. 


Section  I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 


The  Dissociation  of   Oxy-Hjemoglobin 
at  High  Altitudes. 

Colour  Vision  and  Colour  Blindness. 


Calorimetric    Observations  on   Man  in 
Health  and  in  Febrile  Conditions. 


Further  Researches  on  the  Structure 
and  Function  of  the  Mammalian 
Heart. 

The  Binocular  Combination  of  Kine- 
matograph  Pictures  of  different 
Meaning,  and  its  relation  to  the 
Binocular  Combination  of  simpler 
Perceptions. 


Cliairman. — Professor  E.  H.  Starling. 
Secretary. — Dr.  J.  Barcrof  t. 
Dr.  W.  B.  Hardy. 

Chairman. — Professor  E.  H.  Starling. 
Secretary. — Dr.  Edridge-Green. 
Professor  Leonard  Hill,  Professor  A.  W. 

Porter,  Dr.  A.  D.  Waller,  Professor  C.  S. 

Sherrington,  and  Dr.  F,  W.  Mott. 

Chairman. — Professor  J.  S.  Macdonald. 
Secretan-y. — Dr.  Francis  A.  DufBeld. 
Dr.  Keith  Lucas. 

Chairman. — Professor  C.  S.  Sherrington. 
Secretary. — Professor  Stanley  Kent. 
Dr.  Florence  Buchanan. 


Chairman.- 
Secretaiy.— 


-Dr.  C.  S.  Myers. 
T.  H.  Pear. 


Ixiv 


RESOLUTIONS,   ETC. 
2.  Not  receiving  Grants  of  Moneij— continued. 


Subject  for  Investigation,  or  Purpose 


Members  of  Committee 


Section  K, 

To  consider  and  report  on  the  ad- 
visability and  the  best  means  of 
securing  definite  Areas  for  the 
Preservation  of  Types  of  British 
Vegetation. 


The  Investigation  of  the  Vegetation  of 
Ditcham  Park,  Hampshire. 


-BOTANY. 

Chairman. — Professor  F.  E.  Weiss. 

Secretary.  —Mr.  A.  G.  Tanslev. 

Professo'r  J.  W.  H.  Trail,  Mr.  R.  Lloyd 
Praeger,  Professor  F.  W.  Oliver,  Pro- 
fessor R.  W.  Phillips,  Dr.  C.  E.  Moss, 
and  Messrs.  G.  C.  Druce  and  H.  W.  T. 
Wager. 

Chairman.— Mr.  A.  G.  Tansley. 

Secretary. — Mr.  R.  S.  Adamson. 

Dr.  C.  E.  Moss  and  Professor  R.  H.  Yapp. 


Section  L.— EDUCATIONAL  SCIENCE. 


To  take  notice  of,  and  report  upon 
changes  in,  Regulations — whether 
Legislative,  Administrative,  or  made 
by  Local  Authorities  —  affect" 
Secondary  and  Higher  Education 


affecting 


The  Aims  and  Limits  of  Examinations. 


Chairman. — Professor  H.  E.  Armstrong. 

Secretary. — Major  E.  Gray. 

Miss  Coignan,  Principal  Griffiths,  Dr. 
C.  W.  Kimmins,  Sir  Horace  Plunkett, 
Mr.  H.  Ramage,  Professor  M.  B.  Sadler, 
and  Rt.  Rev.  J.  E.  C.  Welldon. 


CJiairman. — Professor  M.  E.  Sadler. 

Secretary. — Mr.  P.  J.  Hartogr. 

Mr.   D.    P.    Berridge,   Professor   G     H. 

Bryan,  Mr.  W.    D.  Eggar,    Professor 

R.    A.     Gregorv,     Principal     E.    H. 

Griffiths,  Miss  C.  L.  Laurie,   Dr.  W. 

McDougall,  Mr.  David  Mair,  Dr.  T.  P. 

Nunn,  Sir  W.  Ramsay,  Rt.  Rev.  J.  E.  C. 

Welldon,  Dr.  Jessie  White,  and  Mr. 

G.  U.  Yule. 


Communications  ordered  to  be  printed  in  extenso. 

Section  A. — Joint  Discussion  with  Section  B  on  the  Structure  of  Atoms  and 
Molecules. 

Section  ^.— Dr.  E.  Goldstein:  Salts  coloured  by  Cathode  Rays. 

Section  C. — Discussion  on  Physiography-  of  Arid  Lands. 

Section  B. — Discussion  on  Antarctica. 

Section  I. — Dr.  J.  W.  Barrett :  The  Problem  of  the  Visual  Requirements  of  the 
Sailor  and  the  Railway  Employee. 

Section  M. — Dr.  Lyman  J.  Briggs :  Dry-farming  Investigations  in  the  United  States. 

Resolutions  referred  to  the  Coimcil  for  consideration,  and,  if  desirable, 

for  action. 

(a)  From  Sections  A  and  C. 
'That  in  view  of  the  fact  that  meteorites,  which  convey  information  of  world- 
wide importxnce,  are  sometimes  disposed  of  privately,  in  such  a  way  as  to  deprive 
the  public  of  this  information,  the  Council  be  requested  to  take  such  steps  as  may 
initiate  international  legislation  on  the  matter.' 

(b)  From  Section  A. 

'  That  the  British  Association  respectfully  urge  the  need  for  the  establishment 
in  Australia  of  a  Bureau  of  Weights  and  Measures,  with  the  view  of  legalising  the 


BBSEABCH    COMMITTEES.  IxV 

metric  system  as  an  alternative  standard  (as  in  Great  Britain).  They  would  also 
cordially  welcome  the  inclusion  of  Australia  as  a  member  of  the  International 
Convention.' 

(o)  From  Section  A. 

'  That  the  British  Association  learns  with  great  satisfaction  that  the  State 
Government  of  Victoria  has  put  a  definite  annual  grant  at  the  disposal  of  the 
Director  of  the  Melbourne  Observatory  for  printing  the  work  already  done  at  the 
Observatory.  It  is  very  desirable  that  every  effort  should  be  made  to  publish  as  soon 
as  possible  the  arrears  accumulated  during  the  past  thirty  years.' 

(d'l  From  Sections  C  and  E. 

'  The  Committees  of  the  Geographical  and  Geological  Sections  of  the  British 
Association  wish  to  draw  attention  to  the  high  scientific  value  and  practical 
importance  of  systematic  glacial  observation  in  New  Zealand,  and  venture  to  urge 
upon  the  favourable  consideration  of  the  Government  of  the  Dominion  the  great 
importarce  of  continuing  and  extending  the  work  which  is  now  being  done  in  this 
direction  by  officers  of  the  Government,  as  far  as  possible  in  conformity  with  the 
methods  adopted  by  the  Commission  Internationale  des  Glaciers.' 

(e)  From  Sections  Cand  E. 

'  The  Geographical  and  Geological  Sections  of  the  British  Association  respect- 
fully request  the  Secretary  of  State  for  the  Colonies  to  establish  on  certain  islands 
in  the  Coral  Seas— in  extension  of  a  plan  that  has  lately  been  presented  to  His 
Excellency  the  Governor  of  Fiji,  and  by  him  submitted  for  the  favourable  con- 
sideration of  the  Legislative  Council  of  that  Colony— a  number  of  bench-marks, 
with  respect  to  which  the  mean  level  of  the  sea  surface  shall  be  accurately  deter- 
mined once  every  ten  years,  in  order  to  discover,  after  a  century  or  longer,  whether 
any  change  takes  place  in  the  altitude  of  land  with  respect  to  the  sea. 

'  It  is  suggested  that  a  uniform  plan  for  this  work  be  prepared  by  the  appropriate 
Government  department,  and  that  an  abstract  of  the  results  obtained  for  each  decade 
be  forwarded  to  the  British  Association  for  publication.' 

(f)  From,  Section  C, 

'  That  the  Committee  of  Section  C  submits  for  favourable  consideration  to  the 
committee  of  Recommendations  of  the  British  Association  the  question  of  urging 
the  Federal  and  State  Governments  in  Australia  to  co-operate  in  undertaking,  as 
soon  as  possible,  a  gravity  survey  of  the  Earth's  crust  within  the  area  of  the 
Commonwealth.  The  Committee  suggests  that  the  work  be  commenced  in  the 
region  of  the  Great  Rift  Valley  of  Australia,  extending  from  near  Adelaide  north- 
wards to  Lake  Eyre.' 

(g)  From  Section  E, 

'  The  Committee  of  Section  E  most  warmly  favours  the  project  of  a  uniform 
Map  of  the  World  on  a  scale  of  1  : 1,000,000,  and  expresses  the  hope  that  the  sheets 
of  Australia  may  be  undertaken  as  soon  as  possible,  on  the  same  plan  as  has  lately 
been  adopted  by  the  War  Office  in  London  for  a  map  of  Africa,  and  by  the 
Geological  Survey  in  Washington  for  the  U.S.A.  To  this  end  they  regard  it  as 
desirable  that  in  the  extensive  surveys  which  the  several  States  of  the  Common- 
wealth are  carrying  on,  as  much  stress  should  be  laid  upon  the  geographical  features 
of  the  land,  the  watercourses  and  the  mountains,  as  upon  property  boundaries,  and 
that  in  particular  the  determination  of  altitudes  should  be  carried  on,  in  order 
eventually  to  provide  the  basis  for  contoured  maps.' 

(h)  From  Sections  D  and  K. 

'  It  is  with  much  pleasure  that  we  ascertain  that  a  Bill  has  been  prepared  by  the 
present  Government  of  South  Australia  for  the  establishment  of  a  reserve  of  300 
square  miles  situated  on  the  western  end  of  Kangaroo  Island  for  the  preservation  of 
the  fauna  and  flora,  which  are  fast  being  exterminated  on  the  mainland,  and  that 
this  reserve  will  be  placed  under  the  control  of  a  Board  nominated  by  the  University 
of  Adelaide  and  the  Government.  We  trust  that  this  Bill  will  become  law  at  an 
early  date.' 


Ixvi  RESEARCH    COMMITTEES. 

(i)  From  the  Covimittee  uf  Recommendations. 

'That  in  view  of  the  successful  issue  of  the  Australian  Meeting  of  the  Associa- 
tion, the  Council  be  asked  to  consider  the  best  means  of  bringing  into  closer 
relationship  the  British  Association  and  scientific  representatives  from  the 
Dominions  overseas.' 


Synopsis  of  Grants  of  Moneii  {exclusive  of  Grants  from  the  Gaird 
Fund)  apin'opriated  for  Scientific  Purposes  on  helialf  of  the  General 
Oommittee  at  the  Australian  Meeting,  September  1914.  The 
Names  of  Members  entitled  to  call  on  the  General  Treasurer  for  the 
Grants  are  prefixed  to  the  respective  Research  Gommittees. 

Section  A. — Mathematical  and  Physical  Science. 

£     s.   d. 

*Turner,  Professor  H.  H. — Seismological  Observations t60     0     0 

*Shaw,  Dr.  W.  K— Upper  Atmosphere 25     0     0 

*Ramsay,  Sir  W. — Annual  Table  of  Constants  and  Numerical 

Data 40     0     0 

*Hill,   Professor   M.    J.    M. — Calculation    of    Mathematical 

Tables  30     0     0 

Section  B. — Chemistry. 

*Perkin,  Dr.  W.  H. — Study  of  Hydro-aromatic  Substances  ir> 

*Armstrong,  Professor  H.  E. — Dynamic  Isomerism   40 

*Kipping,  Professor  F.  B. — Transformation  of  Aromatic  Nitro- 

amines  "20 

*E[all,  A.  D.— Study  of  Plant  Enzymes  30 

*Pope,  Professor  W.  J. — Correlation  of  Crystalline  Form  with 

Molecular  Structure    25 

♦Armstrong,  Professor  H.  E. — Solubility  Phenomena   10 

Masson,  Professor  Orme. — Chemical  Investigation  of  Natural 

Plant  Products     50 

Masson,  Professor  Orme. — Influence  of  Weather  Conditions 

on  Nitrogen  Acids  in  Rainfall 40 

Chattaway,  Dr.  F.  D. — Non-aromatic  Diazonium  Salts   10 

Section  C. — Geology, 

*Tiddeman,  R.  H.— Erratic  Blocks  5  0  0 

*Kendall,  Professor  P.  F.— List  of  Characteristic  Fossils 10  0  0 

*Cole,    Professor   Grenville.  —  Old   Red   Sandstone  Rocks   of 

Kiltorcan 10  0  0 

*Barrow,  G.— Trias  of  Western  Midlands   10  0  0 

*Watts,    Professor  W.  W. — Sections    in    Lower   Palaeozoic 

Rocks    15  0  0 


0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

Carried  forward     £445     0     0 

*  Reappointed 

•f-  In  addition,  the  Council  are  authorised  to  expend  a  sum  not  exceeding  £70  on 
the  printing  of  circulars,  &c.,  in  connection  with  the  Committee  on  Seismological 
Observations. 


SYNOPSIS   OF   GRANTS   OF   MONEY.  Ixvii 

£      s.   d. 
Brought  forward 445     0     0 

Section  D. — Zoology. 

*Shipley,  Dr.  A.  E.—Belmullet  Whaling  Station  45  0  0 

*Mitchell,  Dr.  Chalmers. — Nomenclator  Animalium 25  0  0 

Herdman,  Professor  W.  A. — Biology  of  Abrolhos  Islands  ...  40  0  0 

Dendy,  Professor  A. — Collection  of  Marsupials    100  0  0 

Section  E. — Geography. 
Lucas,  Sir  C.  P. — Conditions  determining  Selection  of  Sites 

and  Names  for  Towns . .  20     0     0 

Chisholm,  G.  G. — Survey  of  Stor  Fjord,  Spitsbergen  50     0     0 

David,  Professor  T.  "W.  E. — Antarctic  Bathymetrical  Chart  100     0     0 

Section  F. — Economic  Science  and  Statistics. 

*Muirhead,  Professor  J.  F. — Fatigue  from  Economic  Stand- 
point      30     0     0 

Sec  tio7i  G .  — Engineering. 

*Clerk,  Dr.  Dugald. — Gaseous  Explosions   50     0     0 

*Perry,  Professor  J. —  Stress  Distributions 50     0     0 

Section  H. — Anthropology. 

*Dawkins,  Professor  Boyd. — Lake  Villages  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Glastonbury    20     0     0 

*Read,  Sir  C.  H. — Age  of  Stone  Circles  20     0     0 

*Smith,    Professor   G.    Elliot. — -Physical    Characters    of    the 

Ancient  Egyptians 34  16     6 

*Myres,  Professor  J.  L. — Anthropometric    Investigations  in 

Cyprus 50     0     0 

*Marett,  Dr.  R.  R. —Palaeolithic  Site  in  Jersey 50     0     0 

Myres,  Professor  J.  L. — Excavations  in  Malta 10     0     0 

Spencer,  Professor  Baldwin. —  Gazetteer  and  Map  of  Native 

Tribes  of  Australia '. 20     0     0 

Section  I. — Physiology 

*Schafer,  Sir  E.  A.— The  Ductless  Glands  35  0  0 

*Waller,  Dr.  A.  D. — Anaesthetics     20  0  0 

*Wal]er,  Dr.  A.  D. — Electromotive  Phenomena  in  Plants 20  0  0 

*Muirhead,  Professor  J.  F. — Miners' Nystagmus   20  0  0 

Osborne,  Professor  W.  A. — Metabolism  of  Phosphates  20  0  0 

Halliburton,  Professor  W.  D. — Electromotive  Phenomena  of 

the  Heart  20  0  0 

Section  K. — Botany. 

*01iver,  Professor  F.  W.— Structure  of  Fossil  Plants    15     0     0 

*Blackman,  Professor  F.  F. — Physiology  of  Heredity   45     0     0 

*Bower,  Professor  F.  O. — Renting  of  Cinchona  Botanic  Sta- 
tion, Jamaica   25     0     0 

Carried  forward £1,379  16     6 

*  Reappointed. 


Ixviii  SYNOPSIS  OF  grants  of  money. 

£      s.    d. 
Brought  forward 1,379  16     6 

Bower,  Professor  F.  O. — Influence  of  Percentages  of  Oxygen, 
Ac,  on  Geotropic  and  Heliotropic  Irritation  and  Curva- 
ture      50     0     0 

Lawson,  Professor  A.  A. — Australian  Cycadacese     25     0     0 

Lanff,  Professor  W.  H. — Sections  of  Australian  Fossil  Plants     25     0     0 

Section  L. — Education. 

*Myers,  Dr.  C.  S. — Mental  and  Physical  Factors  involved  in 

Education     30  0  0 

*Auden,  Dr.  G.  A. — Influence  of  School  Books  on  Eyesight...  5  0  0 

*Miers,  SirH. — Scholarships,  &c.,  held  by  University  Students  5  0  0 
*Green,  Professor  J.  A. — -Character,  Work,  and  Maintenance 

of  Museums  20  0  0 

Corresponding  Societies  Committee. 
* Whitaker,  W.— For  Preparation  of  P^eport   25     0     0 

Totalt £1,634  16     6 

*  Eeappointed. 
f  Including  £70  as  specified  in  footnote  on  p.  Ixvi. 

Caird  Fund. 

An  unconditional  gift  of  10,000^.  was  made  to  the  Association  at  the 
Dundee  Meeting,  1912,  by  Mr.  (afterwards  Sir)  J.  K.  Caird,  LL.D.,  of 
Dundee. 

The  Council  in  its  Report  to  the  General  Committee  at  the  Bir- 
mingham Meeting  made  certain  recommendations  as  to  the  administra- 
tion of  this  Fund.  These  recommendations  were  adopted,  with  the 
Eeport,  by  the  General  Committee  at  its  meeting  on  September  10,  1913. 

The  following  allocations  have  been  made  from  the  Fund  V)y  the 
Council  to  December  1914  : — 

Naples  Zoological  Station  Committee  (p.  Ixi).— 50Z.  (1912-13);  100?. 
(1913-14)  ;  100?.  annually  in  future,  subject  to  the  adoption  of  the  Com- 
mittee's report. 

Seismology  Committee  (p.  lii). — 100?.  (1913-14) ;  100?.  annually  in 
future,  subject  to  the  adoption  of  the  Committee's  report. 

Badiotelegraphic  Committee  (p.  Ix).      500?.  (1913-14). 

Magnetic  Re-survey  oj  the  British  Isles  (in  collaboration  with  the 
Royal  Society).— 250?. 

Committee  on  Determination  of  Gravity  at  Sea  (p.  Ix). — 100?. 
(1914-15). 

Mr.  F.  Sargent,  Bristol  University,  in  connection  with  his  Astro- 
nomical Work.—lOl.  (1914). 

J.  K.  Caird,  on  September  10,  1913,  made  a  further  gift  of  1,000?. 
^sociation,  to  be  devoted  to  the  study  of  Radio-activity. 


PEESIDENT'S    ADDEESS. 


19U. 


ADDEESS 

BY 

Professor  WILLIAM  BATESON,   M.A,,   F.R.S., 
PRESIDENT. 


Part  I.— MELBOURNE.' 

The  outstanding  feature  of  this  Meeting  must  be  the  fact  that  we  are 
here — in  Austraha.  It  is  the  function  of  a  President  to  tell  the 
Association  of  advances  in  science,  to  speak  of  the  universal  rather  than 
of  the  particular  or  the  temporary.  There  will  be  other  opportunities 
of  expressing  the  thoughts  which  this  event  must  excite  in  the  dullest 
heart,  but  it  is  right  that  my  first  words  should  take  account  of  those 
achievements  of  organisation  and  those  acts  of  national  generosity  by 
which  it  has  come  to  pass  that  we  are  assembled  in  this  country.  Let 
us,  too,  on  this  occasion,  remember  that  all  the  effort,  and  all  the 
goodwill,  that  binds  Australia  to  Britain  would  have  been  powerless  to 
bring  about  such  a  resuft  had  it  not  been  for  those  advances  in  science 
which  have  given  man  a  control  of  the  forces  of  Nature.  For  we  are 
here  by  virtue  of  the  feats  of  genius  of  individual  men  of  science, 
giant-variations  from  the  common  level  of  our  species ;  and  since  I  am 
going  soon  to  speak  of  the  significance  of  individual  variation,  I  cannot 
introduce  that  subject  better  than  by  calling  to  remembrance  the  line 
of  pioneers  in  chemistry,  in  physics,  and  in  engineering,  by  the  work- 
ing of  whose  rare — or,  if  you  will,  abnormal — intellects  a  meeting  of 
the  British  Association  on  this  side  of  the  globe  has  been  made  physically 
possible. 

I  have  next  to  refer  to  the  loss  wthin  the  year  of  Sir  David  Gill, 
a  former  President  of  this  Association,  himself  one  of  the  outstanding 
great.  His  greatness  lay  in  the  power  of  making  big  foundations.  He 
built  up  the  Cape  Observatory;  he  organised  international  geodesy;  he 
conceived  and  canned  through  the  plans  for  the  photography  of  the 
whole  sky,  a  work  in  which  Atistralia  is  bearing  a  conspicuous  part. 

^  Delivered  in  Melbourne  on  Friday,  August  14,  1914. 

B  2 


president's  address. 


Astronomical  observation  is  now  organised  on  an  international  scale, 
and  of  this  great  scheme  Gill  was  the  heart  and  soul.  His  labours  have 
ensured  a  base  from  which  others  will  proceed  to  discovery  otherwise 
impossible.  His  name  will  be  long  remembered  with  veneration  and 
gratitude. 

As  the  subject  of  the  Addresses  which  I  am  to  deliver  here  and 
in  Sydney  I  take  Heredity.  I  shall  attempt  to  .give  the  essence 
of  the  discoveries  made  by  Mendelian  or  analytical  methods  of 
study,  and  I  shall  ask  you  to  contemplate  the  deductions  which  these 
physiological  facts  suggest  in  application  both  to  evolutionary  theory  at 
large  and  tO'  the  special  case  of  the  natural  history  of  human  society. 

Eecognition  of  the  significance  of  heredity  is  modern.  The  teriB 
itself  in  its  scientific  sense  is  no  older  than  Herbert  Spencer.  Animals 
and  plants  are  formed  as  pieces  of  living  material  split  from  the  body 
of  the  parent  organisms.  Their  powers  and  faculties  are  fixed  in  their 
physiological  origin.  They  are  the  consequence  of  a  genetic  process, 
and  yet  it  is  only  lately  that  this  genetic  process  has  become  the  subject 
of  systematic  research  and  experiment.  The  curiosity  of  naturalists 
has  of  course  always  been  attracted  to  such  problems ;  but  that  accurate 
knowledge  of  genetics  is  of  paramount  importance  in  any  attempt  to 
understand  the  nature  of  living  things  has  only  been  realised  quite 
lately  even  by  naturalists,  and  with  casual  exceptions  the  laity  still 
know  nothing  of  the  matter.  Historians  debate  the  past  of  the  human 
species,  and  statesmen  order  its  present  or  profess  to  guide  its  future 
as  if  the  animal  Man,  the  unit  of  their  calculations,  with  his  vast 
diversity  of  powers,  were  a  homogeneous  material,  which  can  be 
multiplied  like  shot. 

The  reason  for  this  neglect  lies  in  ignorance  and  misunderstanding 
of  the  nature  of  Variation ;  for  not  until  the  fact  of  congenital  diversity 
is  grasped,  with  all  that  it  imports,  does  knowledge  of  the  system  of 
hereditary  transmission  stand  out  as  a  primary  necessity  in  the  con- 
struction of  any  theory  of  Evolution,  or  any  scheme  of  human  polity. 
The  first  full  perception  of  the  significance  of  variation  we  owe  to 
Darwin.  The  present  generation  of  evolutionists  realises  perhaps  more 
fully  than  did  the  scientific  world  in  the  last  century  that  the  theoiy  of 
Evolution  had  occupied  the  thoughts  of  many  and  found  acceptance 
with  not  a  few  before  ever  the  '  Origin  '  appeared.  We  have  come  also 
to  the  conviction  that  the  principle  of  Natural  Selection  cannot  have 
been  the  chief  factor  in  delimiting  the  species  of  animals  and  plants, 
such  as  we  now  with  fuller  knowledge  see  them  actually  tO'  be.  We 
are  even  more  sceptical  as  to  the  validity  of  that  appeal  to  changes  in 
the  conditions  of  life  as  direct  causes  of  modification,  upon  which 
latterly  at  all  events  Darwin  laid  much  emphasis.     But  that  he  was  the 


I 


PRESIDENT  S   ADDRESS.  O 

first  to  provide  a  body  of  fact  demonstrating  the  variability  of  living 
things,  whatever  be  its  causation,  can  never  be  questioned. 

There  are  some  older  collections  of  evidence,  chiefly  the  work  of 
the  French  school,  especially  of  Godron^ — and  I  would  mention  also 
the  almost  forgotten  essay  of  Wollaston ' — these  however  are  only 
fragments  in  comparison.  Darwin  regarded  variability  as  a  property 
inherent  in  hving  things,  and  eventually  we  must  consider  whether  this 
conception  is  well  founded ;  but  postponing  that  inquiry  for  the  present, 
we  may  declare  that  with  him  began  a  general  recognition  of  variation 
as  a  phenomenon  widely  occurring  in  Nature. 

If  a  population  consists  of  members  which  are  not  alike  but  differen- 
tiated, how  will  their  characteristics  be  distributed  among  their  off- 
spring? This  is  the  problem  which  the  modem  student  of  heredity 
sets  out  to  investigate.  Formerly  it  was  hoped  that  by '  the  simple 
inspection  of  embryological  processes  the  modes  of  heredity  might  be 
ascertained,  the  actual  mechanism  by  which  the  offspring  is  formed 
from  the  body  of  the  parent.  In  that  endeavour  a  noble  pile  of 
evidence  has  been  accumulated.  All  that  can  be  made  visible  by 
existing  methods  has  been  seen,  but  we  come  little  if  at  all  nearer  to 
the  central  mystery.  We  see  nothing  that  we  can  analyse  further — 
nothing  that  can  be  translated  into  terms  less  inscrutable  than  the 
physiological  events  themselves.  Not  only  does  embryology  give  no 
direct  aid,  but  the  failure  of  cytology  is,  so  far  as  I  can  judge,  equally 
complete.  The  chromosomes  of  nearly  related  creatures  may  be 
utterly  different  both  in  number,  size,  and  form.  Only  one  piece  of 
evidence  encourages  the  old  hope  that  a  connection  might  be  traceable 
between  the  visible  characteristics  of  the  body  and  those  of  the  chromo- 
somes. I  refer  of  course  to  the  accessory  chromosome,  which  in  many 
animals  distinguishes  the  spermatozoon  about  to  form  a  female  in 
fertilisation.  Even  it  however  cannot  be  claimed  as  the  cause  of 
sexual  differentiation,  for  it  may  be  paired  in  forms  closely  allied  to 
those  in  which  it  is  unpaired  or  accessory.  The  distinction  may  be 
present  or  wanting,  like  any  other  secondary  sexual  character.  Indeed, 
so  long  as  no  one  can  show  consistent  distinctions  between  the 
cytological  characters  of  somatic  tissues  in  the  same  individual  we 
can  scarcely  expect  to  perceive  such  distinctions  between  the  chromo- 
somes of  the  various  types. 

For  these  methods  of  attack  we  now  substitute  another,  less 
ambitious,  perhaps,  because  less  comprehensive,  but  not  less  direct. 
If  we  cannot  see  how  a  fowl  by  its  egg  and  its  sperm  gives  rise  to 

'  De  I'Espcce.  et  dcs  Races  dans  Ics  Elrcs  Organises,  185D. 
^  On  the.  Variation  of  Species,  1856. 


6  president's  address. 

a  chicken  or  how  a  Sweet  Pea  from  its  ovule  and  its  pollen  grain 
produces  another  Sweet  Pea,  we  at  least  can  watch  the  system 
by  which  the  differences  between  the  various  kinds  of  fowls  or 
between  the  various  kinds  of  Sweet  Peas  ai-e  distributed  among  the 
offspring.  By  thus  breaking  the  main  problem  Uip  into  its  parts 
we  give  ourselves  fresh  chances.  This  analytical  study  we  call 
Mendelian  because  Mendel  was  the  first  to  apply  it.  To  be  sure,  he 
did  not  approach  the  problem  by  any  such  line  of  reasoning  as  I 
have  sketched.  His  object  was  to  determine  the  genetic  definite- 
ness  of  species ;  but  though  in  his  writings  he  makes  no  mention  of 
inheritance  it  is  clear  that  he  had  the  extension  in  view.  By  cross- 
breeding he  combined  the  characters  of  varieties  in  mongrel  individuals 
and  set  himself  to  see  how  these  characters  wonld  be  distributed  among 
the  individuals  of  subsequent  generations.  Until  he  began  this  analysis 
nothing  but  the  vaguest  answers  to  such  a  question  had  been  attempted. 
The  existence  of  any  orderly  system  of  descent  was  nevex  even  sus- 
pected. In  their  manifold  complexity  human  characteristics  seemed 
to  follow  no  obvious  system,  and  the  fact  was  taken  as  a  fair  sample 
of  the  working  of  heredity. 

Misconception  was  especially  brought  in  by  describing  descent  in 
terms  of  '  blood. '  The  common  speech  uses  expressions  such  as 
consanguinity,  pure-blooded,  half-blood,  and  the  like,  which  call  up  a 
misleading  picture  to  the  mind.  Blood  is  in  some  respects  a  fluid, 
and  thus  it  is  supposed  that  this  fluid  can  be  both  quantitatively  and 
qualitatively  diluted  with  other  bloods,  just  as  treacle  can  be  diluted 
with  water.  Blood  in  primitive  physiology  being  the  peculiar  vehicle 
of  life,  at  once  its  essence  and  its  corporeal  abode,  these  ideas  of 
dilution  and  compounding  of  characters  in  the  commingling  of  bloods 
inevitably  suggest  that  the  ingredients  of  the  mixture  once  combined  are 
inseparable,  that  they  can  be  brought  together  in  any  relative  amounts, 
and  in  short  that  in  heredity  we  are  concerned  mainly  with  a  quantita- 
tive problem.  Truer  notions  of  genetic  physiology  are  given  by  the 
Hebrew  expression  '  seed.'  If  we  speak  of  a  man  as  '  of  the  blood- 
royal  '  we  think  at  once  of  plebeian  dilution,  and  we  wonder  how  much 
of  the  royal  fluid  is  likely  to  be  '  in  his  veins  ' ;  but  if  we  say  he  is 
'  of  the  seed  of  Abraham  '  we  feel  something  of  the  permanence  and 
indestructibility  of  that  germ  which  can  be  divided  and  scattered  among 
all  nations,  but  remains  recognisable  in  type  and  characteristics  after 
4,000  years. 

I  knew  a  breeder  who  had  a  chest  containing  bottles  of  coloured 
liquids  by  which  he  used  to  illustrate  the  relationships  of  his  dogs, 
pouring  from  one  to  another  and  titrating  them  quantitatively  to  illus- 
trate their  pedigrees.  Galton  was  beset  by  the  same  kind  of  mistake 
when  he  promulgated  his  '  Law  of  Ancestral  Heredity.'    With  modern 


president's  address. 


research  all  this  has  been  cleared  away.  The  allotment  of  character- 
istics among  offspring  is  not  accomplished  by  the  exudation  of  drops 
of  a  tincture  representing  the  sum  of  the  characteristics  of  the  parent 
organism,  but  by  a  process  of  cell-division ,  in  which  numbers  of  these 
characters,  or  rather  the  elements  upon  which  they  depend,  are  sorted 
out  among  the  resulting  germ-cells  in  an  orderly  fashion.  "What  these 
elements,  or  factors  as  we  call  them,  are  we  do  not  know.  That  they 
are  in  some  way  directly  transmitted  by  the  material  of  the  ovum  and 
of  the  spermatozoon  is  obvious,  but  it  seems  to  me  unlikely  that  they 
are  in  any  simple  or  literal  sense  material  particles.  I  suspect  rather 
that  their  properties  depend  on  some  phenomenon  of  anrangement. 
However  that  may  be,  analytical  breeding  proves  that  it  is  according 
to  the  distribution  of  these  genetic  factors,  to  use  a  non-committal  term, 
that  the  characters  of  the  offspring  are  decided.  The  first  business  of 
experimental  genetics  is  to  determine  their  number  and  interactions, 
and  then  to  make  an  analysis  of  the  various  types  of  life. 

Now  the  ordinary  genealogical  trees,  such  as  those  which  the  stud- 
books  provide  in  the  case  of  the  domestic  animals,  or  the  Heralds' 
College  provides  in  the  case  of  man,  tell  nothing  of  all  this.  Such 
methods  of  depicting  descent  cannot  even  show  the  one  thing  they  are 
devised  to  show — purity  of  '  blood.'  For  at  last  we  know  the  physio- 
logical meaning  of  that  expression.  An  organism  is  pure-bred  when  it 
has  been  formed  by  the  union  in  fertilisation  of  two  germ-cells  which 
are  alike  in  the  factors  they  bear ;  and  since  the  factors  for  the  several 
characteristics  are  independent  of  each  other,  this  question  of  purity 
must  be  separately  considered  for  each  of  them.  A  man,  for  example, 
may  be  pure-bred  in  respect  of  his  musical  ability  and  cross-bred  in 
respect  of  the  colour  of  his  eyes  or  the  shape  of  his  mouth.  Though 
we  know  nothing  of  the  essential  nature  of  these  factors,  we  know 
a  good  deal  of  their  powers.  They  may  'confer  height,  colour,  shape, 
instincts,  powers  both  of  mind  and  body — indeed,  so  many  of  the 
attributes  which  animals  and  plants  possess,  that  we  feel  justified  in 
tHe  expectation  that  with  continued  analysis  they  will  be  proved  to  be 
responsible  for  most  if  not  all  of  the  differences  by  which  the  varying 
individuals  of  any  species  are  distinguished  from  each  other.  T  will 
not  asseiii  that  the  greater  differences  which  characterise  distinct  Species 
are  due  generally  to  such  independent  factors,  but  that  is  the  conclusion 
to  which  the  available  evidence  points.  All  this  is  now  so  well  under- 
stood, and  has  been  so  often  demonstrated  and  expounded,  that  details 
of  evidence  are  now  superfluous. 

But  for  the  benefit  of  those  who  are  unfamiliar  with  such  work  let  me 
briefly  epitomise  its  main  features  and  consequences.  Since  genetic 
factors  are  definite  things,  either  present  in  or  absent  from  any  germ- 
cell,  the  individual  may  be  either  '  pure-bred  '  for  any  particular  factor, 


8  peesident's  address. 

or  its  absence,  if  he  is  constituted  by  the  union  of  two  germ-cells  both 
possessing  or  both  destitute  of  that  factor.  If  the  individual  is  thus 
pure,  all  his  germ-cells  will  in  that  respect  be  identical,  for  they  are 
simply  bits  of  the  similar  germ-cells  which  united  in  fertilisation  to 
produce  the  parent  organism.  We  thus  reach  the  essential  principle, 
that  an  organism  cannot  pass  on  to  offspring  a  factor  which  it  did  not 
itself  receive  in  fertilisation.  Parents,  therefore,  which  are  both 
destitute  of  a  given  factor  can  only  produce  offspring  equally  destitute 
of  it;  and,  on  the  contrary,  parents  both  pure-bred  for  the  presence 
of  a  factor  produce  offspring  equally  pure-bred  for  its  presence. 
Whereas  the  germ-cells  of  the  pure-bred  are  all  alike,  those  of  the 
cross-bred,  which  results  from  the  union  of  dissimilar  germ-cells,  are 
mixed  in  character.  Each  positive  factor  segregates  from  its  negative 
opposite,  so  that  some  germ-cells  carry  the  factor  and  some  do  not. 
Once  the  factors  have  been  identified  by  their  effects,  the  average  com- 
position of  the  several  kinds  of  families  formed  from  the  various 
matings  can  be  predicted. 

Only  those  who  have  themselves  witnessed  the  fixed  operations  of 
these  simple  rules  can  feel  their  full  significance.  We  come  to  look 
behind  the  simulacrum  of  the  individual  body,  and  we  endeavour  to 
disintegrate  its  features  into  the  genetic  elements  by  whose  union  the 
body  was  formed.  Set  out  in  cold  general  phrases  such  discoveries 
may  seem  remote  from  ordinary  life.  Become  familiar  with  them  and 
you  will  find  your  outlook  on  the  world  has  changed.  Watch  the  effects 
of  segregation  among  the  living  things  with  which  you  have  to  do — 
plants,  fowls,  dogs,  horses,  that  mixed  concourse  of  humanity  we  call 
the  English  race,  your  friends'  children,  your  own  children,  yourself — 
and  however  firmly  imagination  be  restrained  to  the  bounds  of  the 
known  and  the  proved,  you  will  feel  something  of  that  range  of  insight 
into  Nature  which  Mendelism  has  begun  to  give.  The  question  is 
often  asked  whether  there  are  not  also  in  operation  systems  of  descent 
quite  other  than  those  contemplated  by  the  Mendelian  rules.  I  myself 
have  expected  such  discoveries,  but  hitherto  none  have  been  plainly 
demonstrated.  It  is  true  we  are  often  puzzled  by  the  failure  of  a 
parental  type  to  reappear  in  its  completeness  after  a  cross — the  merino 
sheep  or  the  fantail  pigeon,  for  example.  These  exceptions  may  still 
be  plausibly  ascribed  to  the  interference  of  a  multitude  of  factors,  a 
suggestion  not  easy  to  disprove;  though  it  seems  to  me  equally  likely 
that  segregation  has  been  in  reality  imperfect.  Of  the  descent  of  quan- 
titative characters  we  still  know  practically  nothing.  These  and  hosts 
of  difficult  cases  remain  almost  untouched.  In  particular  the  discovery 
of  E.  Baur,  and  the  evidence  of  Winkler  in  regard  to  his  '  graft  hybrids, ' 
both  showing  that  the  sub-epidermal  layer  of  a  plant — the  layer  from 
which  the  germ-cells  are  derived — may  bear  exclusively  the  characters 


president's  address.  9 

of  a  pai't  only  of  the  soma,  give  hints  of  curious  compHcations,  and 
suggest  that  in  plants  at  least  the  interrelations  between  soma  and 
gamete  may  be  far  less  simple  than  we  have  supposed.  Nevertheless, 
speaking  generally,  we  see  nothing  to  indicate  that  qualitative  characters 
descend,  whether  in  plants  or  animals,  according  to  systems  which 
are  incapable  of  factorial  representation. 

The  body  of  evidence  accumulated  by  this  method  of  analysis  is 
now  very  large,  and  is  still  growing  fast  by  the  labours  of  many  workers. 
Progress  is  also  beginning  along  many  novel  and  curious  lines.  The 
details  are  too  technical  for  inclusion  here.  Suffice  it  to  say  that  not 
only  have  we  proof  that  segregation  affects  a  vast  range  of  characteris- 
tics, but  in  the  course  of  our  analysis  phenomena  of  most  unexpected 
kinds  have  been  encountered.  Some  of  these  things  twenty  years  ago 
must  have  seemed  inconceivable.  For  example,  the  two  sets  of  sex 
organs,  male  and  female,  of  the  same  plant  may  not  be  carrying  the 
same  characteristics ;  in  some  animals  characteristics,  quite  independent 
of  sex,  may  be  distributed  solely  or  predominantly  to  one  sex;  in 
certain  species  the  male  may  be  breeding  true  to  its  own  type,  while 
the  female  is  permanently  mongrel,  throwing  off  eggs  of  a  distinct 
variety  in  addition  to  those  of  its  own  type;  characteristics,  essentially 
independent,  may  be  associated  in  special  combinations  which  are 
largely  retained  in  the  next  generation,  so  that  among  the  grand- 
children there  is  numerical  preponderance  of  those  combinations  which 
existed  in  the  grandparents — a  discovery  which  introduces  us  to  a  new 
phenomenon  of  polarity  in  the  oiiganism. 

We  are  accustomed  to  the  fact  that  the  fertilised  egg  has  a  polarity, 
a  front  and  hind  end  for  example ;  but  we  have  now  to  recognise  that  it, 
or  the  primitive  germinal  cells  formed  from  it,  may  have  another 
polarity  shown  in  the  groupings  of  the  parental  elements.  I  am  entirely 
sceptical  as  to  the  occurrence  of  segregation  solely  in  the  maturation  of 
the  germ-cells,*  preferring  at  present  to  regard  it  as  a  special  case  of 
that  patchwork  condition  we  see  in  so  many  plants.  These  mosaics 
may  break  up,  emitting  bud-sports  at  various  cell-divisions,  and  1 
suspect  that  the  great  regularity  seen  in  the  F^  ratios  of  the  cereals,  for 
example,  is  a  consequence  of  very  late  segregation,  whereas  the  exces- 
sive irregularity  found  in  other  cases  may  be  taken  to  indicate  that 
segregation  can  happen  at  earlier  stages  of  differentiation. 

The  paradoxical  descent  of  colour-blindness  and  other  sex-limited 
conditions — formerly  regarded  as  an  inscrutable  caprice  of  nature — has 
been  represented  with  approximate  correctness,  and  we  already  know 
something  as  to  the  way,  or,  perhaps,  I  should  say  ways,  in  which  the 

*  The  fact  that  in  certain  plants  the  male  and  female  organs  respectively 
carry  distinct  factors  may  be  quoted  as  almost  decisively  negativing  the  sug- 
gestion that  segregation  is  confined  to  the  reduction  division. 


10  president's  address. 

determination  of  sex  is  accomplished  in  some  of  the  forms  of  hfe — 
though,  I  hasten  to  add,  we  have  no  inkhng  as  to  any  method  by  which 
that  determination  may  be  influenced  or  directed.  It  is  obvious  that 
such  discoveries  have  bearings  on  most  of  the  problems,  whether 
theoretical  or  practical,  in  which  animals  and  plants  are  concerned. 
Permanence  or  change  of  type,  perfection  of  type,  purity  or  mixture 
of  race,  '  racial  development, '  the  succession  of  forms,  from  being  vague 
phrases  expressing  matters  of  degree,  are  now  seen  to  be  capable  of 
acquiring  physiological  meanings,  already  to  some  extent  assigned  with 
precision.  For  the  natm-alist — and  it  is  to  him  that  I  am  especially 
addressing  myself  to-day — these  things  are  chiefly  significant  as  relating 
to  the  history  of  organic  beings — the  theory  of  Evolution,  to  use  our 
modern  name.  They  have,  as  I  shall  endeavour  to  show  in  my  second 
address  to  be  given  in  Sydney,  an  immediate  reference  to  the  conduct 
of  human  society. 

I  suppose  that  everyone  is  familiar  in  outline  with  the  theory  of 
the  Origin  of  Species  which  Dai'\v'in  promulgated.  Through  the  last 
fifty  years  this  theme  of  the  Natural  Selection  of  favoured  races  has  been 
developed  and  expounded  in  writings  innumerable.  Favoured  races 
certainly  can  replace  others.  The  argument  is  sound,  but  we  are  doubt- 
ful of  its  value.  For  us  that  debate  stands  adjourned.  We  go  to 
Darwin  for  his  incomparable  collection  of  facts.  We  would  fain 
emulate  his  scholarship,  his  width  and  his  power  of  exposition,  but 
to  us  he  speaks  no  more  with  philosophical  authority.  We  read  his 
gchenie  of  Evolution  as  we  would  that  of  Lucretius  or  of  Lamarck, 
delighting  in  their  simplicity  and  their  courage.  The  practical  and 
experimental  study  of  Variation  and  Heredity  has  not  merely  opened 
a  new  field;  it  has  given  a  new  point  of  view  and  new  standards  of 
criticism.  Naturalists  may  still  be  found  expounding  teleological 
systems'  which  would  have  delighted  Dr.  Pangloss  himself,  but  at 
the  present  time  few  are  misled.     The  student  of  genetics  knows  that 

°  I  take  the  following  from  the  Abstract  of  a  recent  Croonian  Lecture 
'  On  the  Origin  of  Mammals  '  delivered  to  the  Royal  Society  : — '  In 
Upper  Triassic  times  the  larger  Cynodonts  preyed  upon  the  large 
Anomodont,  Kannemeijeria,  and  carried  on  their  existence  so  long  a.s  these 
Anomodonts  survived,  but  died  out  with  them  about  the  end  of  the  Trias  or 
in  Ehretic  times.  The  small  Cynodonts,  having  neither  small  Anomodonts  nor 
small  Cotylosaurs  to  feed  on,  were  forced  to  hunt  the  very  active  long-limbed 
Thecodonts.  The  greatly  increased  activity  brought  about  that  series  of 
changes  which  formed  the  mammals— the  flexible  skin  with  hair,  the  four- 
chambered  heart  and  warm  blood,  the  loose  jaw  with  teeth  for  mastication, 
an  increased  development  of  tactile  sensation  and  a  great  increase  of  cerebrum. 
Not  improbably  the  attacks  of  the  newly  evolved  Cynodont  or  mammalian  type 
brought  about  a  corresponding  evolution  in  the  Pseudosuchian  Thecodonts,  which 
ultimately  resulted  in  the  formation  of  Dinosaurs  and  Birds.'  Broom  R 
Proc.  Boy.  Soc.  B.,  87,  p.  88, 


president's  address.  11 

Ihe  time  for  the  development  of  theory  is  not  yet.     He  would  rathet 
stick  to  the  seed-pan  and  the  incubator. 

In  face  of  what  we  now  know  of  the  distribution  of  variability  in 
nature  the  scope  claimed  for  Natural  Selection  in  determining  the  fixity 
of  Species  must  be  greatly  reduced.  The  doctrine  of  the  survival  of  the 
fittest  is  undeniable  so  long  as  it  is  applied  to  the  organism  as  a  whole, 
but  to  attempt  by  this  principle  to  find  value  in  all  definiteness  of  parts 
and  functions,  and  in  the  name  of  Science  to  see  fitness  everywhere 
is  mere  eighteenth-century  optimism.  Yet  it  was  in  application  to  the 
parts,  to  the  details  of  specific  difference,  to  the  spots  on  the  peacock's 
tail,  to  the  colouring  of  an  Orchid  flower,  and  hosts  of  such  examples, 
that  the  potency  of  Natural  Selection  was  urged  with  the  strongest 
emphasis.  Shorn  of  these  pretensions  the  doctrine  of  the  survival  of 
favoured  races  is  a  truism,  helping  scarcely  at  all  to  account  for  the 
diversity  of  species.  Tolerance  plays  almost  as  considerable  a  part. 
By  these  admissions  almost  the  last  shred  of  that  teleological  fustian 
with  which  Victorian  philosophy  loved  to  clothe  the  theory  of  Evolu- 
tion is  destroyed.  Those  who  would  proclaim  that  whatever  is  is  right 
will  be  wise  henceforth  to  base  this  faith  frankly  on  the  impregnable 
rock  of  superstition,  and  to  abstain  from  direct  appeals  to  natural  fact. 

My  predecessor  said  last  year  that  in  physics  the  age  is  one  of  rapid 
progress  and  profound  scepticism.  In  at  least  as  high  a  degree  this  is 
true  of  Biology,  and  as  a  chief  characteristic  of  modern  evolutionary 
thought  we  must  confess  also  to  a  deep  but  irksome  humility  in 
presence  of  great  vital  problems.  Every  theory  of  Evolution  must  be 
such  as  to  accord  with  the  facts  of  physics  and  chemistry,  a  primary 
necessity  to  which  our  predecessors  paid  small  heed.  For  them  the 
unknown  was  a  rich  mine  of  possibilities  on  which  they  could  freely 
draw.  For  us  it  is  rather  an  impenetrable  mountain  out  of  which  the 
truth  can  be  chipped  in  rare  and  isolated  fragments.  Of  the  physics  and 
chemistry  of  hfe  we  know  next  to  noohing.  Somehow  the  characters 
of  Hving  things  are  bound  up  in  properties  of  colloids,  and  are  largely 
determined  by  the  chemical  powers  of  enzymes,  but  the  study  of  these 
classes  of  matter  has  only  just  begun.  Living  things  are  found  by  a 
simple  experiment  to  have  powers  undreamt  of,  and  who  knows  what 
may  be  behind? 

Naturally  we  turn  aside  from  generalities.  It  is  no  time  to  discuss 
the  origin  of  the  MoUusca  or  of  Dicotyledons,  while  we  are  not  even 
sure  how  it  came  to  pass  that  Primula  obconica  has  in  twenty-five  years 
produced  its  abundant  new  forms  almost  under  our  eyes.  Knowledge 
of  heredity  has  so  reacted  on  our  conceptions  of  variation  that  very 
competent  men  are  even  denying  that  variation  in  the  old  sense  is  a 
genuine  occurrence  at  all.  Variation  is  postulated  as  the  basis  of  all 
evolutionary  change.     Do  we  then  as  a  matter  of  fact  find  in  the  world 


12  president's  address. 

about  us  variations  occurring  of  auch  a  kind  as  to  warrant  faith  in  a 
contemporary   progressive  Evolution?     Till  lately  most  of   us   would 
have    said  '  yes  '  without    misgiving.     We    should    have  pointed,   as 
Darwin  did,   to  the  immense  range  of  diversity  seen  in    many  wild 
species,  so  commonly  that  the  difficulty  is  to  define  the  types  them- 
selves.    Still  more  conclusive  seemed  the  profusion  of  forms  in  the 
various  domesticated  animals  and  plants,  most  of  them  incapable  of 
existing  even  for  a  generation  in  the  wild  state,    and  therefore  fixed 
unquestionably  by  human  selection.     These,   at  least,  for  certain,  are 
new  forms,  often  distinct  enough  to  pass  for  species,  wdiich  has  arisen 
by  variation.     But  when  analysis  is  applied  to  this  mass  of  variation 
the  matter  weai's  a  different  aspect.     Closely  examined,   what  is  the 
'  variability  '  of  wild  species  ?       What  is  the  natural  fact  which    is 
denoted  by  the  statement  that  a  given  species  exhibits  much  variation  ? 
Generally  one  of  two  things  :  either  that  the  individuals  collected  in  one 
locality  differ  among  themselves;  or  perhaps  more  often  that  samples 
from  separate  localities  differ  from  each  other.     As  direct  evidence  of 
Yariation  it  is  clearly  to  the  first  of  these  phenomena  that  we  must 
have  recourse — the  heterogeneity  of  a  population  breeding  together  in 
one  area.     This  heterogeneity   may  be   in   any   degree,  ranging  from 
slight    differences    that    systematists    would   disregard,    to  a  complex 
variability  such  as  we  find  in  some  moths,  where  there  is  an  abund- 
ance of  varieties  so  distinct  that  many  would  be  classified  as  specific 
forms  but  for  the  fact  that  all  are  freely  breeding  together.     Naturalists 
formerly  supposed  that  any  of  these  varieties  might  be  bred  from  any 
of  the  others.     Just  as  the  reader  of  novels  is  prepared  to  find  that 
any  kind  of  parents  may  have  any  kind  of  childi'en  in  the  course  of  the 
story,  so  was  the  evolutionist  ready  to  believe  that  any  pair  of  moths 
might  produce  any  of  the  varieties  included  in  the  species.     Genetic 
analysis  has  disposed  of  all  these  mistakes.     We  have  no  longer  the 
smallest  doubt  that  in.  all  these  examples  the  varieties  stand  in  a  regular 
descending  order,  and  that  they  are  simply  terms  in  a  series  of  com- 
binations   of  factors    separately   transmitted,    of   which  each  may  be 
present  or  absent. 

The  appearance  of  contemporary  variability  proves  to  be  an  illusion. 
Variation  from  step  to  step  in  the  series  must  occur  either  by  the 
addition  or  by  the  loss  of  a  factor.  Now,  of  the  origin  of  new  forms 
by  loss  there  seems  to  me  to  be  fairly  clear  evidence,  but  of  the  con- 
temporary acquisition  of  any  new  factor  I  see  no  satisfactory  proof, 
though  I  admit  there  are  rare  examples  which  may  be  so  interpreted. 
We  are  left  with  a  picture  of  variation  utterly  different  from  that 
which  we  saw  at  first.  Variation  now  stands  out  as  a  definite  physio- 
logical event.  W^e  have  done  with  the  notion  that  Darwin  came  latterly 
to  favour,  that  large  differences  can  arise  by  accumulation  of  small 


president's  address.  13 

differences.  Such  small  differences  are  often  mere  ephemeral  effects 
of  conditions  of  life,  and  as  such  are  not  transmissible ;  but  even  small 
differences,  when  truly  genetic,  are  factorial  like  the  larger  ones,  and 
there  is  not  the  slightest  reason  for  supposing  that  they  are  capable 
of  summation.  As  to  the  origin  or  source  of  these  positive  separable 
factors,  we  are  without  any  indication  or  surmise.  By  their  effects 
we  know  them  to  be  definite,  as  definite,  say,  as  the  organisms  which 
produce  diseases ;  but  how  they  arise  and  how  they  come  to  take  part 
in  the  composition  of  the  living  creature  so  that  when  present  they  are 
treated  in  cell-division  as  constituents  of  the  germs,  we  cannot  con- 
jecture. 

It  was  a   commonplace  of  evolutionary  theory    that   at  least  the 
domestic  animals  have  been  developed  from  a  few  wild  types.     Their 
origin  was  supposed  to  present  no  difficulty.     The  various  races  of 
fowl,   for  instance,   all  came  from  Gallus  bankiva,  the  Indian  jungle- 
fowl.     So   we  are   taught;   but   try  to  reconstruct  the  steps  in  their 
evolution  and  you  realise  your  hopeless  ignorance.     To  be  sure  there 
are  breeds,  such  as  Black-red  Game  and  Brown  Leghorns,  which  have 
the  colours  of  the  jungle-fowl,  though  they  differ  in  shape  and  other 
respects.     As  we  know  so  little  as  yet  of  the  genetics  of  shape,  let  us 
assume  that  those  transitions  could  be  got  over.     Suppose,  further,  as 
is  probable,  that  the  absence  of  the  maternal  instinct  in  the  Ijeghorn 
is  due  to  loss  of  one  factor  which  the  jungle-fowl  possesses.     So  far 
we  are  on  fairly  safe  ground.     But  how  about  White  Leghorns  ?     Their 
origin  may  seem   easy   to   imagine,   since  white  varieties  have  often 
arisen  in  well-authenticated  cases.     But  the  white  of  White  Leghorns 
is  not,  as  white  in  nature  often  is,  due  to  the  loss  of  the  colour-elements, 
but  to  the  action  of  something  which  inhibits  their  expression.    Whence 
did  that  something  come  ?    The  same  question  may  be  asked  respecting 
the  heavy  breeds,  such  as  Malays  or  Indian  Game.     Each  of  these  is  a 
separate  introduction  from  the  East.     To  suppose  that  these,  with  their 
peculiar  combs  and  close  feathering,  could  have  been  developed  from 
pre-existing  European  breeds  is   very   difficult.     On   the  other  hand, 
there  is  no  wild  species  now  living  any  more  hke  them.     We  may,  of 
course,  postulate  that  there  was  once  such  a  species,  now  lost.     That 
is  quite  conceivable,  though  the  suggestion  is  purely  speculative.     I 
might  thus  go  through  the  list  of  domesticated  animals  and  plants  of 
ancient   origin  and   again   and   again  we  should  be    driven    to    this 
suggestion,  that  many  of  their  distinctive  characters  must  have  been 
derived  from  some  wild  original  now  lost.     Indeed,  to  this  unsatisfying 
conclusion  almost  every  careful  writer  on  such  subjects  is  now  reduced. 
If  we  turn  to  modern  evidence  the  case  looks  even  worse.     The  new 
breeds  of   domestic    animals  made  in   recent  times  are  the   carefully 
selected  products  of  recombination  of  pre-existing  breeds.     Most  of  the 


14  president's  address, 

new  varieties  of  cultivated  plants  are  the  outcome  of  deliberate  crossing. 
There  is   generally   no  doubt    in   the  matter.     We  have  pretty    full 
histories  of  these  cix>sses   in   Gladiolus,  Orchids,  Cineraria,    Begonia, 
Calceolaria,  Pelargonium,  &c.     A  very  few  certainly  arise  from  a  single 
origin.     The  Sweet  Pea  is  the  clearest  case,  and  there  are  others  which 
I  should  name  with  hesitation.     The  Cyclamen  is  one  of  them,  but 
we  know  that  efforts  to  cross  Cyclamens  were  made  early  in  the  cul- 
tural history  of  the  plant,  and  they  may  very  well  have  been  success- 
ful.    Several  plants  for  which  single  origins  are  alleged,  such  as  the 
Chinese  Primrose,  the  Dahlia,  and  Tobacco,  came  to  us  in  an  already 
domesticated   state,    and    their    origins  remain   altogether  mysterious. 
Formerly  single  origins  were  generally  presumed,  but  at  the  present 
time   numbers  of  the  chief  products  of  domestication,    dogs,    horses, 
cattle,  sheep,  poultry,  wheat,  oats,  rice,  plums,  cherries,  have  in  turn 
been  accepted  as  '  polyphyletic,'  or,  in  other  words,  derived  from  several 
distinct  forms.     The  reason  that  has  led  to  these  judgments  is  that  the 
distinctions  between  the  chief  varieties  can  be  traced  as  far  back  as  the 
evidence  reaches,  and  that  these  distinctions  are  so  great,  so  far  tran- 
scending anything  that  we  actually  know  variation  capable  of  effecting, 
that  it  seems  pleasanter  to  postpone  the  difficulty,  relegating  the  critical 
differentiation  to  some  misty  antiquity  into  which  we  shall  not  be  asked 
to  jJenetrate.    For  it  need  scarcely  be  said  that  this  is  mere  procrastina- 
tion.    If  the  origin  of  a  form  under  domestication  is  hard  to  imagine,  it 
becomes  nO'  easier  to  conceive  of  such  enormous  deviations  from  type 
coming  to  pass  in  the  wild  state.     Examine  any  two  thoroughly  distinct 
species  which  meet  each  other  in  their  distribution,  as,  for  instance, 
Lychnis  diurna  and  vespertina  do.     In  areas  of  overlap  are  many  inter- 
mediate forms.     These  used  to  be  taken  to  be  transitional  steps,  and 
the  specific  distinctness  of  vespertina  and  diurna  was  on  that  account 
questioned.     Once  it   is  known  that    these   supposed  intergradea   are 
merely  mongrels  between  the  two  species  the  transition  from  one  to  the 
other  is  practically  beyond  our  powers  of  imagination  to  conceive.     If 
both  these  can  survive,  why  has  their  common  parent  perished?     Why 
when  they  cross  do  they  not  reconstruct  it  instead  of  producing  partially 
sterile  hybrids?     I  take  this  example  to  show  how  entirely  the  facts 
were  formerly  misinterpreted. 

When  once  the  idea  of  a  true-breeding — or,  as  we  say,  homozygous 
— type  is  grasped,  the  problem  of  variation  becomes  an  insistent  oppres- 
sion. What  can  make  such  a  type  vary?  We  know,  of  course,  one 
way  by  which  novelty  can  be  introduced — by  crossing.  Cross  two 
well-marked  varieties — for  instance,  of  Chinese  Primula — each  breeding 
true,  and  in  the  second  generation  by  mere  recombination  of  the  various 
factors  which  the  two  parental  types  severally  introduced,  there  will 
be  a  profusion  of  forms,  utterly  unlike  each  other,  distinct  also  from 


president's  address.  15 

the  original  parents.  Many  of  these  can  be  bred  true,  and  if  found 
wild  would  certainly  be  described  as  good  species.  Confronted  by  the 
difficulty  I  have  put  before  you,  and  contemplating  such  amazing  poly- 
morphism in  the  second  generation  from  a  cross  in  Antirrhinum,  Lotsy 
has  lately  with  great  courage  suggested  to  us  that  all  variation  may  be 
due  to  such  crossing.  I  do  not  disguise  my  sympathy  with  this  effort. 
After  the  blind  complacency  of  conventional  evolutionists  it  is  refresh- 
ing to  meet  so  frank  an  acknowledgment  of  the  hardness  of  the  problem. 
Lotsy 's  utterance  will  at  least  do  something  to  expose  the  artificiality  of 
systematic  zoology  and  botany.  Whatever  might  or  might  not  be 
revealed  by  experimental  breeding,  it  is  certain  that  without  such  tests 
we  are  merely  guessing  when  we  profess  to  distinguish  specific  limits 
and  to  declare  that  this  is  a  species  and  that  a  variety.  The  only  defin- 
able unit  in  classification  is  the  homozygous  form  which  breeds  true. 
When  we  presume  to  say  that  such  and  such  differences  are  trivial  and 
such  others  valid,  we  are  commonly  embarking  on  a  course  for  which 
there  is  no  physiological  warrant.  Who  could  have  foreseen  that  the 
Apple  and  the  Pear — so  like  each  other  that  their  botanical  differences 
are  evasive — could  not  be  crossed  together,  though  species  of  Antir- 
rhinum so  totally  unlike  each  other  as  niajus  and  7nolle  can  be 
hybridized,  as  Baur  has  shown,  without  a  sign  of  impaired  fertility? 
Jordan  was  perfectly  right.  The  true-breeding  forms  which  he  dis- 
tinguished in  such  multitudes  are  real  entities,  though  the  great 
systematists,  dispensing  with  such  laborious  analysis,  have  pooled  them 
into  arbitrary  Linnean  species,  for  the  convenience  of  collectors  and  for 
the  simplification  of  catalogues.  Such  pragmatical  considerations  may 
mean  much  in  the  museum,  but  with  them  the  student  of  the  physio- 
logy of  variation  has  nothing  to  do.  These  'little  species,'  finely  cut,, 
true-breeding,  and  innumerable  mongrels  between  them,  are  what  he 
finds  when  he  examines  any  so-called  variable  type.  On  analysis  the 
semblance  of  variability  disappears,  and  the  illusion  is  shown  to  be  due 
to  segregation  and  recombination  of  series  of  factors  on  pre-determined 
lines.  As  soon  as  the  '  little  species  '  are  separated  out  they  are  found 
to  be  fixed.  In  face  of  such  a  result  we  may  well  ask  with  Lotsy, 
is  there  such  a  thing  as  spontaneous  variation  anywhere?  His  answer 
is  that  there  is  not. 

Abandoning  the  attempt  to  show  that  positive  factors  can  be  added 
to  the  original  stock,  we  have  further  to  confess  that  we  cannot 
often  actually  jsrove  variation  by  loss  of  factor  to  be  a  real  pheno- 
menon. Lotsy  doubts  whether  even  this  phenomenon  occurs.  The 
sole  source  of  variation,  in  his  view,  is  crossing.  But  here  I 
think  he  is  on  unsafe  ground.  When  a  v,'ell-established  variety  like 
'  Crimson  King  '  Primula,  bred  by  Messrs.  Sutton  in  thousands  of 
individuals,  gives  off,    as  it  did  a  few  years  since,  a  salmon-coloured 


16  president's  address. 

variety,  'Coral  King,'  we  might  claim  this  as  a  genuine  example  o! 
variation  by  loss.  The  new  variety  is  a  simple  recessive.  It  differs 
from  '  Crimson  King  '  only  in  one  respect,  the  loss  of  a  single  colour- 
factor,  and,  of  course,  bred  true  from  its  origin.  To  account  for  the 
appearance  of  such  a  new  form  by  any  process  of  crossing  is  exceedingly 
difficult.  From  the  nature  of  the  case  there  can  have  been  no  cross 
since  '  Crimson  King  '  was  established,  and  hence  the  salmon  must 
have  been  concealed  as  a  recessive  from  the  first  origin  of  that  variety, 
even  when  it  was  represented  by  very  few  individuals,  probably  only  by 
a  single  one.  Surely,  if  any  of  these  had  been  heterozygous  for  salmon 
this  recessive  could  hardly  have  failed  to  appear  during  the  process  of 
self-fertilisation  by  which  the  stock  would  be  multiplied,  even  though 
that  selfing  may  not  have  been  strictly  carried  out.  Examples  like  this 
seem  to  me  practically  conclusive.®  They  can  be  challenged,  but  not, 
I  think,  successfully.  Then  again  in  regard  to  those  variations  in 
number  and  division  of  parts  which  we  call  meristic,  the  .reference  of 
these  to  original  cross-breeding  is  surely  barred  by  the  circumstances  in 
which  they  often  occur.  There  remain  also  the  rare  examples  men- 
tioned already  in  which  a  single  wild  origin  may  with  much  confidence 
be  assumed.  In  spite  of  repeated  trials,  no  one  has  yet  succeeded  in 
crossing  the  Sweet  Pea  with  any  other  leguminous  species.  We  know 
that  early  in  its  cultivated  history  it  produced  at  least  two  marked 
varieties  which  I  can  only  conceive  of  as  spontaneously  arising,  though, 
no  doubt,  the  profusion  of  forms  we  now  have  was  made  by  the  crossing 
of  those  original  varieties.  I  mention  the  Sweet  Pea  thus  prominently 
for  another  reason,  that  it  introduces  us  to  another  though  subsidiary 
form  of  variation,  which  may  be  described  as  a  fractionation  of  factors. 
Some  of  my  Mendelian  colleagues  have  spoken  of  genetic  factors  as 
permanent  and  indestructible.  Eelative  permanence  in  a  sense  thej 
have,  for  they  commonly  come  out  unchanged  after  segregation.  But 
I  am  satisfied  that  they  may  occasionally  undergo  a  quantitative  dis- 
integration, with  the  consequence  that  varieties  are  produced  inter- 
mediate between  the  integral  varieties  from  which  they  were  derived. 
These  disintegrated  conditions  I  have  spoken  of  as  subtraction — or 
reduction — stages.  For  example,  the  Picotee  Sweet  Pea,  with  its 
purple  edges,  can  surely  be  nothing  but  a  condition  produced  by  the 
factor  which  ordinarily  makes  the  fully  purple  flower,  quantitatively 
diminished.  The  pied  animal,  such  as  the  Dutch  rabbit,  must  similarly 
be  regarded  as  the  result  of  partial  defect  of  the  chromogen  from  which 
the  pigment  is  formed,  or  conceivably  of  the  factor  which  effects  its 
oxidation.        On  such  lines    I  think  we  may  Avith  gi'eat  confidence 

'  The  numerou-s  and  most  interesting  '  mutations  '  recorded  by  Professor 
T.  H.  Morgan  and  his  colleagues  in  the  fly,  Drosophila,  may  also 'be  cited  as 
unexceptionable  cases. 


president's  address.  17 

interpret  all  those  intergrading  forms  which   breed  true  and  are  not 
produced  by  factorial  interference. 

It  is  to  be  inferred  that  these  fractional  degradations  are  the  con- 
sequence of  irregularities  in  segregation.  We  constantly  see  irregulari- 
ties in  the  ordinary  meristic  processes,  and  in  the  distribution  of  somatic 
differentiation.  We  are  familiar  with  half  segments,  with  imperfect 
twinning,  with  leaves  partially  petaloid,  with  petals  partially  sepaloid. 
All  these  are  evidences  of  departures  from  the  normal  regularity  in  the 
rhythms  of  repetition,  or  in  those  waves  of  differentiation  by  which  the 
qualities  are  sorted  out  among  the  parts  of  the  body.  Similarly,  when 
in  segregation  the  qualities  are  sorted  out  among  the  germ-cells  in 
certain  critical  cell-divisions,  we  cannot  expect  these  differentiating 
divisions  to  be  exempt  from  the  imperfections  and  iiTegularities  which 
are  found  in  all  the  grosser  divisions  that  we  can  observe.  If  I  am 
I'ight,  we  shall  find  evidence  of  these  irregularities  in  the  association 
of  unconformable  numbers  with  the  appearance  of  the  novelties  which 
I  have  called  fractional.  In  passing  let  us  note  how  the  history  of  the 
Sweet  Pea  belies  those  ideas  of  a  continuous  evolution  with  which  we 
had  formerly  to  contend.  The  big  varieties  came  first.  The  little  ones 
have  arisen  later,  as  I  suggest  by  fractionation.  Presented  with  a 
collection  of  modern  Sweet  Peas  how  prettily  v,'ould  the  devotees  of 
Continuity  have  arranged  them  in  a  graduated  series,  showing  how 
every  intergrade  could  be  found,  passing  from  the  full  colour  of  the 
wild  Sicilian  species  in  one  direction  to  white,  in  the  other  to  the 
deep  purple  of  '  Black  Prince, '  though  happily  we  know  these  two  to  be 
among  the  earliest  to  have  appeared. 

Having  in  view  these  and  other  considerations  which  might  be 
developed,  I  feel  no  reasonable  doubt  that  though  we  may  have  to 
forgo  a  claim  to  variations  by  addition  of  factors,  yet  variation  both  by 
loss  of  factors  and  by  fractionation  of  factors  is  a  genuine  phenomenon 
of  contemporary  nature.  If  then  we  have  to  dispense,  as  seems  likely, 
with  any  addition  from  without  we  must  begin  seriously  to  consider 
whether  the  course  of  Evolution  can  at  all  reasonably  be  represented  as 
an  unpacking  of  an  original  complex  which  contained  within  itself  the 
whole  range  of  diversity  which  living  things  present.  I  do  not  suggest 
that  we  should  come  to  a  judgment  as  to  what  is  or  is  not  probable  in 
these  respects.  As  I  have  said  already,  this  is  no  time  for  devising 
theories  of  Evolution,  and  I  propound  none.  But  as  we  have  got  to 
recognise  that  there  has  been  an  Evolution,  that  somehow  or  other  the 
forms  of  life  have  arisen  from  fewer  forms,  we  may  as  well  see  whether 
we  are  limited  to  the  old  view  that  evolutionary  progress  is  from  the 
simple  to  the  complex,  and  whether  after  all  it  is  conceivable  that  the 
process  was  the  other  way  about.  When  the  facts  of  genetic  discovery 
become  familiarly  known  to  biologists,  and  cease  to  be  the  preoccupa- 
1914.  o 


18  president's  address, 

tion  of  a  few,    as  they    etill    are,   many   and  long    discussions   must 
inevitably  arise   on  the  question,   and  I  offer  these  remarks  to   pre- 
pare the   ground.       I    ask  you  simply  to  open  your  minds    to  this 
possibility.        It  involves  a  certain  effort.       We  have  to  reverse  our 
habitual  modes  of  thought.     At  first  it  may   seem  rank  absurdity  to 
suppose  that  the  primordial  form  or  fonns  of  protoplasm  could  have 
contained  complexity  enough  to  produce  the  divers  types  of  life.     But 
is  it  easier  to  imagine  that  these  powers  could  have  been  conveyed  by 
extrinsic  additions  ?  Of  what  nature  could  these  additions  be  ?  Additions 
of  material  cannot  surely  be  in  question.     We  are  told  that  salts  of 
iron  in  the  soil  may  turn  a  pink  hydrangea  blue.     The  iron  cannot  be 
passed  on  to  the  next  generation.     How  can  the  iron  multiply  itself? 
The  power  to  assimilate  the  iron  is   all  that  can  be  transmitted.     A 
disease-producing  organism  like  the  pebrine  of  silkworms  can  in  a  very 
few  cases  be  passed  on  tlirough  the  germ-cells.     Such  an  organism  can 
multiply  and  can  produce  its  characteristic  effects  in  the  next  genera- 
tion.    But  it  does  not  become  part  of  the  invaded  host,  and  we  cannot 
conceive  it  taking  part  in  the  geometrically  ordered  processes  of  segre- 
gation.    These  illustrations  may  seem  too  gross;  but  what  refinement 
will  meet  the  requhements  of  the  problem,  that  the  thing  introduced 
must  be,  as  the  living  organism  itself  is,  capable  of  multiplication  and 
of  subordinating  itself  in  a  definite  system  of  segregation  ?     That  which 
is  conferred  in  variation  must  rather  itself  be  a  change,  not  of  material, 
but  of  arrangement,  or  of  motion.     The  invocation  of  additions  extrinsic 
to  the  organism  does  not  seriously  help  us  to  imagine  How  the  power  to 
change  can  be  conferred,    and  if  it  prove  that  hope  in  that  direction 
must  be  abandoned,  I  think  we  lose  very  little.     By  the  re-arrangement 
of  a  very  moderate  number  of  things  we  soon  reach  a  number  of  possi- 
bilities practically  infinite. 

That  primordial  life  may  have  been  of  small  dimensions  need  not 
disturb  us.  Quantity  is  of  no  account  in  these  considerations. 
Shakespeare  once  existed  as  a  speck  of  protoplasm  not  so  big  as  a 
small  pin's  head.  To  this  nothing  was  added  that  would  not  equally 
well  have  served  to  build  up  a  baboon  or  a  rat.  Let  us  consider  how  far 
we  can  get  by  the  process  of  removal  of  what  we  call  'epistatic  '  factors, 
in  other  words  those  that  control,  mask,  or  suppress  underlying  powers 
and  faculties.  I  have  spoken  of  the  vast  range  of  colours  exhibited  by 
modern  Sweet  Peas.  There  is  no  question  that  these  have  been  derived 
from  the  one  wild  bi-colour  form  by  a  process  of  successive  removals. 
When  the  vast  range  of  form,  size,  and  flavour  to  be  found  among  the 
cultivated  apples  is  considered  it  seems  difficult  to  suppose  that  all  this 
variety  is  hidden  in  the  wild  crab-apple.  I  cannot  positively  assert  that 
this  is  so,  but  I  think  all  familiar  with  Mendehan  analysis  would  agi'ee 
with  me  that  it  is  probable,  and  that  the  wild  crab  contains  presumably 


president's  address.  19 

inhibiting  elements  which  the  cultivated  kinds  have  lost.  The  legend 
that  the  seedlings  of  cultivated  apples  become  crabs  is  often  repeated. 
After  many  inquiries  among  the  raisers  of  apple  seedlings  I  have  never 
found  an  authentic  case — once  only  even  an  alleged  case,  and  this 
on  inquiry  proved  to  be  unfounded.  I  have  confidence  that  the  artistic 
gifts  of  mankind  will  prove  to  be  due  not  to  something  added  to  the 
make-up  of  an- ordinary  man,  but  to  the  absence  of  factors  which  in  the 
normal  person  inhibit  the  development  of  these  gifts.  They  are  almost 
beyond  doubt  to  be  looked  upon  as  releases  of  powers  normally  sup- 
pressed. The  instrument  is  there,  but  it  is  'stopped  down.'  The 
scents  of  flowers  or  fruits,  the  finely  repeated  divisions  that  give  its 
quality  to  the  wool  of  the  Merino,  or  in  an  analogous  case  the  multi- 
plicity of  quills  to  the  tail  of  the  fantail  pigeon,  are  in  all  probability 
other  examples  of  such  releases.  You  may  ask  what  guides  us  in  the 
discrimination  of  the  positive  factors  and  how  we  can  satisfy  ourselves 
that  the  appearance  of  a  quality  is  due  to  loss.  It  must  be  conceded 
that  in  these  determinations  we  have  as  yet  recourse  only  to  the  effects 
of  dominance.  When  the  tall  pea  is  crossed  with  the  dwarf,  since  the 
offspring  is  tall  we  say  that  the  tall  parent  passed  a  factor  into  the 
cross-bred  which  makes  it  tall.  The  pure  tall  parent  had  two  doses  of 
this  factor ;  the  dwarf  had  none ;  and  since  the  cross-bred  is  tall  we  say 
that  one  dose  of  the  dominant  tallness  is  enough  to  give  the  full  height. 
The  reasoning  seems  unanswerable.  But  the  commoner  result  of  cross- 
ing is  the  production  of  a  form  intermediate  between  the  two  pure 
parental  types.  In  such  examples  we  see  clearly  enough  that  the  full 
parental  characteristics  can  only  appear  when  they  are  homozygous — ■ 
formed  from  similar  geiTn-cells,  and  that  one  dose  is  insufficient  to 
produce  either  effect  fully.  When  this  is  so  we  can  never  be  sure 
which  side  is  positive  and  which  negative.  Since,  then,  when  dominance 
is  incomplete  we  find  ourselves  in  this  difficulty,  we  perceive  that  the 
amount  of  the  effect  is  our  only  criterion  in  distinguishing  the  positive 
from  the  negative,  and  when  we  return  even  to  the  example  of  the 
tall  and  dwarf  peas  the  matter  is  not  so  certain  as  it  seemed.  Professor 
Cockerell  lately  found  among  thousands  of  yellow  sunflowers  one 
which  was  partly  red.  By  breeding  he  raised  from  this  a  form  wholly 
red.  Evidently  the  /ellow  and  the  wholly  red  are  the  pure  forms,  and 
the  partially  red  is  .he  heterozygote.  We  may  then  say  that  the  yellow 
is  YY  with  two  doses  of  a  positive  factor  which  inhibits  the  development 
of  pigment;  the  red  is  yy,  with  no  dose  of  the  inhibitor;  and  the 
partially  red  are  Yy,  with  only  one  dose  of  it.  But  we  might  be  tempted 
to  think  the  red  was  a  positive  characteristic,  and  invert  the  expressions, 
representing  the  red  as  RR,  the  partly  red  as  Rr,  and  the  yellow  as 
rr.  According  as  we  adopt  the  one  or  the  otlier  system  of  expression 
we  shall  interpret  the  evolutionary  change  as  one  of  loss  or  as  one  of 


20  president's  address. 

addition.  May  we  not  interpret  the  other  apparent  new  dominants  in 
the  same  way?  The  white  dominant  in  the  fowl  or  in  the  Chinese 
Primula  can  inhibit  colour.  But  may  it  not  be  that  the  original  coloured 
fowl  or  Primula  had  two  doses  of  a  factor  which  inhibited  this  inhibitor  ? 
The  Pepper  Moth,  Amphidasys  hetularia,  produced  in  England  about 
1840  a  black  variety,  then  a  novelty,  now  common  in  certain  areas, 
which  behaves  as  a  full  dominant.  The  pure  blacks  are  no  blacker 
than  the  cross-bred.  Though  at  first  sight  it  seems  that  the  black 
must  have  been  something  added,  we  can  without  absurdity  suggest 
that  the  normal  is  the  term  in  which  two  doses  of  inhibitor  are  present, 
and  that  in  the  absence  of  one  of  them  the  black  appears. 

In  spit-e  of  seeming  perversity,  therefore,  we  have  to  admit  that 
there  is  no  evolutionary  change  which  in  the  present  state  of  our  know- 
ledge we  can  positively  declare  to  be  not  due  to  loss.  "When  this  ha6 
been  conceded  it  is  natural  to  ask  whether  the  removal  of  inhibiting 
factors  may  not  be  invoked  in  alleviation  of  the  necessity  which  has 
driven  students  of  the  domestic  breeds  to  refer  their  diversities  to 
multiple  origins.  Something,  no  doubt,  is  to  be  hoped  for  in  that 
direction,  but  not  until  much  better  and  more  extensive  knowledge  of 
what  variation  by  loss  may  effect  in  the  living  body  can  we  have  any  real 
assurance  that  this  difficulty  has  been  obviated.  We  should  be  greatly 
helped  by  some  indication  as  to  whether  the  origin  of  life  has  been  single 
or  multiple.  Modern  opinion  is,  perhaps,  inclining  to  the  multiple 
theory,  but  we  have  no  real  evidence.  Indeed,  the  problem  still  stands 
outside  the  range  of  scientific  investigation,  and  when  we  hear  the 
spontaneous  formation  of  formaldehyde  mentioned  as  a  possible  first 
step  in  the  origin  of  life,  we  think  of  Harry  Lauder  in  the  character  of 
a  Glasgow  schoolboy  pulling  out  his  treasures  from  his  pocket — '  That's 
a  wassher — for  makkin'  motor  cars  ' ! 

As  the  evidence  stands  at  present  all  that  can  be  safely  added  in 
amplification  of  the  evolutionary  creed  may  be  summed  up  in  the 
statement  that  variation  occurs  as  a  definite  event  often  producing  a 
sensibly  discontinuous  result;  that  the  succession  of  varieties  comes 
to  pass  by  the  elevation  and  estabhshment  of  sporadic  groups  of 
individuals  owing  their  origin  to  such  isolated  events ;  and  that 
the  change  which  we  see  as  a  nascent  variation  is  often,  perhaps 
always,  one  of  loss.  Modern  research  lends  not  the  smallest  encourage- 
ment or  sanction  to  the  view  that  gi-adual  evolution  occurs  by  the  trans- 
fonnation  of  masses  of  individuals,  though  that  fancy  has  fixed  itself  on 
popular  imagination.  The  isolated  events  to  which  variation  is  due  are 
evidently  changes  in  the  germinal  tissues,  probably  in  the  manner  in 
which  they  divide.  It  is  likely  that  the  occurrence  of  these  variations 
is  wholly  irregular,  and  as  to  their  causation  we  are  absolutely  without 
surmise  or  even  plausible  speculation.     Distinct  types  once  arisen,  no 


president's  address.  21 

doubt  a  profusion  of  the  forms  called  species  have  been,  derived  from 
them  by  simple  crossing  and  subsequent  recombination.  New  species 
may  be  now  in  course  of  creation  by  this  means,  but  the  limits  of  the 
process  are  obviously  narrow.  On  the  other  hand,  we  see  no  changes  in 
progress  around  us  in  the  contemporary  woi'ld  which  we  can  imagine 
likely  to  culminate  in  the  evolution  of  forms  distinct  in  the  larger  sense. 
By  intercrossing  dogs,  jackals,  and  wolves  new  forais  of  these  types 
can  be  made,  some  of  which  may  be  species,  but  I  see  no  reason  to 
think  that  fi'om  such  material  a  fox  could  be  bred  in  indefinite  time,  or 
that  dogs  could  be  bred  from  foxes. 

Whether  Science  will  hei'eafter  discover  that  certain  groups  can  by 
peculiarities  in  their  genetic  physiology  be  declared  to  have  a  preroga- 
tive quality  justifying  their  recognition  as  species  in  the  old  sense,  and 
that  the  differences  of  others  are  of  such  a  subordinate  degree  that  they 
may  in  contrast  be  termed  varieties,  further  genetic  research  alone  can 
show.  I  myself  anticipate  that  such  a  discovery  will  be  made,  but  I 
cannot  defend  the  opinion  with  positive  conviction. 

Somewhat  reluctantly,  and  rather  from  a  sense  of  duty,  I  have 
devoted  most  of  this  Address  to  the  evolutionary  aspects  of  genetic 
research.  We  cannot  keep  these  things  out  of  our  heads,  though  some- 
times we  wish  we  could.  The  outcome,  as  you  will  have  seen,  is 
negative,  destroying  much  that  till  lately  passed  for  gospel.  Destruc- 
tion may  be  useful,  but  it  is  a  low  kind  of  work.  We  are  just  about 
where  Boyle  was  in  the  seventeenth,  century.  We  can  dispose  of 
Alchemy,  but  we  cannot  make  more  than  a  quasi-chemistry.  We  are 
awaiting  our  Priestley  and  our  Mendel6eff.  In  truth  it  is  not  these 
wider  aspects  of  genetics  that  are  at  present  our  chief  concern.  They 
will  come  in  their  time.  The  great  advances  of  science  are  made  like 
those  of  evolution,  not  by  imperceptible  mass-improvement,  but  by  the 
sporadic  bh-th  of  penetrative  genius.  The  journeymen  follow  after  him, 
widening  and  clearing  up,  as  we  are  doing  along  the  track  that  Mendel 
found. 


Part  II.— SYDNEY.' 

At  Melbourne  I  spoke  of  the  new  knowledge  of  the  properties  of 
living  things  which  Mendelian  analysis  has  brought  us.  I  indicated 
how  these  discoveries  are  affecting  our  outlook  on  that  old  problem 
of  natural  history,  the  origin  and  nature  of  Species,  and  the  chief 
conclusion  I  drew  was  the  negative  one,  that,  though  we  must  hold 
to  our  faith  in  the  Evolution  of  Species,  there  is  little  evidence  as  to 
how  it  has  come  about,  and  no  clear  proof  that  the  process  is  con- 
tinuing in  any  considerable  degree  at  the  present  time.     The  thought 

'  Delivered  in  Sydney  on  Thursday,  August  20,  1914. 


22  president's  address. 

uppermost  in  our  minds  is  that  knowledge  of  the  nature  of  hfe  is 
altogether  too  slender  to  warrant  speculation  on  these  fundamental 
subjects.  Did  we  presume  to  offer  such  speculations  thej'  would 
have  no  more  value  than  those  which  alchemists  might  have  made  as 
to  the  nature  of  the  elements.  But  though  in  regard  to  these 
theoretical  aspects  we  must  confess  to  such  deep  ignorance,  enough  has 
been  learnt  of  the  general  course  of  heredity  within  a  single  species  to 
justify  many  practical  conclusions  Avhich  cannot  in  the  main  be  shaken. 
T  propose  now  to  develop  some  of  these  conclusions  in  regard  to  our 
own  species,  Man. 

In  my  former  Address  I  mentioned  the  condition  of  certain  animals 
and  plants  which  are  what  we  call  '  polymorphic. '  Their  populations 
consist  of  individuals  of  many  types,  though  they  breed  freely  together 
with  perfect  fertility.  In  cases  of  this  kind  which  have  been  suffi- 
ciently investigated  it  has  been  found  that  these  distmctions — some- 
times very  great  and  affecting  most  diverse  features  of  organisation — 
are  due  to  the  presence  or  absence  of  elements,  or  factors  as  we  call 
them,  which  are  treated  in  heredity  as  separate  entities.  These 
factors  and  their  combinations  produce  tlie  characteristics  which  we 
perceive.  No  individual  can  acquire  a  particular  characteristic  unless 
the  requisite  factors  entered  into  the  composition  of  that  individual 
at  fertilisation,  being  received  either  from  the  father  or  from  the 
mother  or  from  both,  and  consequently  no  individual  can  pass  on  to 
his  offspring  positive  characters  which  he  does  not  himself  possess. 
Rules  of  this  kind  have  already  been  traced  in  operation  in  the  human 
species;  and  though  I  admit  that  an  assumption  of  some  magnitude 
is  involved  when  we  extend  the  application  of  the  same  system  to 
human  characteristics  in  general,  yet  the  assumption  is  one  which 
I  believe  we  are  fully  justified  in  making.  With  little  hesitation  we 
can  now  declare  that  the  potentialities  and  aptitudes,  physical  as  v\ell 
as  mental,  sex,  colours,  powers  of  work  or  invention,  liability  to 
diseases,  possible  duration  of  life,  and  the  other  features  by  which  the 
members  of  a  mixed  population  differ  from  each  other,  are  determined 
from  the  moment  of  fertilisation;  and  by  all  that  we  know  of  heredity 
in  the  forms  of  life  with  which  we  can  experiment  we  ai'e  compelled 
to  believe  that  these  qualities  are  in  the  main  distributed  on  a  factorial 
system.  By  changes  in  the  outward  conditions  of  life  the  expression 
of  some  of  these  powers  and  features  may  be  excited  or  restrained. 
For  the  development  of  some  an  external  opportunity  is  needed,  and 
if  that  be  withheld  the  character  is  never  seen,  any  more  than  if  the 
body  be  starved  can  the  full  height  be  attained;  but  such  influences 
are  superficial  and  do  not  alter  the  genetic  constitution. 

The  factors  which  the  individual  receives  from  his  parents  and  no 
others  are  those  which  he  can  transmit  to  his  offspring;  and  if  a  factor 


presidekt's  address.  23 

was  received  from  one  parent  only,  not  more  than  hal£  the  offspring, 
on  an  average,  will  inherit  it.     What  is  it  that  has  so  long  prevented 
mankind  from  discovering  such  simple  facts?     Primarily  the  circum- 
stance that  as  man  must  have  Hvo  parents  it  is  not  possible  quita 
easily  to  detect  the  contributions  of  each.     The  individual  body  is  a 
doiible  structure,  whereas  the  germ-cells  are  single.     Two  germ-cells 
unite  to  produce  each  individual  body,  and  the  ingredients  they  respec- 
tively contribute  interact  in  ways  that  leave  the  ultimate  product  a 
medley  in  which  it  is  difficult  to  identify  the  several  ingredients.   When, 
however,  their  effects  are  conspicuous  the  task  is  by  no  means  impos- 
sible.    In  part  also  even  physiologists  have  been  blinded  by  the  survival 
of  ancient  and  obscurantist  conceptions  of  the  nature  of  man  by  which 
they  were  discouraged  from  the  application  of  any  rigorous  analysis. 
Medical  literature  still  abounds  with  traces  of  these  archaisms,   and, 
indeed,   it  is  only   quite  recently  that  prominent  horse-breeders  have 
come  to  see  that  the  dam  matters  as  much  as  the  sire.     For  them, 
though  vast  pecuniary  considerations  were  involved,  the  old  '  homun- 
culus  '    theory  was  good  enough.      We  were  amazed   at  the  notions 
of  genetic  physiology  which  Professor  Baldwin  Spencer  encountered 
in  his  wonderful  researches  among  the  natives  of  Central  Australia ; 
but  in  truth,  if  we  reflect  that  these  problems  have  engaged  the  atten- 
tion of  civihsed  man  for  ages,  the  fact  that  he,  with  all  his  powers 
of  recording  and  deduction,  failed  to  discover  any  part  of  the  Mendelian 
system  is  almost  as  amazing.     The  popular  notion  that  any  parents 
can  have  any  kind  of  children  within  the  racial  limits  is  contrary  to 
all  experience,  yet  we  have  gravely  entertained  such  ideas.     As  I  have 
said  elsewhere,  the  truth  might  have  been  found  out  at  any  period 
in  the  world's   history  if  only  pedigrees  had  been  drawn   the  right 
way  up.     If,  instead  of  exhibiting  the  successive  pairs  of  progenitors 
who  have  contributed  to  the  making  of  an  ultimate  individual,  some 
one  had  had  the  idea  of  setting  out  the  posterity  of  a  single  ancestor 
who  possessed  a  marked  feature  such  as  the  Habsburg  lip,  and  showing 
the  transmission  of  this  feature  along  some  of  the  descending  branches 
and  the  permanent  loss    of    the    feature    in    collaterals,  the  essential 
truth  that  heredity  can  be  expressed  in  terms  of  presence  and  absence 
must  have  at  once  become  apparent.     For  the  descendant  is  not,  as  he 
appears  in  the  conventional  pedigree,    a  sort  of  pool  into  which  each 
tributary  ancestral  stream  has  poured  something,   but  rather  a  con- 
glomerate of  ingredient-characters  taken  from  his  progenitors  in  such 
a  way  that  some  ingredients  are  represented  and  others  are  omitted. 

Let  me  not,  however,  give  the  impression  that  the  unravelling  of 
such  descents  is  easy.  Even  with  fairly  full  details,  which  in  the  case 
of  man  are  very  rarely  to  be  had,  many  complications  occur,  often 
preventing  us  from  obtaining  more  than  a  rough  general  indication  of 


24  president's  address. 

the  system  of  descent.  The  nature  of  these  comphcations  we  partly 
understand  from  our  experience  of  animals  and  plants  which  are 
amenable  to  breeding  under  careful  restrictions,  and  we  know  that 
they  are  mostly  referable  to  various  effects  of  interaction  between 
factors  by  which  the  presence  of  some  is  masked. 

Necessarily  the  clearest  evidence  of  regularity  in  the  inheritance 
of  human  characteristics  has  been  obtained  in  regard  to  the  descent 
of  marked  abnormalities  of  stnicture  and  congenital  diseases.  Of  the 
descent  of  ordinary  distinctions  such  as  are  met  with  in  the  normal 
healthy  population  we  know  little  for  certain.  Hurst's  evidence,  that 
two  parents  both  with  light-coloured  eyes — in  the  strict  sense,  meaning 
that  no  pigment  is  present  on  the  front  of  the  iris — do  not  have  dark- 
eyed  children,  still  stands  almost  alone  in  this  respect.  With  regard 
to  the  inheritance  of  other  colour-characteristics  some  advance  has  been 
made,  but  everything  points  to  the  inference  that  the  genetics  of  colour 
and  many  other  features  in  man  will  prove  exceptionally  complex. 
There  are,  however,  plenty  of  indications  of  system  comparable  with 
those  which  we  trace  in  various  animals  and  plants,  and  we  are  assured 
that  to  extend  and  clarify  such  evidence  is  only  a  matter  of  careful 
analysis.  For  the  present,  in  asserting  almost  any  general  rules  for 
human  descent,  we  do  right  to  make  large  reservations  for  possible 
exceptions.  It  is  tantalising  to  have  to  wait,  but  of  the  ultimate  result 
there  can  be  no  doubt. 

I  spoke  of  comphcations.  Two  of  these  are  worth  illustrating  here, 
for  probably  both  of  them  play  a  great  part  in  human  genetics.  It 
was  discovered  by  Nilsson-Ehle,  in  the  course  of  experiments  with 
certain  wheats,  that  several  factors  having  the  same  power  may  co-exist 
in  the  same  individual.  These  cumulative  factors  do  not  necessarily 
produce  a  cumulative  effect,  for  any  one  of  them  may  suffice  to  give 
the  full  result.  Just  as  the  pure-bred  tall  pea  with  its  two  factors  for 
tallness  is  no  taller  than  the  cross-bred  with  a  single  factor,  so  these 
wheats  with  three  pairs  of  factors  for  red  colour  are  no  redder  than  the 
ordinary  reds  of  the  same  family.  Similar  observations  have  been 
made  by  East  and  others.  In  some  cases,  as  in  the  Primulas  studied 
by  Gregory,  the  effect  is  cumulative.  These  results  have  been  used 
with  plausibility  by  Davenpoi't  and  the  American  workers  to  elucidate 
the  curious  case  of  the  mulatto.  If  the  descent  of  colour  in  the  cross 
between  the  negro  and  the  white  man  followed  the  simplest  rule,  the 
offspring  of  two  first-ci'oss  mulattos  would  be,  on  an  average,  one 
black :  two  mulattos :  one  white,  but  this  is  notoriously  not  so. 
Evidence  of  some  segregation  is  fairly  clear,  and  the  deficiency  of  real 
whites  may  perhaps  be  accounted  for  on  the  hypothesis  of  cumulative 
factors,  though  by  the  nature  of  the  case  strict  proof  is  not  to  be  had. 
But  at  pi-esent  I  own  to  a  preference  for  regarding  such  examples  as 


president's  address.  25 

instances  of  imperfect  segregation.     The  series  of  germ-oells  produced 
by  the  cross-bred  consists  of  some  with  no  black,  some  with  full  black, 
and  others  with  intermediate  quantities  of  black.     No  statistical  tests 
of  the  condition  of  the  gametes  in  such  cases  exist,  and  it  is  likely  that 
by  choosing   suitable   crosses  all   sorts   of  conditions   may   be   found, 
ranging  from  the  simplest  case  of  total  segregation,  in  which  there  aro 
only  two  forms  of  gametes,  up  to  those  in  which  there  are  all  inter- 
mediates in  various  proportions.     This  at  least  is  what  general  experi- 
ence   of    hybrid    products    leads    me    to    anticipate.       Segregation    is 
somehow  effected  by  the  rhythms  of  cell-division,  if  such  an  expression 
may  be  permitted.   In  some  cases  the  whole  factor  is  so  easily  separated 
that  it  is  swept  out  at  once ;  in  others  it  is  so  intermixed  that  gametes  of 
all  degrees  of  purity  may  result.   That  is  admittedly  a  crude  metaphor, 
but  as  yet  we  cannot  substitute  a  better.    Be  all  this  as  it  may,  there  are 
many  signs  that  in  human  heredity  phenomena  of  this  kind  are  common, 
whether  they  indicate  a  multiplicity  of  cumulative  factors  or  imper- 
fections in  segregation.     Such  phenomena,  however,  in  no  way  detract 
from  the  essential  truths  that  segregation  occurs,  and  that  the  organism 
cannot  pass  on  a  factor  which  it  has  not  itself  received. 

In  human  heredity  we  have  found  some  examples,   and  I  believe 
that  we  shall  find  many  more,  in  which  the  descent  of  factors  is  limited 
by    sex.     The   classical    instances   are  those  of    colour-blindness    and 
h£emophilia.     Both  these  conditions  occur  with  much  gi-eater  frequency 
in  males  than  in  females.     Of  colour-blindness  at  least  we  know  that 
the  sons  of  the  colour-blind  man  do  not  inherit  it  (unless  the  mother 
is  a  transmitter)   and  do  not  transmit  it  to  their  children  of  either 
sex.     Some,  probably  all,  of  the  daughters  of  the  colour-blind  father 
inherit  the  character,    and  though  not  themselves  colour-blind,   they 
transmit  it  to  some  (probably,  on  an  average,  half)  of  their  offspring 
of  both  sexes.        For  since    these  normal-sighted    women  have  only 
received  the  colour-blindness  from  one   side  of  their  parentage,  only 
half  their  offspring,  on  an   average,    can  inherit   it.      The   sons   who 
inherit  the   colour-blindness   will   be  colour-blind,    and  the   inheriting 
daughters     become     themselves     again     transmitters.       Males     with 
normal  colour- vision,  whatever  their  own  parentage,  do  not  have  colour- 
blind  descendants,    unless   they   marry   transmitting   women.      There 
are  points  still  doubtful  in  the  interpretation,  but  the  critical  fact  is 
clear,  that  the  germ-cells  of  the  colour-blind  man  are  of  two  kinds: 
(i)  those  which  do  not  carry  on  the  affection  and  are  destined  to  take 
part  in  the  fonnation  of  sons ;  and  (ii)  those  which  do  caiTy  on  the 
colour-blindness  and  are  destined  to  form  daughters.     There  is  evidence 
that  the  ova  also  are  similarly  predestined  to  form  one  or  other  of  the 
sexes,  but  to  discuss  the  whole  question  of  sex-determination  is  beyond 
my  present  scope.     The  descent  of  these  sex-limited  affections  never- 


26  PRESroENT'S   ADDRESS. 

theless  calls  for  mention  here,  because  it  is  an  admirable  illustration  of 
factorial  predestination.  It  moreover  exemplifies  that  parental  polarity 
of  the  zygote  to  wliich  I  alluded  in  my  first  Address,  a  phenomenon 
which  we  suspect  to  be  at  the  bottom  of  various  anomalies  of  heredity, 
and  suggests  that  there  may  be  truth  in  the  popular  notion  that  in 
some  respects  sons  resemble  their  mothers  and  daughters  their  fathers. 

As  to  the  descent  of  hereditary  diseases  and  malformations,  however, 
we  have  abundant  data  for  deciding  that  many  are  transmitted  as 
dominants  and  a  few  as  recessives.  The  most  remarkable  collection 
of  these  data  is  to  be  found  in  family  histories  of  diseases  of  the  eye. 
Neurology  and  dermatology  have  also  contributed  many  very  instructive 
pedigrees.  In  great  measure  the  ophthalmological  material  was 
collected  by  Edward  Nettleship,  for  whose  death  we  so  lately  grieved. 
After  retiring  from  practice  as  an  oculist  he  devoted  several  years  to 
this  most  laborious  task.  He  was  not  content  with  hearsay  evidence, 
but  travelled  incessantly,  personally  examining  all  accessible  members 
of  the  families  concerned,  working  in  such  a  way  that  his  pedigrees 
are  models  of  orderly  observation  and  recording.  His  zeal  stimulated 
many  younger  men  to  take  part  in  the  work,  and  it  will  now  go  on, 
with  the  result  that  the  systems  of  descent  of  all  the  common  hereditary 
diseases  of  the  eye  will  soon  be  known  with  approximate  accuracy. 

Give  a  little  imagination  to  considering  the  chief  deduction  from 
this  work.  Technical  details  apart,  and  gi'anting  that  we  cannot 
wholly  interpret  the  numerical  results,  sometimes  noticeably  more  and 
sometimes  fewer  descendants  of  these  patients  being  affected  than 
Mendelian  formulae  would  indicate,  the  expectation  is  that  in  the  case 
of  many  diseases  of  the  eye  a  large  proportion  of  the  children,  grand- 
children, and  remoter  descendants  of  the  patients  will  be  affected  with 
the  disease.  Sometimes  it  is  only  defective  sight  that  is  transmitted; 
in  other  cases  it  is  blindness,  either  from  birth  or  coming  on  at  some 
later  age.  The  most  striking  example  perhaps  is  that  of  a  foiTn  of 
night-blindness  still  prevalent  in  a  district  near  Montpellier,  which 
has  affected  at  least  130  persons,  all  descending  from  a  single  affected 
individual  *  who  came  into  the  country  in  the  seventeenth  century. 
The  transmission  is  in  every  case  through  an  affected  parent,  and  no 
normal  has  been  known  to  pass  on  the  condition.  Such  an  example 
well  serves  to  illustrate  the  fixity  of  the  rules  of  descent.  Similar 
instances  might  be  recited  relating  to  a  great  variety  of  other  conditions, 
some  trivial,  others  grave. 

'  The  first  human  descent  proved  to  follow  Mendelian  rules  was  that  of  a 
serious  malformation  of  tKe  hand  studied  by  Farabee  in  America.  Drinkwater 
subsequently  worked  out  pedigrees  for  the  same  malformation  in  England.  After 
many  attempts,  he  now  tells  me  that  he  has  succeeded  in  proving  that  the 
American  family  and  one  of  h'is  own  had  an  abnormal  ancestor  in  common,  five 
generations  ago. 


I 


president's  address.  27 

At  various  times  it  has  been  declared  that  men  are  born  equal,  and 
that    the    inequality    is    brought    about    by    unequal    opportunities. 
Acquaintance  with  the  pedigrees  ol  disease  soon  shows  the  fatuity  of 
such  fancies.   The    same  conclusion,   we  may  be  sure,   would  result 
from  the  true  representation   of  the  descent   of  any  human  faculty. 
Never  sinca  Galton's  publications  can  the  matter  have  been  in  any 
doubt.     At  the  time  he  began  to  study  family  histories  even  the  broad 
significance  of   heredity   was  frequently  denied,   and  resemblances   to 
parents    or    ancestors    were    looked    on    as    interesting     curiosities. 
Inveighing  against  hereditary  political  institutions,  Tom  Paine  remarks 
that  the  idea  is  as  absurd  as  that  of  an  '  hereditary  wise  man,'  or  an 
'  hereditary  mathematician,'  and  to  this  day  I  suppose  many  people  are 
not  aware  that  he  is  saying  anything  more  than  commonly   foolish. 
"We,  on  the  contrary,  would  feel  it  something  of  a  puzzle  if  two  parents, 
both    mathematically    gifted,    had   any   children   not  mathematicians. 
Galton  first  demonstrated  the  overwhelming  importance  of  these  con- 
siderations, and  had    he    not   been    misled,  partly    by    the    theory   of 
pangenesis,  but  more  by  his  mathematical  instincts  and  training,  which 
prompted  him  to  apply   statistical  treatment  rather  than  qualitative 
analysis,  he  might,  not  improbably,  have  discovered  the  essential  facts 
of  Mendelism. 

It  happens  rarely  that  science  has  anything  to  offer  to  the  common 
stock  of  ideas  at  once  so  comprehensive  and  so  simple  that  the  courses 
of  our  thoughts  are  changed.  Contributions  to  the  material  progress 
of  mankind  are  comparatively  frequent.  They  result  at  once  in 
application.  Transit  is  quickened;  communication  is  made  easier;  the 
food-supply  is  increased  and  population  multiphed.  By  direct  applica- 
tion to  the  breeding  of  animals  and  plants  such  results  must  even 
flow  from  Mendel's  work.  But  I  imagine  the  greatest  practical  change 
likely  to  ensue  from  modern  genetic  discovery  will  be  a  quickening  of 
interest  in  the  true  nature  of  man  and  in  the  biology  of  races.  I  have 
spoken  cautiously  as  to  the  evidence  for  the  operation  of  any  simple 
Mendelian  system  in  the  descent  of  human  faculty;  yet  the  certainty 
that  systems  which  differ  from  the  simpler  schemes  only  in  degree  of 
complexity  are  at  work  in  the  distribution  of  characters  among  the 
human  population  cannot  fail  to  influence  our  conceptions  of  life  and 
of  ethics,  leading  perhaps  ultimately  to  modification  of  social  usage. 
That  change  cannot  but  be  in  the  mam  one  of  simplification.  The 
eighteenth  century  made  great  pretence  of  a  return  to  nature,  but  it 
did  not  occur  to  those  philosophers  first  to  inquire  what  nature  is; 
and  perhaps  not  even  the  patristic  wi-itings  contain  fantasies  much 
further  from  physiological  tinith  than  those  which  the  rationalists  of 
the  '  Encyclopaedia  '  adopted  as  the  basis  of  their  social  schemes.  For 
men  are  so  far  from  being  born  equal  or  similar  that  to  the  naturalist 


28  president's  address. 

they  stand  as  the  very  type  of  a  polymorphic  species.  Even  most  of 
our  local  races  consist  of  many  distinct  strains  and  individual  types. 
From  the  population  of  any  ordinary  English  town  as  many  distinct 
human  breeds  could  in  a  few  generations  be  isolated  as  there  are  now 
breeds  of  dogs,  and  indeed  such  a  population  in  its  present  state  is 
much  what  the  dogs  of  Europe  would  be  in  ten  years'  time  but  for  the 
interference  of  the  fanciers.  Even  as  at  present  constituted,  owing 
to  the  isolating  effects  of  instinct,  fashion,  occupation,  and  social  class, 
many  incipient  strains  already  exist. 

In  one  respect  civilised  man  differs  from  all  other  species  of  animal 
or  plant  in   that,    having  prodigious    and  ever-increasing   power  over 
nature,  he  invokes  these  powers  for  the  preservation  and  maintenance 
of  many  of  the  inferior  and  all  the  defective  members  of  his  species. 
The  inferior  freely  multiply,  and  the  defective,  if  their  defects  be  not 
so  grave  as  to  lead  to  their  detention  in  prisons  or  asylums,  multiply 
also  without  restraint.     Heredity  being  strict  in  its  action,  the  conse- 
quences are  in  civilised  countries  much  what  they  would  be  in  the 
kennels  of  the  dog-breeder  who  continued  to  preserve  all  his  puppies, 
good  and  bad :  the  proportion  of  defectives  increases.     The  increase  is 
so  considerable  that  outside  every  great  city  there  is  a  smaller  town 
inhabited  by  defectives  and  those  who  wait  on  them.     Eound  London 
we  have  a  ring  of  such  towns  with  some  30,000  inhabitants,  of  whom 
about  28,000  are  defective,   largely,   though  of  course  by  no  means 
entirely,  bred  from  previous  generations  of  defectives.     Now,  it  is  not 
for  us  to  consider  practical  measures.     As  men  of  science  we  observe 
natural  events  and  deduce  conclusions  from  them.     I  may  perhaps  be 
allowed  to  say  that  the  remedies  proposed  in  America,  in  so  far  as  they 
aim  at  the  eugenic  regulation  of  marriage  on  a  comprehensive  scale, 
strike  me  as  devised  without  regard  to  the  needs  either  of  individuals 
or  of  a   modern  State.     Undoubtedly  if   they    decide  to    breed    their 
population   of   one  uniform   puritan    grey,    they    can    do   it  in  a  few 
generations;  but  I  doubt  if  timid  respectability   will   make  a  nation 
happy,  and  I  am  sure  that  qualities  of  a  different  sort  are  needed  if  it 
is    to    compete    with    more   vigorous    and   more   varied    communities. 
Everyone  must  have  a  preliminary  sympathy  with  the  aims  of  eugenists 
both  abroad  and  at  home.     Their  efforts  at  the  least  are  doing  some- 
thing to  discover  and  spread  truth  as  to  the  physiological  structure  of 
society.      The    spirit    of    such     organisations,     however,     almost    of 
necessity  suffers  from  a  bias  towards  the  accepted  and  the  ordinary, 
and  if  they   had   power  it  would  go  hard  with  many  ingredients   of 
Society  that  could  be  ill-spared.     I  notice  an  ominous  passage  in  which 
even  Galton,  the  founder  of  eugenics,  feeling  perhaps  some  twinge  of 
his  Quaker  ancestry,  remarks  that  '  as  the  Bohemianism  in  the  nature 
of  our  race  is  destined  to  perish,   the  sooner  it  goes,  the  happier  for 


president's  address.  29 

mankind. '  It  is  not  the  eugenists  who  will  give  us  what  Plato  has  called 
divine  releases  from  the  common  ways.  If  some  fancier  with  the 
catholicity  of  Shakespeare  would  take  us  in  hand,  well  and  good ;  but 
I  would  not  trust  even  Shakespeares  meeting  as  a  committee.  Let  us 
remember  that  Beethoven's  father  was  an  habitual  drunkard  and  that 
his  mother  died  of  consumption.  From  the  genealogy  of  the  patriarchs 
also  we  learn — what  may  very  well  be  the  truth — that  the  fathers  of 
such  as  dwell  in  tents,  and  of  all  such  as  handle  the  harp  or  organ, 
and  the  instructor  of  every  artificer  in  brass  and  iron — the  founders, 
that  is  to  say,  of  the  arts  and  the  sciences— came  in  direct  descent 
from  Cain,  and  not  in  the  posterity  of  the  irreproachable  Seth,  who 
is  to  us,  as  he  probably  was  also  in  the  narrow  circle  of  his  own 
contemporaries,  what  naturalists  call  a  nomen  midtcm. 

Genetic  research  will  make  it  possible  for  a  nation  to  elect  by  what 
sort  of  beings  it  will  be  represented  not  very  many  generations  hence, 
much  as  a  farmer  can  decide  whether  his  byres  'shall  be  full  of  short- 
horns or  Herefords.  It  will  be  very  surprising  indeed  if  some  nation 
does  not  make  trial  of  this  new  power.  They  may  make  awful  mis- 
takes, but  I  think  they  will  try. 

Whether  we  like  it  or  not,  extraordinary  and  far-reaching  changes  in 
public  opinion  are  coming  to  pass.  Man  is  just  beginning  to  know 
himself  for  what  he  is — a  rather  long-lived  animal,  with  great  powers 
of  enjoyment  if  he  does  not  deliberately  forgo  them.  Hitherto 
superstition  and  mythical  ideas  of  sin  have  predominantly  controlled 
these  powers.  Mysticism  will  not  die  out:  for  those  strange  fancies 
knowledge  is  no  cure;  but  their  forms  may  change,  and  mysticism  as 
a  force  for  the  suppression  of  joy  is  happily  losing  its  hold  on  the 
modem  world.  As  in  the  decay  of  earlier  religions  Ushabti  dolls 
were  substituted  for  human  victims,  so  telepathy,  necromancy,  and 
other  harmless  toys  take  the  place  of  eschatology  and  the  inculcation 
of  a  ferocious  moral  code.  Among  the  civilised  races  of  Europe  we 
are  witnessing  an  emancipation  from  traditional  control  in  thought,  in 
art,  and  in  conduct  which  is  likely  to  have  prolonged  and  wonderful 
influences.  Eeturning  to  freer  or,  if  you  will,  simpler  conceptions  of 
life  and  death,  the  coming  generations  are  determined  to  get  more  out 
of  this  world  than  their  forefathers  did.  Is  it  then  to  be  supposed 
that  when  science  puts  into  their  hand  means  for  the  alleviation  of 
suffering  immeasurable,  and  for  making  this  world  a  happier  place, 
that  they  will  demur  to  using  those  powers?  The  intenser  struggle 
between  communities  is  only  now  beginning,  and  with  the  approach- 
ing exhaustion  of  that  capital  of  energy  stored  in  the  earth  before  man 
began  it  must  soon  become  still  more  fierce.  In  England  some  of  our 
great-grandchildren  will  see  the  end  of  the  easily  accessible  coal,  and, 
failing  some  miraculous  discovery    of    available    energy,   a    wholesale 


30  president's  address. 

reduction  in  population.  There  are  races  who  have  shown  themselves 
able  at  a  word  to  throw  off  all  tradition  and  take  into  their  service 
every  power  that  science  has  yet  offered  them.  Can  we  expect  that 
they,  when  they  see  how  to  rid  themselves  of  the  ever-increasing 
weight  of  a  defective  population,  will  hesitate?  The  time  cannot  be 
far  distant  when  both  individuals  and  communities  will  begin  to 
think  in  terms  of  biological  fact,  and  it  behoves  those  who  lead 
scientific  thought  carefully  to  consider  whither  action  should  lead. 
At  present  I  ask  you  merely  to  observe  the  facts.  The  powers  of 
science  to  preserve  the  defective  are  now  enormous.  Every  year 
these  powers  increase.  This  course  of  action  must  reach  a  limit. 
To  the  deliberate  intervention  of  civilisation  for  the  preservation  of  in- 
ferior strains  there  must  sooner  or  later  come  an  end,  and  before  long 
nations  will  realise  the  responsibility  they  have  assumed  in  multiplying 
these  '  cankers  of  a  calm  world  and  a  long  peace. ' 

The  definitely  feeble-minded  we  may  with  propriety  restrain,  as 
we  are  beginning  to  do  even  in  England,  and  we  may  safely  prevent 
unions  in  which  both  parties  ai'e  defective,  for  the  evidence  shows 
that  as  a  inile  such  marriages,  though  often  prolific,  commonly  produce 
no  normal  children  at  all.  The  union  of  such  social  vermin  we  should 
no  more  pennit  than  we  would  allow  parasites  to  breed  on  our  own 
bodies.  Further  than  that  in  restraint  of  marriage  we  ought  not  to 
go,  at  least  not  yet.  Something  too  may  be  done  by  a  reform  of 
medical  ethics.  Medical  students  are  taught  that  it  is  their  duty  to 
prolong  life  at  whatever  cost  in  suffering.  This  may  have  been  right 
when  diagnosis  was  uncertain  and  interference  usually  of  small  effect; 
but  deliberately  to  interfere  now  for  the  preservation  of  an  infant  so 
gravely  diseased  that  it  can  never  be  happy  or  come  fo  any  good  is 
very  like  wanton  cruelty.  In  private  few  men  defend  such  inter- 
ference. Most  who  have  seen  these  cases  lingering  on  agree  that 
the  system  is  deplorable,  but  ask  where  can  any  line  be  drawn.  The 
biologist  would  reply  that  in  all  ages  such  decisions  have  been  made  by 
civilised  communities  with  fair  success  both  in  regard  to  crime  and 
in  the  closely  analogous  case  of  lunacy.  The  real  reason  why  these 
things  are  done  is  because  the  world  collectively  cherishes  occult 
views  of  the  nature  of  life,  because  the  facts  are  realised  by  few,  and 
because  between  the  legal  mind — ^to  which  society  has  become  accus- 
tomed to  defer — and  the  seeing  eye,  there  is  such  physiological 
antithesis  that  hardly  can  they  be  combined  in  the  same  body.  So 
soon  as  scientific  knowledge  becomes  common  property,  views  more 
reasonable  and,  I  may  add,  more  humane,  are  likely  to  prevail. 

To  all  these  great  biological  problems  that  modern  society  must 
sooner  or  later  face  there  are  many  aspects  besides  the  obvious  ones. 
Infant  mortality  we  are  asked  to  lament  without  the  slightest  thought 


president's  address.  81 

of  what  the  world  would  be  hke  if  the  majority  of  these  infants 
were  to  survive.  The  decline  in  the  birth-rate  in  countries  already 
over-populated  is  often  deplored,  and  we  are  told  that  a  nation  in 
which  populatpon  is  not  rapidly  increasing  must  be  in  a  decline.  The 
slightest  acquaintance  with  biology,  or  even  school-boy  natural  history, 
shows  that  this  inference  may  be  entirely  wrong,  and  that  before  such 
a  question  can  be  decided  in  one  way  or  the  other,  hosts  of  considera- 
tions must  be  taken  into  account.  In  normal  stable  conditions 
population  is  stationary.  The  laity  never  appreciates,  what  is  so  clear 
to  a  biologist,  that  the  last  century  and  a  quarter,  corresponding  with 
the  great  rise  in  population,  has  been  an  altogether  exceptional  period.' 
To  our  species  this  period  has  been  what  its  early  years  in  Australia 
were  to  the  rabbit.  The  exploitation  of  energy-capital  of  the  earth  in 
coal,  development  of  the  new  countries,  and  the  consequent  poui'ing 
of  food  into  Europe,  the  application  of  antiseptics,  these  are  the  things 
that  have  enabled  the  human  population  to  increase.  I  do  not  doubt 
that  if  population  were  more  evenly  spread  over  the  earth  it  might 
increase  very  much  more;  but  the  essential  fact  is  that  under  any 
stable  conditions  a  limit  must  be  reached.  A  pair  of  wrens  will  bring 
off  a  dozen  young  every  year,  but  each  year  you  will  find  the  same 
number  of  pears  in  your  garden.  In  England  the  limit  beyond  which 
under  present  conditions  of  distribution  increase  of  population  is  a 
source  of  suffering  rather  than  of  happiness  has  been  reached  already. 
Younger  communities  living  in  territories  largely  vacant  are  very 
probably  right  in  desiring  and  encouraging  more  population.  Increase 
may,  for  some  temporary  reason,  be  essential  to  their  prosperity.  But 
those  who  live,  as  I  do,  among  thousands  of  creatures  in  a  state  of 
semi-starvation  will  realise  that  too  few  is  better  than  too  many,  and 
will  acknowledge  the  wisdom  of  Ecclesiasticus  who  said  '  Desire  not  a 
multitude  of  unprofitable  children.' 

But  at  least  it  is  often  urged  that  the  decline  in  the  birth-rate  of 
the  intelligent  and  successful  sections  of  the  population — I  am  speaking 
of  the  older  communities — is  to  be  regretted.  Even  this  cannot  be 
granted  without  qualification.  As  the  biologist  knows,  differentiation 
is  indispensable  to  progress.  If  population  were  homogeneous  civilisa- 
tion would  stop.  In  every  army  the  officers  must  be  comparatively 
few.  Consequently,  if  the  upper  strata  of  the  community  produce 
more  children  than  will  recruit  their  numbers  some  must  fall  into  the 
lower  strata  and  increase  the  pressure  there.  Statisticians  tell  us  that 
an  average  of  four  children  under  present  conditions  is  sufl&cient  to 
keep  the  number  constant,  and  as  the  expectation  of  life  is  steadily 
improving  we  may  perhaps  contemplate  some  diminution  of  that  number 
without  alarm. 


32  president's  address. 

In  the  study  of  history  biological  treatment  is  only  beginning  to  be 
applied.  For  us  the  causes  of  the  success  and  failure  of  races  are 
physiological  events,  and  the  progress  of  man  has  depended  upon  a 
chain  of  these  events,  like  those  which  have  resulted  in  the  '  improve- 
ment '  of  the  domesticated  animals  and  plants.  It  is  obvious,  for 
example,  that  had  the  cereals  never  been  domesticated  cities  could 
scarcely  have  existed.  But  we  may  go  further,  and  say  that  in  tem- 
perate countries  of  the  Old  World  (having  neither  rice  nor  maize) 
populations  concentrated  in  large  cities  have  been  made  possible  by 
the  appearance  of  a  '  thrashable  '  wheat.  The  ears  of  the  wild  wheats 
break  easily  to  pieces,  and  the  grain  remains  in  the  thick  husk.  Such 
wheat  can  be  used  for  food,  but  not  readily.  Ages  before  written 
history  began,  in  some  unknown  place,  plants,  or  more  likely  a  plant, 
of  wheat  lost  the  dominant  factor  to  which  this  brittleness  is  due,  and 
tlie  recessive,  thrashable  wheat  resulted.  Some  man  noticed  this 
wonderful  novelty,  and  it  has  been  disseminated  over  the  earth.  The  ori- 
ginal variation  may  well  have  occurred  once  only,  in  a  single  genn-cell. 

So  must  it  have  been  with  Man.  Translated  into  terms  of  factors, 
how  has  that  progress  in  control  of  nature  which  we  call  civilisation 
been  achieved?  By  the  sporadic  appearance  of  variations,  mostly,  per- 
haps all,  consisting  in  a  loss  of  elements,  which  inhibit  the  free 
working  of  the  mind.  The  members  of  civilised  communities,  when 
they  think  about  such  things  at  all,  imagine  the  process  a  gradual  one, 
and  that  they  themselves  are  active  agents  in  it.  Few,  however,  contri- 
bute anything  but  their  labour;  and  except  in  so  far  as  they  have 
freedom  to  adopt  and  imitate,  their  physiological  composition  is  that 
of  an  earlier  order  of  beings.  Annul  the  work  of  a  few  hundreds — 
I  might  almost  say  scores — of  men,  and  on  what  plane  of  civilisation 
should  we  be?  We  should  not  have  advanced  beyond  the  mediaeval 
stage  without  printing,  chemistry,  steam,  electricity,  or  surgery  worthy 
the  name.  These  things  are  the  contributions  of  a  few  excessively  rare 
minds.  Gal  ton  reckoned  those  to  whom  the  term  '  illustrious  '  might 
be  applied  as  one  in  a  million,  but  in  that  number  he  is,  of  course, 
reckoning  men  famous  in  ways  which  add  nothing  to  universal  pi'ogress. 
To  improve  by  subordinate  invention,  to  discover  details  missed,  even 
to  apply  knowledge  never  before  applied,  all  these  things  need  genius 
in  some  degree,  and  are  far  beyond  the  powers  of  the  average  man  of 
our  race;  but  the  true  pioneer,  the  man  whose  penetration  creates  a 
new  world,  as  did  that  of  Newton  and  of  Pasteur,  is  inconceivably 
rare.  But  for  a  few  thousands  of  such  men,  we  should  perhaps  be  in 
the  Palaeolithic  era,  knowing  neither  metals,  writing,  arithmetic, 
weaving,  nor  pottery. 

In  the  history  of  Art  the  same  is  true,  but  with  this  remarkable 
difference,   that  not  only  are  gifts  of  artistic  creation  very  rare,  but 


president's  address.  33 

even  the  faculty  of  artistic  enjoyment,  not  to  speak  of  higher  powers 
of  appreciation,  is  not  attained  without  variation  from  the  common 
type.  I  am  speaking,  of  course,  of  the  non-Semitic  races  of  modern 
Europe,  among  whom  tlie  power  whether  of  making  or  enjoying  works 
of  art  is  confined  to  an  insignificant  number  of  individuals.  Apprecia- 
tion can  in  some  degree  be  simulated,  but  in  our  population  there  is 
no  widespread  physiological  appetite  for  such  things.  When  detached 
from  the  centres  where  they  are  made  by  others  most  of  us  pass  our 
time  in  great  contentment,  making  nothing  that  is  beautiful,  and  quite 
unconscious  of  any  deprivation.  Musical  taste  is  the  most  notable 
exception,  for  in  certain  races — for  example,  the  Welsh  and  some 
of  the  Germans — it  is  almost  universal.  Otherwise  artistic  faculty  is 
still  sporadic  in  its  occurrence.  The  cost  of  music  well  illustrates  the 
application  of  genetic  analysis  to  human  faculty.  No  one  disputes 
that  musical  ability  is  congenital.  In  its  fuller  manifestation  it 
demands  sense  of  rhythm,  ear,  and  special  nervous  .  and  muscular 
powers.  Each  of  these  is  separable  and  doubtless  genetically  distinct. 
Each  is  the  consequence  of  a  special  departure  from  the  common  type. 
Teaching  and  external  influences  are  powerless  to  evoke  these  faculties, 
though  their  development  may  be  assisted.  The  only  conceivable 
way  in  which  the  people  of  England,  for  example,  oould  become  a 
musical  nation  would  be  by  the  gradual  rise  in  the  proportional  numbers 
of  a  musical  strain  or  strains  until  the  present  type  became  so  rare 
as  to  be  negligible.  It  by  no  means  follows  that  in  any  other  respect 
the  resulting  population  would  be  distinguishable  from  the  present  one. 
Difficulties  of  this  kind  beset  the  efforts  of  anthropologists  to  trace 
racial  origins.  It  nm&t  continually  be  remembered  that  most  characters 
are  independently  transmitted  and  capable  of  such  recombination.  In 
the  light  of  Mendelian  knowledge  the  discussion  whether  a  race  is  pure 
or  mixed  loses  almost  all  significance.  A  race  is  pure  if  it  breeds  pure 
and  not  otherwise.  Historically  we  may  know  that  a  race  like  our 
own  was,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  of  mixed  origin.  But  a  character  may 
have  been  introduced  by  a  single  individual,  though  subsequently  it 
becomes  common  to  the  race.  This  is  merely  a  variant  on  the  familiar 
paradox  that  in  the  course  of  time  if  registration  is  accurate  we  shall 
all  have  the  same  surname.  In  the  case  of  music,  for  instance,  the 
gift,  originally  perhaps  from  a  Welsh  source,  might  permeate  the 
nation,  and  the  question  would  then  arise  whether  the  nation,  so 
changed,  was  the  English  nation  or  not. 

Such  a  problem  is  raised  in  a  striking  form  by  the  population  of 
modern  Greece,  and  especially  of  Athens.  The  racial  characteristics 
of  the  Athenian  of  the  fifth  century  B.C.  are  vividly  described  by 
Galton  in  'Hereditary  Genius.'  The  fact  that  in  that  period  a 
population,  numbering  many  thousands,  should  have  existed,  capable 
1914.  D 


34  president's  address. 

of  following  the  great  plays  at  a  first  hearing,  revelling  in  subtleties  of 
speech,   and   thrilling  with   passionate  delight  in  beautiful  things,   is 
physiologically  a  most  singular  phenomenon.     On  the   basis  of    the 
number  of  illustrious  men  produced  by  that  age  Galton  estimated  the 
average  intelligence  as   at  least  two  of  his  degrees   above  our  own, 
differing  from  us  as  much  as  we  do  from  the  negro.     A  few  generations 
later  the  display  was  over.     The  origin  of  that  constellation  of  human 
genius  which  then  blazed  out  is  as  yet  beyond  all  biological  analysis,  but 
I  think  we  are  not  altogether  without  suspicion  of  the  sequence  of  the 
biological  events.     If  I  visit  a  poultry-breeder  who  has  a  fine  stock  of 
thoroughbred  game  fowls  breeding  true,  and  ten  years  later — that  is  to 
say  ten  fowl-generations  later — I  go  again  and  find  scarcely  a  recognis- 
able game-fowl  on  the  place,  I  know  exactly  what  has  happened.     One 
or  two  birds  of  some  other  or  of  no  breed    must  have  strayed  in  and 
their  progeny  been  left  undestroyed.     Now  in  Athens  we  have  many 
indications   that   up   to   the   beginning   of  the  fifth   century    so   long 
as  the  phratries  and  gentes  were  maintained  in  their  integrity  there 
was  rather   close   endogamy,    a  condition   giving  the   best   chance  of 
producing  a  homogeneous  population.     There  was  no  lack  of  material 
from  which  intelligence  and  artistic  power  might  be  derived.     Sporadi- 
cally these  qualities  existed  throughout  the  ancient  Greek  world  from 
the  dawn  of  history,  and,  for  example,  the  vase-painters,  the  makers 
of  the  Tanagra  figurines,    and  the  gem-cutters  were  presumably  pur- 
suing family   crafts,  much  as  are   the  actor-families'*  of  England  or 
the  professorial  families   of   Germany  at  the  present  day.     How  the 
intellectual  strains  should  have  acquired  predominance  we  cannot  tell, 
but  in  an  in-breeding  community  homogeneity  at  least  is  not  surprising. 
At  the  end  of  the  sixth  century  came  the  '  reforms  '  of  Cleisthenes 
(507  B.C.),  which  sanctioned  foreign  marriages  and  admitted  to  citizen- 
ship  a  number  not  only  of  resident  aliens  but  also  of  manumitted 
slaves.     As  Aristotle  says,   Cleisthenes  legislated  with  the  deliberate 
purpose  of  breaking  up  the  phratries   and  gentes,    in  order  that  the 
various  sections   of  the  population   might  be  mixed   up  as  much  as 
possible,  and  the  old  tribal  associations  abolished.     The  '  reform  '  was 
probably  a  recognition  and  extension  of  a  process  already  begun;  but 
is  it  too  much  to  suppose  that  we  have  here  the  effective  beginning 
of  a  series  of  genetic  changes  which  in  a  few  generations  so  greatly 
altered  the  character  of  the  people?     Under  Pericles  the  old  law  was 
restored  (451  B.C.),  but  losses  in  the  great  wars  led  to  further  laxity  in 
practice,   and  though  at  the  end  of  the  fifth  century  the  strict  rule 
was  re-enacted  that  a  citizen  must  be  of  citizen-birth  on  both  sides, 
the  population  by  that  time  may  well  have  become  largely  mongrelised. 
Let  me  not  be  construed  as  arguing  that  mixture  of  races  is  an 

'  For  tables  of  families,  see  the  Supplement  to  Who's   WIto  in  the  Theatre. 


president's  address.  35 

evil :  far  from  it.  A  population  like  our  own,  indeed,  owes  much  of 
its  strength  to  the  extreme  diversity  of  its  components,  for  they  con- 
tribute a  corresponding  abundance  of  aptitudes.  Everything  turns  on 
the  nature  of  the  ingredients  brought  in,  and  I  am  concerned  solely 
with  the  observation  that  these  genetic  disturbances  lead  ultimately 
to  great  and  usually  unforeseen  changes  in  the  nature  of  the  population. 

Some  experiments  of  this  kind  are  going  on  at  the  present  time, 
in  the  United  States,  for  example,  on  a  very  large  scale.  Our  grand- 
children may  live  to  see  the  characteristics  of  the  American  population 
entirely  altered  by  the  vast  invasion  of  Italian  and  other  South 
European  elements.  We  may  expect  that  the  Eastern  States,  and 
especially  New  England,  whose  people  still  exhibit  the  fine  Puritan 
qualities  with  their  appropriate  limitations,  absorbing  little  of  the 
alien  elements,  will  before  long  be  in  feelings  and  aptitudes  very  notably 
differentiated  from  the  rest.  In  Japan,  also,  with  the  abolition  of  the 
feudal  system  and  the  rise  of  commercialism,  a  change  in  population 
has  begun  which  may  be  worthy  of  the  attention  of  naturalists  in  that 
country.  Till  the  revolution  the  Samurai  almost  always  married  within 
their  own  class,  with  the  result,  as  I  am  informed,  that  the  caste  had 
fairly  recognisable  features.  The  changes  of  1868  and  the  consequent 
impoverishment  of  the  Samurai  have  brought  about  a  beginning  of 
disintegration  which  may  not  improbably  have  perceptible  effects. 

How  many  genetic  vicissitudes  has  our  own  peerage  undergone! 
Into  the  hard-fighting  stock  of  mediaeval  and  Plantagenet  times  have 
successively  been  crossed  the  cunning  shrewdness  of  Tudor  states- 
men and  courtiers,  the  numerous  contributions  of  Charles  II.  and 
his  concubines,  reinforcing  ipeculiar  and  persistent  attributes  which 
popular  imagination  especially  regards  as  the  characteristic  of  peers, 
ultimately  the  heroes  of  finance  and  industrialism.  Definitely  intellec- 
tual elements  have  been  sporadically  added,  with  rare  exceptions, 
however,  from  the  ranks  of  lawyers  and  politicians.  To  this 
aristocracy  art,  learning,  and  science  have  contributed  sparse  in- 
gredients, but  these  mostly  chosen  for  celibacy  or  childlessness.  A 
remarkable  body  of  men,  nevertheless ;  with  an  average  '  horse-power, ' 
as  Samuel  Butler  would  have  said,  far  exceeding  that  of  any  random 
sample  of  the  middle-class.  If  only  man  could  be  reproduced  by 
budding  what  a  simplification  it  would  be !  In  vegetative  reproduction 
heredity  is  usually  complete.  The  Washington  plum  can  be  divided 
to  produce  as  many  identical  individuals  as  are  required.  If,  say, 
Washington,  the  statesman,  or  preferably  King  Solomon,  could 
similarly  have  been  propagated,  all  the  nations  of  the  earth  could 
have  been  supplied  with  ideal  rulers. 

HistorianG  commonly  ascribe  such  changes  as  occurred  in  Athens, 
and    will     almost  certainly  come  to  pass  in  the   United   States,   to 

l>  2 


36  president's  address. 

conditions  of  life  and  especially  to  political  institutions.  These  agencies, 
however,  do  little  unless  they  are  such  as  to  change  the  breed. 
External  changes  may  indeed  give  an  opportunity  to  special  strains, 
which  then  acquire  ascendency.  The  industrial  developments  which 
began  at  the  end  of  the  eighteenth  century,  for  instance,  gave  a  chance 
to  strains  till  then  submerged,  and  their  success  involved  the  decay 
of  most  of  the  old  aristocratic  families.  But  the  demagogue  who 
would  argue  from  the  rise  of  the  one  and  the  fall  of  the  other  that 
the  original  relative  positions  were  not  justifiable  altogether  mistakes  the 
facts. 

Conditions  give  opportunities  but  cause  no  variations.  For  example, 
in  Athens,  to  which  I  just  referred,  the  universality  of  cultivated  dis- 
cernment could  never  have  come  to  pass  but  for  the  institution  of 
slavery  which  provided  the  opportunity,  but  slavery  was  in  no  sense  a 
cause  of  that  development,  for  many  other  populations  have  lived  on 
slaves  and  remained  altogether  inconspicuous. 

The  long-standing  controversy  as  to  the  relative  importance  of  nature 
and  nurture,  to  use  Galton's  '  convenient  jingle  of  words,'  is  drawing 
to  an  end,   and  of  the  overwhelmingly  greater  significance  of   nature 
there  is  no  longer  any  possibility  of  doubt.     It  may  be  well  briefly  to 
recapitulate    the  arguments    on    which  naturalists  rely  in  coming  to 
this  decision  both  as  regards  races  and  individuals.     First  as  regards 
human    individuals,    there    is    the    common   experience   that    children 
of  the  same  parents  reared  under  conditions  sensibly   identical  may 
develop   quite  differently,    exhibiting  in    character    and    aptitudes    a 
segregation  just  as  great  as  in  their  colours  or  hair-forms.     Conversely 
all  the  more  marked  aptitudes  have  at  various  times  appeared  and  not 
rarely  reached   perfection   in   circumstances   the  least   favourable   for 
their  development.     Next,  appeal  can  be  made  to  the  universal  experi- 
ence of  the   breeder,    whether   of   animals   or  plants,    that   strain   is 
absolutely  essential,    that  though  bad  conditions  may  easily   enough 
spoil  a  good  strain,  yet  that  under  the  best  conditions   a  bad  strain 
will  never  give  a  fine  result.     It  is  faith,  not  evidence,  which  encourages 
educationists  and  economists  to  hope  so  greatly   in  the   ameliorating 
effects  of  the  conditions  of  life.     Let  us  consider  what  they  can  do 
and  what  they  cannot.     By  reference  to  some  sentences  in  a  charming 
though  pathetic  book,  '  What  Is,  and  What  Might  Be,'  by  Mr.  Edmond 
Holmes,  which  will  be  well  known  in  the  Educational  Section,  I  may 
make  the  point  of  view  of  us  naturalists  clear.     I  take  Mr.  Holmes's 
pronouncement   partly  because  he  is  an  enthusiastic  believer    in  the 
efficacy  of  nurture  as  opposed  to  nature,   and  also  because  he  illus- 
trates his  views  by  frequent  appeals  to  biological  analogies  which  help 
us  to  a  common  ground.     Wheat  badly  cultivated  will  give  a  bad  yield, 
though,  as  Mr.  Holmes  truly  says,  wheat  of  the  same  strain  in  similar 


president's  address.  37 

soil  well  cultivated  may  give  a  good  harvest.  But,  having  witnessed 
the  success  of  a  great  natural  teacher  in  helping  unpromising  peasant 
children  to  develop  their  natural  powers,  he  gives  us  another  botanical 
parallel.  Assuming  that  the  wild  buUace  is  the  origin  of  domesticated 
plums,  he  tells  us  that  by  cultivation  the  buUace  can  no  doubt  be 
improved  so  far  as  to  become  a  better  bullace,  but  by  no  means  can 
the  bullace  be  made  to  bear  plums.  All  this  is  sound  biology;  but 
translating  these  facts  into  the  human  analogy,  he  declares  that  the 
work  of  the  successful  teacher  shows  that  with  man  the  facts  are  other- 
wise, and  that  the  average  rustic  child,  whose  normal  ideal  is  '  bullace- 
hood,'  can  become  the  rare  exception,  developing  to  a  stage  corre- 
sponding with  that  of  the  plum.  But  the  naturalist  knows  exactly 
where  the  parallel  is  at  fault.  For  the  wheat  and  the  bullace  are 
both  breeding  approximately  true,  whereas  the  human  crop,  like  jute 
and  various  cottons,  is  in  a  state  of  polymorphic  mixture.  The  popula- 
tion of  many  English  villages  may  be  compared  with  the  crop  which 
would  result  from  sowing  a  bushel  of  kernels  gathered  mostly  from  the 
hedges,  with  an  occasional  few  from  an  orchard.  If  anyone  asks 
how  it  happens  that  there  are  any  plum-kernels  in  the  sample  at  all, 
he  may  find  the  answer  perhaps  in  spontaneous  variation,  but  more 
probably  in  the  appearance  of  a  long-hidden  recessive.  For  the  want 
of  that  genetic  variation,  consisting  probably,  as  I  have  argued,  in 
loss  of  inhibiting  factors,  by  which  the  plum  arose  from  the  wild  form, 
neither  food,  nor  education,  nor  hygiene  can  in  any  way  atone.  Many 
wild  plants  are  half -starved  through  competition,  and  transferred  to 
garden  soil  they  grow  much  bigger;  so  good  conditions  might  certainly 
enable  the  bullace  population  to  develop  beyond  the  stunted  physical  and 
mental  stature  they  commonly  attain,  but  plums  they  can  never  be. 
Modern  statesmanship  aims  rightly  at  helping  those  who  have  got  sown 
as  wildings  to  come  into  their  proper  class ;  but  let  not  anyone  suppose 
such  a  policy  democratic  in  its  ultimate  effects,  for  no  course  of 
action  can  be  more  effective  in  strengthening  the  upper  classes  whilst 
weakening  the  lower. 

In  all  practical  schemes  for  social  reform  the  congenital  diversity, 
the  essential  polymorphism  of  all  civilised  communities  must  be  recog- 
nised as  a  fundamental  fact,  and  reformers  should  rather  direct  their 
efforts  to  facilitating  and  rectifying  class-distinctions  than  to  any  futile 
attempt  to  abolish  them.  The  teaching  of  biology  is  perfectly  clear. 
We  are  what  we  are  by  virtue  of  our  differentiation.  The  value  of 
civilisation  has  in  all  ages  been  doubted.  Since,  however,  the  first 
variations  were  not  strangled  in  their  birth,  we  are  launched  on  that 
course  of  variability  of  which  civilisation  is  the  consequence.  We  can- 
not go  back  to  homogeneity  again,  and  differentiated  we  are  likely 
to  continue.      For  a  period  measures  designed  to  create  a   spurious 


38  president's  address. 

homogeneity  may  be  applied.  Such  attempts  will,  I  anticipate,  be  made 
when  the  present  unstable  social  state  reaches  a  climax  of  instability, 
which  may  not  be  long  hence.  Their  effects  can  be  but  evanescent. 
The  instability  is  due  not  to  inequality,  which  is  inherent  and  congenital, 
but  rather  to  the  fact  that  in  periods  of  rapid  change  like  the  present, 
convection-currents  are  set  up  such  that  the  elements  of  the  strata 
get  intermixed  and  the  apparent  stratification  corresponds  only  roughly 
with  the  genetic.  In  a  few  generations  under  uniform  conditions  these 
elements  settle  in  their  true  levels  once  more. 

In  such  equilibrium  is  content  most  surely  to  be  expected.  To  the 
naturalist  the  broad  lines  of  solution  of  the  problems  of  social  dis- 
content are  evident.  They  lie  neither  in  vain  dreams  of  a  mystical  and 
disintegrating  equality,  nor  in  the  promotion  of  that  malignant  indi- 
vidualism which  in  older  civilisations  has  threatened  mortification  of 
the  humbler  organs,  but  rather  in  a  physiological  co-ordination  of  the 
constituent  parts  of  the  social  organism.  The  rewards  of  commerce 
are  grossly  out  of  proportion  to  those  attainable  by  intellect  or  industry. 
Even  regarded  as  compensation  for  a  dull  life^  they  far  exceed  the 
value  of  the  services  rendered  to  the  community.  Such  disparity  is  an 
incident  of  the  abnormally  rapid  growth  of  population  and  is  quite 
indefensible  as  a  permanent  social  condition.  Nevertheless  capital, 
distinguished  as  a  provision  for  offspring,  is  a  eugenic  institution;  and 
unless  human  instinct  undergoes  some  ptx)found  and  improbable 
variation,  abolition  of  capital  means  the  abolition  of  effort;  but  as  in 
the  body  the  power  of  independent  growth  of  the  parts  is  limited  and 
subordinated  to  the  whole,  similarly  in  the  community  we  may  limit  the 
powers  of  capital,  preserving  so  much  inequality  of  privilege  as 
corresponds  with  physiological  fact. 

At  every  turn  the  student  of  political  science  is  confronted  with 
problems  that  demand  biological  knoi'  ledge  for  their  solution.  Most 
obviously  is  this  true  in  regard  to  education,  the  criminal  law,  and 
all  those  numerous  branches  of  policy  and  administration  which  are 
directly  concerned  with  the  physiological  capacities  of  mankind. 
Assumptions  as  to  what  can  be  done  and  what  cannot  be  done  to 
modify  individuals  and  races  have  continually  to  be  made,  and  the 
basis  of  fact  on  which  such  decisions  are  founded  can  be  drawn  only 
from  biological  study. 

A  knowledge  of  the  facts  of  nature  is  not  yet  deemed  an  essential 
part  of  the  mental  equipment  of  politicians ;  but  as  the  priest,  who 
began  in  other  ages  as  medicine-man,  has  been  obliged  to  abandon 
the  medical  parts  of  his  practice,  so  will  the  future  behold  the  school- 
master, the  magistrate,  the  lawyer,  and  ultimately  the  statesman, 
compelled  to  share  with  the  naturalist  those  functions  which  are 
concerned  with  the  physiology  of  race. 


EEPOPxTS 


ON   THE 


STATE    OF    SCIENCE. 


REPORTS  ON  THE  STATE  OF  SOIENCK 


Seismological  Investigations. — Nineteenth  Report  of  the  Com- 
mittee, consisting  of  Professor  H.  H.  Turnee  (Chairman), 
Professor  J.  Perry  {Secretary),  Mr.  C.  Vernon  Boys,  Mr. 
Horace  Darwin,  Mr.  F.  W.  Dyson,  Dr.  E.  T.  Glazebrook, 
Mr.  M.  H.  Gray,  Professor  J.  W.  Judd,  Professor  C.  G. 
Knott,  Sir  J.  Larmor,  Professor  E.  Meldola,  Mr.  W.  E. 
Plummbr,  Dr.  E.  A.  Sampson,  Professor  A.  Schuster,  Mr. 
J.  J.  Shaw,  and  Dr.  G.  W.  Walker.  {Brawn  up  hy  the 
Chairman.) 

[Plate  I.] 

Contents. 

PAGE 

I.  General  Notes,  Registers,  Visitors,  Stations 41 

II.  Seismic  Activity  in  1911 44 

III.  Distribution  of  Earthquake  Centres 44 

IV.  Discussion  of  Results  from  Different  Seismographs 4G 

V.  Comparison  of  Films  for  Idll 54 

VI.  Comparison  of  Milne  and  Galitzin  Instruments 57 

VII.  Present  Value  of  the  Milne  Instrument 62 

VIII.  Correction  of  the  Tables  for  P  and  S 63 

IX.  Discussion  in  Azimuth .       .        .64 

I. — General  Notes. 

The  Committee  asks  to  be  reappointed  with  a  grant  of  60L 

The  death  of  John  Milne,  in  July  1913,  creates  a  situation  of 
some  difficulty  and  anxiety.  He  organised  a  world-wide  seismological 
service  with  very  little  financial  help  from  others.  In  many  of  the 
outlying  stations  the  instnimental  equipment  was  provided  either  by 
himself  or  by  one  of  his  friends,  and  the  care  of  it  has  been  gener- 
ously undertaken  by  a  volunteer  who  is  often  busily  engaged  in  other 
work.  The  collation  of  results  was  in  the  early  years  undertaken  by 
Milne  himself,  with  the  able  help  of  Shinobu  Hirota.  Of  late  years 
a  subsidy  of  200L  a  year  from  the  Government  Grant  Fund  allowed 
of  paid  assistants;  and  Shinobu  Hirota  thus  obtained  a  well-deserved 
official  position;  but  for  many  years  the  only  salary  he  received  was 
paid  from  Milne's  own  pocket.  It  is  by  no  means  certain  that  tbe 
volunteer  services  at  the  stations,  and  the  subsidy  from  the  Govern- 
ment Grant  Fund  which  makes  it  possible  to  keep  running  the 
central  station  at  Shide,  can  be  long  continued;  and  it  seems  in 
any  case  very  improbable  that  they  can  be  rendered  permanent. 
But  a  much  more  serious  difficulty  is  the  want  of  a  salary  for  a 
Director  or  Superintendent  of  the  whole  British  network  of  stations, 
who  can  give  undivided  attention  to  the  valuable  results  which  they 
have  accumulated  and  to  which  they  are  daily  adding.     The  salary  of 


42  REPORTS   ON  THE   STATE   OF  SCIENCE. — 1914. 

a  competent  Director,  with  the  requisite  mathematical  knowledge, 
cannot  be  put  lower  than  500L  or  6001.  a  year,  and  there  is  at 
present  no  prospect  of  obtaining  even  this  endowment.  The  super- 
intendence has,  of  course,  been  hitherto  provided  voluntarily  by  Milne 
himself;  and  a  certain  amount  of  volunteer  attention  is  available  for 
the  present.  But  seismology  is  developing  so  rapidly  that  the  whole- 
hearted attention  of  at  least  one  English  mathematician  should  be 
devoted  to  it;  and  if  an  endowment  for  a  British  Director  could  be 
obtained  this  would  surely  be  the  most  direct  method  of  doing 
justice  to  a  new  and  fascinating  science  which  was  nurtured  by  an 
Englishman.  The  negative  result  of  previous  appeals  to  the  Govern- 
ment does  not  encourage  the  hope  of  their  taking  any  action,  and 
the  chief  hope  thus  lies  in  the  direction  of  private  benefaction. 
Is  it  too  much  to  hope  that  some  generous  benefactor  will  provide  a 
firm  footing  for  seismology  ? 

The  present  state  of  affairs  is  as  follows: — The  Shide  Observatory 
is  rented  from  Mrs.  Milne  at  20L  a  year.  The  work  of  the  Shide 
station  and  the  collation  of  results  from  other  stations  is  being 
done  by  Mr.  J.  H.  Burgess,  who  assisted  Professor  Milne  in'  the  later 
years  of  his  life,  especially  after  the  return  of  Shinobu  Hirota  to 
Japan.  At  the  time  of  Professor  Milne's  death  the  work  of  collation 
was  in  arrear;  and  in  order  to  bring  it  up  to  date  assistance  is 
being  temporarily  rendered  by  Mr.  S.  W.  Pring  (who  had  already 
considerable  knowledge  of  the  work)  and  his  daughter.  The  general 
superintendence  is  undertaken  by  the  Chairman  of  this  Committee, 
partly  by  correspondence  and  partly  by  personal  visits  to  Shide  (on 
September  20-21,  January  17-20,  March  29-April  2,  and  May  9-11). 

Registers.  Card  Catalogue  System.  Monthly  Bulletins. — The 
form  of  the  Circulars  has  been  changed.  Up  to  the  present  the  in- 
formation supplied  by  each  individual  station  has  been  printed  separ- 
ately, thus  leaving  the  formal  collation  of  results  to  others.  But 
since  a  good  deal  of  collation  was  actually  done  at  Shide  in  order 
to  eliminntfi  accidental  tremors  from  the  records,  it  seemed  desirable 
to  render  this  work  generally  available  at  the  cost  of  a  slight 
extension.  The  collation  was  foraierly  done  in  a  large  book  with 
ruled  columns,  one  double  page  being  devoted  to  each  month.  In 
place  of  this  a  card  catalogue  system  has  been  adopted.  The 
information  supplied  by  the  stations  is  copied  on  to  cards,  a  separate 
card  for  each  day.  A  cabinet  of  twelve  drawers  (one  for  each  calendar 
month)  has  been  made,  each  drawer  divided  into  32  partitions  (4  x  8) 
corresponding  to  the  days  of  the  month  (with  1 — 4  over),  and  the 
cards  are  slipped  into  the  proper  partition  as  they  are  copied  off. 
When  all  the  records  have  been  received  for  the  month  (and  the 
stations  have  been  asked  kindly  to  send  their  records  each  month)  it 
is  easily  seen  by  comparison  of  the  different  cards  in  any  partition 
which  are  the  important  quakes  and  which  are  microseisms  or 
accidental  tremors.  For  the  first  few  months  of  1913  details  wei'e 
printed  for  all  disturbances  recorded  at  moi'e  than  four  stations;  but 
experience   quickly    showed    that    much    of    this    information  was  of 


ON  SEISMOLOGICAL   INVESTIGATIONS. 


43 


comparatively  little  value,  the  records  for  small  quakes  being  liable 
to  errors  of  various  kinds;  and  from  April  1913  onwards  a  chart 
has  been  printed  showing  merely  that  such  and  such  a  quake  has 
been  observed  at  a  particular  station  without  further  details,  except 
in  the  case  of  a  really  large  earthquake.  It  is,  of  course,  difficult  to 
draw  a  satisfactory  line  between  large  earthquakes  and  small,  but  a 
practical  procedure  was  based  on  the  following  figures  given  in  the 
April  Bulletin :  — 


Month 

Number  of  Stations  recording  an  Earthquake  : 

5  to  10 

11  to  20 

21  to  30 

31  to  40 

2 

1 

3 

10 

16 

41  to  50 

Over  50 

January 

February 

March    .... 

April      .... 

3 
5 
0 
9 

5 

5 

9 

13 

3 

5 

7 
6 

4 
0 
2 
4 

2 

1 
3 
3 

Total 

23            32 

21 

10 

9 

According  to  this  table,  if  attention  is  confined  to  those  earthquakes 
recorded  at  thirty-one  stations  at  least,  we  should  get  a  hundred  of 
them  in  a  year;  and  it  was  thought  sufficient  to  give  full  details  for 
these.  It  should  be  remarked  that  the  stations  are  no  longer  Milne 
stations  only — the  list  has  been  extended  to  include  all  those  stations 
which  send  their  records  to  Shide;  and  it  is  hoped  that  this  compre- 
hensive collation  of  results  will  be  found  useful.  Undoubtedly  a 
comparison  with  tabular  theoretical  results  would  increase  its  useful- 
ness, and  it  is  hoped  to  undertake  such  a  comparison  from  January 
1914;  but  to  attempt  this  for  1913  would  have  seriously  delayed 
publication  (already  considerably  in  arrear),  and  indeed  was  scarcely 
possible  until  a  tentative  discussion  such  as  is  given  later  in  the  present 
Eeport  had  been  carried  out. 

Notation. — One  other  change  will  be  made  in  January  1914.  The 
symbols  Pj,  Po,  P3,  &c.,  were  introduced  by  Milne,  and  have  been 
used  by  him  throughout  his  work,  althouigh  he  assented  to  the  change 
to  P,  S,  L,  &c.,  as  determined  at  the  Manchester  Meeting,  1911,  of 
the  International  Seismological  Association.  It  seemed  only  a  proper 
mark  of  respect  to  complete  the  year  of  Milne's  death  (1913)  in  his 
notation ;  but  the  change  to  the  adopted  system  will  be  made  from  the 
beginning  of  1914. 

Visitors. — ^The  station  at  Shide  continues  to  attract  a  number  of 
visitors,  many  of  them  with  only  a  limited  knowledge  of  seismology; 
iheir  visits  naturally  make  inroads  on  the  time  of  the  assistant-in- 
charge,  but  it  seems  undesirable  to  discourage  them  at  the  present 
juncture.  The  visits  of  seismologists  have  naturally  been  affected  by 
Milne's  death;  and  in  the  consequent  disorganisation  the  visitors'  book 
was  for  a  time  not  regularly  posted;  but  we  have  had  the  pleasure 
of  seeing  at  Shide  Mr.  J.  J.  Shaw  of  West  Bromwich,  Mr.  E.  F. 
Norris     of    Guildford,   Mr.    J.     Pound    and    Mr.    S.    B.    Round     of 


44  REPORTS    ON    THE   STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

Birmingham,  Mr.  L.  F.  Eichardson  of  Eskdalemuir,  and  Mr.  J.   E. 
Orombie  of  Aberdeen. 

II. — Seismic  Activity  in  1911. 

The  visit  of  the  British  Association  to  Australia  makes  it  necessary 
to  have  the  greater  part  of  this  Eeport  in  proof  at  an  earher  date  than 
usual.  The  list  of  origins  for  1911,  in  continuation  of  those  given  in 
previous  Eeports,  is  not  completed  at  this  date ;  but  it  is  hoped  to  add 
it  at  the  end  of  the  Eeport  before  it  is  finally  printed  off  for 
distribution. 

III. — Distribution  of  Earthquake  Centres. 

Study  of  the  information  collected  by  Milne  in  previous  Eeports  has 
suggested  a  new  form  of  the  map  which  he  has  usually  printed 
showing  the  distribution  of  large  earthquakes.  On  some  of  these 
maps  he  has  shown  Libbey's  Circle,  and  on  others  a  cycle  of  his 
own  running  through  the  chief  earthquake  centres. 

On  scrutiny  of  the  distribution  of  centres  not  thus  accounted  for, 
the  existence  of  a  curve  of  secondary  disturbance  was  suggested, 
with  the  suggestive  feature  of  enclosing  most  of  the  land  on  the  earth's 
surface — skirting  especially  the  Western  coast  of  North  America  and 
the  Eastern  coast  of  Asia.  Adjustments  by  trial  and  error  of  these 
two  curves  showed  that  it  was  not  difficult  to  make  them  great  cii'cles 
cutting  at  right  angles;  but  not  easy  to  make  them  account  for  all 
the  striking  facts.  More  or  less  by  accident,  the  third  gi'eat  circle 
cutting  both  at  right  angles  was  di'awn,  and  immediately  several 
striking  geographical  features  fell  into  line.  Further  work  on  this 
system  of  three  great  circles  suggested  after  many  trials  a  system 
symmetrical  with  respect  to  the  earth's  axis,  the  points  of  intersection 
being  at  about  55°  (accurately  tan  -i  V2)  from  the  poles;  and  there 
was  little  trouble  iu  fixing  the  approximate  longitudes  at  25°  ±  60°  n 
East. 

A  system  of  three  great  circles  cutting  at  right  angles  divides  the 
surface  of  the  sphere  into  eight  equilateral  right-angled  triangles.  If 
we  project  each  of  these  on  a  tangent  plane  at  its  centre,  we  get 
an  octahedron  surrounding  the  sphere,  and  we  can  unwrap  it  into  a 
plane  in  various  ways.  The  particular  plan  of  the  accompanying  map 
is  adopted  in  order  to  bring  out  the  striking  symmetry,  both  seismo- 
logical  and  geogi'aphical,  of  the  earth  as  thus  represented,  a  symmetry 
only  slightly  disguised  by  the  one-sidedness  of  the  water  covering. 
[We  can  imagine  the  distribution  made  quite  symmetrical,  and  then 
the  upper  right-hand  corner  dipped  slightly  more  under  the  water;  but 
we  will  neglect  this  point  for  a  moment.] 

Six  of  the  triangles  are  easily  recognised,  the  other  two  have 
been  divided  by  their  median  lines  in  order  to  show  the  symmetry 
while  keeping  the  figm^e  compact ;  but  ABC  and  CBD  could  be  detached 
from  AC  and  CD,  and  joined  along  CB  placed  in  a  vertical  position, 
thus  keeping  the  symmetry  at  the  expense  of  a  little  detachment. 

Let  us  consider  the  triangle  EFK,  which  is  chiefly  Asia.  India  lies 
nearly  on  the  median  line,  pointing  to  the  apex  of  the  triangle;  and  just 


Dritish  Association,  dith  Bei^ort,  Australia,  1914.] 


[Plate  I, 


Illustrating  the  "Report  on  Seismological  Investigations. 


[To /ace  page  44. 


ON   SEISMOLOGICAL  INVESTIGATIONS.  45 

above  India  Tibet,  the  highest  land  in  the  world,  occupies  nearly  the 
centre  of  the  triangle.  The  side  KE  runs  through  a  well-known 
series  of  earthquake  centres  skirting  the  coast,  of  which  perhaps  the 
most  important  are  at  E  (Japan)  and  S  (Borneo),  one  at  the  extremity 
and  the  other  near  the  middle  point.  The  continuation  of  KE  is  EO, 
since  the  angles  FEK  and  FEO,  though  they  are  only  60°  on  the 
plane  projections,  are  90°  on  the  sphere;  and  since  there  is  a  notable 
centre  U  (Alaska)  near  the  middle  of  EG,  we  may  perhaps  consider 
S  and  U  as  corresponding  points  of  strain. 

The  side  KF  is  not  so  conspicuous  a  line  of  earthquakes  at  present, 
though  the  point  F  (Crete)  is  a  familiar  region,  and  corresponding 
to  S  we  may  take  R,  the  middle  point  of  FK,  as  representing  earth- 
quakes in  the  Indian  Ocean.  But  apart  from  modern  records,  the 
geographical  features  of  this  line  EF,  viz.,  the  Eed  Sea,  the  Grecian 
Archipelago,  and  the  Adriatic,  are  strongly  suggestive  of  crumpling 
into  folds  at  some  time  in  the  past.  Gontinuing  the  line  along  FC, 
there  is  an  active  centre  near  the  middle  point  T  which  is  not  far 
from  Iceland;  so  that  S,  E,  V  have  corresponding  points  in  R,  F,  T; 
the  former  are  at  present  the  stronger,  but  this  may  not  have  been 
always  so. 

The  apex  G  is  not  an  earthquake  centre,  but  near  it,  and  sym- 
metrically disposed  on  the  sides  GD,  GA,  are  the  Galifornian  and 
West  Indian  regions.  The  symmetry  of  the  whole  arrangement  round 
the  point  V  (close  to  Tomsk)  will  be  complete  if  we  may  put  two 
Antarctic  centres  at  the  points  P  and  Q  which  are  in  latitude  —  53°  and 
longitudes  56°  and  115°  East.  Milne  assigned  two  Antarctic  regions 
near  these  as  a  result  of  observations  made  during  the  voyage  of  the 
'  Discovery  '  (March  14,  1902,  to  November  28,  1903),  but  it  is  doubt- 
ful whether  the  material  is  sufficient  to  locate  them  exactly. 

As  regards  the  remainder  of  the  map,  the  symmetrical  disposition 
of  South  Africa  and  Australia  is  noteworthy;  but  as  we  go  northwards 
from  them  the  symmetry  disappears,  the  upper  half  of  the  African 
triangle  being  land,  that  of  the  Australian  water  (though  much  of  it 
not  very  deep).  Superposed  on  the  arrangement  symmetrical,  about 
the  line  CK  there  is  at  least  one  unsymmetrical  character  which  may 
be  roughly  described  as  a  division  into  land  and  water  hemispheres, 
and  as  such  has  been  often  noted.  In  the  present  diagram  the  salient 
points  of  this  contrast  are:  — 

(a)  Land  in  the  triangle  FGK,  water  in  the  triangle  GDE. 

(b)  Water  in  the  middle  of  land  in  the  triangle  AGF,  land  in  the 
middle  of  water  in  EKL. 

(c)  The  absence  of  land  corresponding  to  South  America,  on  the 
line  GD.  If  a  bathy-orographical  map  be  consulted  it  will,  however, 
be  found  that  there  is  a  shallow  in  this  part  of  the  ocean,  not  very 
different  from  South  America  in  shape.  It  is  conceivable  that  a  mere 
shift  of  the  earth's  centre  of  gravity  might  uncover  this  '  image  '  of 
South  America. 

In  a  future  Report  it  is  hoped  to  show  the  actual  distribution  of 
observed  earthquakes  on  this  map;  but  this  will  take  some  little  time. 


46 


REPORTS   ON  THE   STATE   OF   SCIENCE, — I9l4. 


IV. — Discussion  of  Resvlts  from  Different  Seismographs. 

The  card  catalogue  system  introduced  at  Shide  for  records  from 
January  1913  onwards  facilitates  the  comparison  of  results  from 
different  instruments.  The  following  discussion  is  only  preliminary,  and 
tJie  unit  of  time  adopted  (O'l  m.  or  6  sec.)  is  not  small  enough  to 
do  justice  to  the  best  instruments.  But  it  is  as  small  as  can  reasonably 
he  adopted  for  the  Milne  instruments,  and  the  main  object  of  the 
discussion  is  to  bring  out  the  comparative  attainments  of  the  Milne 
seismographs  as  compared  with  modern  and  much  more  sensitive 
apparatus. 

From  the  beginning  of  1912,  the  weekly  Bulletins  issued  from 
Pulkovo  give  epicentres  for  the  large  earthquakes,  determined  by 
Galitzin's  method  for  a  single  station.  Adopting  these  as  correct 
and  using  the  table  printed  by  G.  W..  Walker  on  p.  54  of  his  mono- 
graph on  'Modern  Seismology,'  or  by  Galitzin  in  his  '  Vorlesungen 
iiber  Seismometrie, '  p.  137,  we  can  deduce  from  the  times  recorded  at 
Pulkovo  for  either  P  or  S,  the  time  of  the  eartihquake  itself.  Re- 
applying the  table  we  can  deduce  the  theoretical  times  of  arrival  of 
P  and  S  at  other  stations,  for  comparison  with  their  records.  For 
tliis  purpose  the  distances  of  the  stations  from  the  epicentre  were  read 
to  whole  degrees  from  a  globe,  which  again  is  a  method  unsuitable  to 
refined  investigation,  but  sufficiently  accurate  for  the  present  pre- 
liminary examination. 

As  an  example,  the  times  recorded  for  the  earthquake  of  1913, 
January  11,  were  as  follows:  — 

P  S 

h.     m.     s.         h.     m.      s. 
13     29     45         13    40       9 
Subtract  ....  12     3G  22     54 


Time  at  epicentre 


13     17 


13     17     15 


The  distance  of  Florence  from  the  adopted  epicentre  (6°  N. ,  117°  E.) 
was  read  off  as  98°,  and  the  calculated  and  observed  times  were : 


ForP 


C 
h.      m. 
13    311 


I 


0-C 


0 

h.      m.     I  m. 

13     30-2  I      -0-9 


ForS 


C 

h. 

m. 

13 

42-7 

o 

h.      m. 
13     35 


0-C 

m. 

-7-7 


These  differences  0- 
five  earthquakes:  — 


-C  were  collected  and  discussed  for  the  following 


Date 

Adopted  Epicentre 

A  for 
Pulkovo 

Adopted 
Time 

1913,  January  11         .        .        . 
1913,  March  23    ...        . 
1913,  April  30      ...        . 
1913,  May  18        ...        . 
1913,  June  22      ...       . 

6-0  N.,  117-0  E. 
26-3  N.,  143-3  E. 
.50-2  N.,  176-3  E. 
26-3  N.,  143-7  E. 
60-1  N.,  178-1  E. 

o 

83 
78 
67 
79 
66 

h.         m. 
13     17-2 
20     47-2 
13     34-4 
2       9-7 
13     50-3 

ON   SEISMOLOGICAL   INVESTIGATIONS. 


47 


Table  I. 
134  Errors  of  P  for  Seismografhs  other  than  Milne's. 


Distance  from  Epiceatre                                    Summary 
0°  _     40°     -      80°       -       90°       -  100°-  130°     (Corrected) 

Large  Errors    . 

— 

— 

m. 
+  10-3 
+  10-1     ' 
+  9-2 

m. 
+  10-6 
+  10-4 

j 

— 

m.        m. 

+  5-5  to  51 
5-0  to  4-6 
4-5  to  4-1 
40  to  3-6 
3-5  to  31 
30  to'2-6 
2-5  to  2-1 
2-0  to  1-6 

+  1-5  to  1-1 

1 
1 

2 

2 

7 

14 
4 
1 

1 
2 

! 

2 
1 

.       . 

+  10 

0-9 

0-8 

0-7 

0-6 

0-5 

0-4 

0-3 

0-2 

+0-1 

00 

-01 

0-2 

0-3 

0-4 

0-5 

0-6 

0-7 

0-8 

0-9 

-10 

-1-1 

-1-2 

T 

1 

1 

2 

I 

2 

1 

1 

i  z 

1 

1 
1 
1 
1 

2 
3 
2 
6 
4 
4 
3 
2 
1 
1 
1 

1 

1 

1 
1 

3 

2 
4 
5 
2 

1 
1 

1 

T 
1 

1 

1 

3 

2 
4 

2 

1 

2 

1 

§ 
o 

2 

2 
3 
3 
1 
4 
6 
8 
11 
14 
9 
5 
4 

3 
1 
0 

2 
1 

0 

1 

1  Large  Errors    . 

1 

-  3-3 

-  4-2 
-14-2 
-24-8 

-2-3 
-3-3 

-50 

-3-4 

— 

48 


REPORTS   ON  THE   STATE   OP  SCIENCE. — 1914. 


In  Table  I.  the  differences  are  grouped  under  distances  from  epi- 
centre, all  instruments  other  than  Milne  being  grouped  together. 

Errors  greater  than  6  in. — The  five  large  positive  residuals  are  as 
follows :  — 


Instru- 

Errors 

Dist.  from 

Observatory 

ment 

Date 

P 

S 

Epicentre 

m. 

m. 

Triest     .... 

AV 

1913,  Jan.    11 

+  10-6 

+  7-4 

95 

Triest     .... 

W 

1913,  Ma3'   18 

+  10-4 

96 

Triest     .... 

W 

1913,  June  22 

+  10-3 

— 

83 

Czernowitz    . 

Ma. 

1913,  May  23 

+  10-1 

+9-5 

89 

Pompeii 

O.A. 

1913,  June  22 

+  9-2 

— 

88 

The  difference  between  the  times  of  arrival  of  P  and  S  being  near 
10  m.  it  is  possible  that  some  of  these  are  mistakes  of  P  for  S.  But 
in  the  case  of  Czemowitz,  a  mistake  of  10  m.  in  both  P  and  S  seems 
probable.  It  is  safer  to  omit  these  cases  as  anomalies  than  to  attempt 
to  correct  them. 

Errors.  <6  m.  and  >1  m. — With  the  exception  of  a  couple  near 
the  epicentre  these  do  not  develop  until  near  90°.  Between  90°  and 
100°,  however,  they  outnumber  the  normal  errors  given  in  the  body  of 
the  table.  They  are  doubtless  due  to  the  fact  that  a  reflected  wave 
lias  been  mistaken  for  the  direct  wave.  The  fact  that  the  first  reflected 
effect  PR  is  often  more  pronounced  than  P  in  the  case  of  distant  earth- 
quakes is  duly  not^d  in  Walker's  monogi'aph  (p.  41) ;  it  may  not,  how- 
ever, be  realised  that  it  is  so  often  mistaken  for  P  in  the  published 
records  of  sensitive  instruments.  Beyond  100°  from  the  epicentre 
no  times  for  P  were  coiTectly  given  at  all  for  the  five  earthquakes 
here  examined.  It  is  not  intended  to  ignore  the  fact  that  these  differ- 
ences \vill  change  with  distance  from  epicentre,  but  for  the  present 
rough  review  we  will  neglect  this  change.  The  median  is  3"75  m. 
or  3  m.  45  s.  The  mean  of  the  differences  from  this  is  it  0"53  m.  But 
it  does  not  seem  clear  that  some  of  the  differences  which  may  be  faulty 
P  readings  should  be  included.  If  these  are  excluded  the  median  is' 
3"8  m. ;  the  mean  is  3"87  m. ;  and  the  mean  of  the  differences  from 
the  mean  is  ±  0"35  m. 

Normal  Errors. — Coming  now  to  the  main  part  of  Table  I.,  if  we 
take  the  eiTors  as  they  stand  (assuming  the  time-table  for  P  con-ect 
throughout)  the  mean  of  the  87  differences  is  -  0'07  m.  or  -4  s. 
But  there  is  a  systematic  run  about  the  differences  as  may  be  seen 
from  the  following  means  for  the  separate  columns:  — 


40° 


80° 


90° 


-f013 


m. 
-001 


-Oil 


—     100° 

m. 

-0-27 


The  process  adopted  in  the  previous  work  does  not  justify  any 
great  refinement  of  correction;  but  we  may  fairly  correct  the  different 
columns  by  the  quantities 


0°    — 

40° 

— 

80° 

— 

90° 

-     100 

m. 

m. 

m. 

m. 

-01 


00 


-fOl 


-fO-3 


ON  SKISMOLOGICAL   INVESTIGATIONS. 


49 


and  then  the  errors  are  distributed  as  in  the  last  column.  The  mean 
is  now  +0"014:  m.  or  +0'8  s.  and  the  mean  of  the  errors  is  ±  0'31  m., 
very  close  to  the  mean  of  the  errors  0'35  m.  obtained  above  for  the 
reflected  wave.  A  considerable  part  of  this  mean  error  may  be  due 
to  the  errors  of  reading  distances  from  the  epicentre,  and  to  the  error 
of  assumed  position  of  the  epicentre  itself. 

Large  Negative  Readings. — The  eight  negative  readings  are  prob- 
ably due  to  accidental  air  tremors  just  preceding  the  quake;  these 
call  for  no  special  remark  here  except  that  they  seem  to  be  pretty 
clearly  separated  off  from  the  normal  readings ;  even  making  a  generous 
allowance  for  accidental  error  in  the  latter.  It  will  be  seen  that  the 
numerically  smallest  (-2"3m.)  is  a  full  minute  away  from  the  out- 
side error  (-l"2m.)  included  among  possible  normal  readings.  The 
details  may  be  given  here  in  case  the  observatories  care  to  examine 
the   records :  — 


Instru- 

Errors 

Dist.  from 

Observatory 

ment 

Date 

P             S 

Epicentre 

m.       m. 

Lemberg 

B.O. 

Jan.    11,  1913 

-  3  3    — 

88 

Lemberg 

B.O. 

Mar.  23,  1913 

-  50    — 

87 

Lemberg 

B.O. 

April  30,  1913 

-14-2    — 

79 

Lemberg 

B.O. 

June  22.  1913 

-  4-2  -3-9 

78 

Aachen  • 

W. 

April  30,  1913 

-24-8    — 

80 

Paris  .    . 

— 

Mar.  23,  1913 

-  3-4  -0-7 

98 

Ksara     . 

. — 

Mar.  23,  1913 

-   2-3    — 

90 

Batavia 

W. 

Mar.  23,  1913 

-   33    — 

47 

Coming  now  to  S,  two  large  positive  errors  have  already  been 
mentioned  as  associated  with  large  positive  errors  in  P,  viz.,  -f9'5  m. 
at  Czernowitz  on  1913,  March  23,  and  +7-4m.  at  Triest  on  1913, 
January  11,  as  also  one  considerable  negative  error  of  -  3"9  m.  at 
Lemberg  on  June  22,  1913.  These  are  omitted  from  further  notice. 
Two  large  negative  errors  are 


Observatory 

Machine 

Date 

P 

S 

A 

Tiflis  . 

G 

1913,  Jan.  11 

+0-2 

-8-1 

73< 

Florence    . 

A 

1913,  Jan.  11 

-0-9 

-7-7 

98" 

The  former  is  due  to  some  unknown  mistake;  the  latter  is  probably 
a  mistake  of  S  for  PE^.  These  are  also  omitted  from  further  notice. 
Two  positive  errors  of  smaller  amount  as  follows:  — 

Observatory 
B,iverview     .... 
Heidelberg    .... 


Date 

P 

S 

A 

1913,  June  22 

-0-3 

+4-5 

94° 

1913,  June  22 

+0-1 

+  4-7 

80° 

are  omitted   as  quite  anomalous, 
in  Table  II. 


The  remaining  errors  are  grouped 


1914. 


50 


REPORTS    ON    THE    STATE   OP   SCIENCE. — 1914. 


Table  II. 

Errors  of  S  for  Seismographs  other  than  Milne's. 
(Unit  01m.  or  6  s.) 


Distance  from  Epicentre 

Errors 

0° 

40°               80° 

130° 

+2-1  to  +2-5 



.      . 

1 



+  1-6  to  +2-0 

1 



3 

— 

+  1-1  to  +1-5 

2 

3 

1 

— . 

+0-6  to  +1-0 

1 

3 

1 

— 

+0-1  to  +0-5 

1 

4 

3 

- — 

—0-4  to      0-0 

2 

10 

9 

— 

-00  to  -0-5 

1 

4 

12 

— 

-1-4  to  -1-0 

— 

3 

12 

— 

-1-9  to  -1-5 

_ 

2 

7 

. — 

-2-4  to  -2-0 

— 

1 

— . 

-2-9  to  -2-5 

— 

— 

— 

Mean 

+0-5 

-0-2 

-0-5 

It  would  liei-eby  appear  that  while  the  tables  for  P  are  fauiy 
accurate,  those  for  S  are  sensibly  in  error.  The  amount  of  error 
cannot  be  assigned  more  than  very  roughly  by  the  present  method, 
because  the  error  for  Pulkovo  comes  differently  into  the  various  earth- 
quakes. But  it  would  appear  that  the  times  of  arrival  of  S  at  20° 
distance  and  at  100°  distance  from  the  epicentre  are  relatively  erro- 
neous by  something  like  a  whole  minute.  The  error  is  apparently 
not  complicated  in  the  case  of  S  by  any  reflection  phenomenon ;  the 
residuals  for  P  are  definitely  grouped  about  two  separate  maxima, 
but  for  S  this  is  not  so.  The  first  group  (0°-40°)  is  too  small  to 
show  a  decided  maximum ;  but  the  position  of  the  maximum  is  clearly 
Tuarked  in  the  other  two  by  the  numbers  given  in  the  table.  As  a 
rough  expedient  the  following  corrections  have  been  applied:  — 


Correction 


Distance  from  Epicentre 

15°       25°       35°       45°       55°       65°       75°       85°       95°      105» 

-0-3    -0-2    -01     00      -fOl    -fO-2    -f03    -fO-4    +0-5    -fO-6 


the  correction  for   15°  being    applied  to  distances  between   10°    and 
20°,  and  so  on.  The  corrected  errors  are  then  distributed  as  follows  :  — 


c 

»"       - 

Distance  from  Epicentre 
40°      -      80°      -      130°       All 

+2-8  to  +3-2 
-f  2-3  to  +2-7 
+  1-8  to  -!-2-2 
-f- 1-3  to  -f  1-7 
+0-8  to  -f  1-2 
-f  0-3  to  -f  0-7 
-0-2  to  -f  0-2 
-0-7  to  -0-3 

1 
2 
2 

2 

_ 

1 
6 
4 
11 
2 

1 
3 

2 

6 
13 
12 

1 

3 

0 

4 

8 

12 

24 

16 

-1-2  to  -0-8 

1 

4                 10 

15 

-1-7  to  -1-3 

— 

2                   1 

3 

-2-2  to  -1-8 

— 

1     ;     — 

1 

Totals      . 

1 

8 

31                 48 

87 

ON   SEISMOLOGICAL    INVESTIGATIONS.  51 

The  mean  of  the  errors  is  ±  073  m.,  and  though  there  is  a  sHght 
tendency  to  increase  from  the  second  group  to  the  third,  the  material 
is  fairly  homogeneous.  Now,  comparing  this  with  the  mean  for  P, 
viz.  ±  0'31  m.,  it  is  clear  that  we  are  dealing  with  a  much  less 
definitely  marked  phenomenon,  as  is  indeed  well  known.  Part  of 
each  of  these  mean  errors  is  due  to  errors  of  reading,  &c. ;  and  this 
part  should  be  approximately  the  same  in  both.  If  we  were  to  calcu- 
late and  remove  it,  the  ratio  between  the  two,  already  greater  than 
2  to  1,  would  be  sensibly  increased. 

In  determining  A  from  P  and  S,  the  superior  accuracy  of  P  is  there- 
fore rendered  more  or  less  useless  by  the  uncertainty  of  S.  Galitzin's 
azimuthal  method  of  determining  the  epicentre  has  thus  obvious 
advantages ;  if  the  epicentre  is  well  determined  from  the  azimuths 
at  several  stations,  and  if  the  time  of  the  catastrophe  is  determined 
from  the  Ps  at  these  stations,  we  should  appear  to  have  the  material 
in  the  best  shape  for  improving  the  tables  oi  P  and  S,  especially  the 
latter. 

But  this  is  a  digression  from  the  present  investigation,  which  is 
primarily  concerned  with  the  performance  of  the  Milne  instruments. 

Putting  aside  for  the  present  any  question  of  correcting  the  tables 
for  S,  and  therefore  the  position  of  the  epicentre  (as  determined  from 
Pulkovo),  and  consequent  correction  of  the  calculated  times,  it  is  clear 
that  we  can  compare  the  performance  of  the  Milne  pendulums  with 
other  instruments  on  a  common  basis  (though  not  the  ultimate  basis) 
by  collecting  their  records  for  the  same  earthquakes  in  the  same  way. 
This  is  done  in  the  following  Table  III.,  which  corresponds  to 
Table  I. 

It  will  be  seen — 

(a)  That  there  are  5  large  positive  errors  and  8  large  negative 
errors,  for  which  no  special  explanation  can  be  given.  In  Table  T. 
there  are  8  negative  errors,  no  positive. 

(b)  That  in  6  +  5  +  10  +  5  =  26  cases,  S  has  presumably  been  read 
in  place  of  P.     With  other  instruments  there  were  only  5  such  cases. 

(c)  That  in  at  least  17  cases  a  reading  has  been  made  which  can 
be  attributed  to  a  reflected  wave.  There  are,  moreover,  9  readings 
intermediate  between  these  and  the  normal  readings,  which  are  extreme 
cases  of  one  or  the  other.  The  line  of  demarcation  is  not  so  sharp  as 
before.     Similarly  there  are  5  doubtful  negative  readings. 

(d)  In  the  middle  part  of  the  table  have  been  collected  within  the 
same  limits  as  before  what  may  be  fairly  regarded,  as  normal  readings. 

They  number  25  in  all.  They  do  not  of  themselves  suggest 
any  corrections  to  the  table  for  P,  but  we  might  use  the  same  correc- 
tions as  before.  It  is  simpler,  however,  to  restrict  attention  to  the 
second  and  largest  group,  the  mean  of  the  errors  for  which  is  ±  0'4  m. 
If,  however,  we  include  in  this  the  'doubtful'  +l'8m.,  +l*4m., 
+ 1'2  m.,  and  — I'O  m.,  — 1'2  m.,  the  mean  of  the  errors  rises  to 
'  ±  0"6  m.     For  other  instruments  this  mean  was  ±  0'31  m. 

The  most  significant  fact  is  perhaps  that  of  the  whole  05 
readings-only  25  at  a  severe  scrutiny,-  and  at  most  {i.e.,    including 

K  2 


52 


REPORTS   ON   THE   STATE   OF  SCIENCE. — 1914. 


Table  III. 
95  Errors  of  P  for  Milne  Seismographs  in  1913. 


Distance  from  Epicentre 
Error       0°    —    40°     —      80°     —       90°    —       100°      —      130° 

Large 
Positive 

Transferred 

to  S 

— 

4-18-7 
4-15-3 

(6) 

-f39-4 

4-40-7 
-f250 

— 

— 

(5) 

(10) 

(5) 

1 

PRx 

— 

4-4-3 
4-3-3 

=    '    '!! 

(6) 

Doubtful 

— 

-F2-9 
4-2-7 
4-1-8 
4-1-4 
4-1-2 

I 

4-2-8 
4-2-0 
-M-4 

4-20 

— 

m. 
+0-9 
4-0-8 
4-0-7 
4-0-6 
4-0-5 
4-0-4 
4-0-3 
-FO-2 
+0-1 

0-0 
-0-1 
-0-2 
-0-3 
-0-4 
-0-5 
-0-6 
-0-7 
-0-8 
-0-9 

1 
1 

2 

1 

1 

1 
1 
3 
2 
2 
1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 
1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

Doubtful 

-1-2 

-1-0 
-1-2 

—               -1-9 

-1-0 

— 

Large 

Negative 

— 

-  3-4 

-  5-8 
-10-1 
-35-3 

i 
—        1      -5-4 

1 

1                  ' 

-12-4 
-17-5 
-25-4 

j 

ON  SEISMOLOGICAL   INVESTIGATIONS. 


53 


all  those  marked  doubtful)  only  39,  can  be  regarded  as  true  readings 
of  P;  say  40  per  cent,  at  most.  With  the  other  machines  there  are 
87  out  of  134,  or  65  per  cent. 

Coming  now  to  S,  and  correcting  the  results  (which  include  those 
transferred  from  P)  as  for  other  instniments,  we  find  12  large  errors ; 
the  others  are  distributed  as  below  :  — 


Table  IV. 
38  Errors  for  8  in  Milne  Seismograp7i3  in  1913. 


Distance  from  Epicentre 

0°       —      40°      —      80°       —     130°     All 

m.           m. 

+  3-3  to  +3-7 

— 

1 

1 

2 

+2-8  to  +3-2 

— 

— 

— 



+  2-3  to  +2-7 

— 

— 

3 

3 

+  1-8  to  +2-2 



1 

1 

2 

+  1-3  to  +1-7 

— 

1 

1 

+0-8  to  +1-2 

— 

1 

2 

3 

+0-3  to  +0-7 

2 

2 

2 

6 

—0-2  to  +0-2 

— 

3 

3 

6 

-0-7  to  -0-3 

— 

2 

5 

7 

-1-2  to  -0-8 

— 



2 

2 

-1-7  to  -1-3 

— 

2 

2 

4 

-2-2  to  -1-8 

— 



1 

1 

-2-7  to  -2-3 

1 

— 

1 

The  mean  of  the  errors  ia  ±  I'l  m.  ;  for  other  instruments  it  was 
±  0'73  m.  The  ratio  of  these  is  about  the  same  as  in  the  case  of  P. 
But  it  will  be  seen  that  there  are  acceptable  readings  of  S  in  38  cases, 
whereas  for  the  same  earthquakes  there  are  only  39  of  P  at  most. 
It  is  usually  considered  that  the  Milne  instruments  show  P  but  not  S. 
The  evidence  here  tabulated  points  to  the  conclusion  that  S  is  shown 
at  least  as  well  as  P.  It  is  true  that  the  five  earthquakes  considered 
are  large  ones;  but  it  might  reasonably  be  argued  that  P  should 
therefore  have  the  better  chance  of  asserting  itself.  It  seems  probable 
that  in  some  cases  P  could  be  recovered  from  the  records  when  it  was 
realised  that  the  reading  formerly  given  was  that  of  S.  The  important 
point  is  that  without  any  great  difficulty  it  can  be  settled  when 
we  have  an  S  reading,  for  the  cases  of  doubt  are  few.  We  may  now 
give  the  12  large  errors  excluded  as  mistakes;  they  are  +35'2m., 
+  11-9  m.,  +10-3  m.,  +9"lm.,  +8'7m.,  +8*6  m.,  the  smallest  of 
which  exceeds  the  maximum  error  ( +  3'5  m.)  accepted  as  S  by  over  5  m. ; 
and  on  the  negative  side  we  have  —  4'4  m. ,  —  4"4  m. ,  —  5'1  m. ,  —  8'0  m. , 
+  ll'8m.,  and  —  14'2m.  Here  the  separation  is  not  so  marked;  but 
there  is  a  full  2  m.  interval.  Some  or  all  of  these  negative  errors  may 
be  readings  of  PEi,  but  the  two  largest,  which  both  occur  on  January  11 
(Toronto  — 11"8  m.  and  Stonyhurst  — 14'2  m.),  are  supported  by 
several  other  readings  and  probably  refer  to  a  preliminary  shock.  As 
the  performance  of  the  Milne  pendulums   is  the  main  point  under 


54 


KEPORTS   ON   THE    STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 


investigation,  not  only  were  the  above  five  earthquakes  used,  but  also 
five  others  in  1911  as  follows :  — 


Date 

Adopted  Epicentre 

Adopted  Time 

I.      .     .     . 
II.      ... 
III. 

IV.         ... 
V.        ... 

1911,  July     4 
1911,  July  12 
1911,  Aug.  16 
1911,  Oct.    14 
1911,  Dec.  16 

39°0N.,    71-4  E. 
27-0  N.,  116-0  E. 
190  S.,  140-0  E. 
33-5  N.,    82-5  E. 
12-0  N.,  101-8  W. 

h.       m.        s. 

13      33       33 

4        9        7 

22  38      51 

23  24         1 
19       13       51 

For  these  earthquakes  Pulkovo  epicentre  determinations  were  not 
available,  but  the  results  from  Galitzin  instruments  at  Eskdalemuir  are 
published  in  the  '  Geophysical  Journal,'  and  have  been  adopted  for 
use.  The  computations  were  kindly  made  by  Mr.  A.  E.  Young, 
formerly  Deputy  Surveyor-General  of  the  Malay  Survey,  who  is  at 
present  working  at  the  Oxford  University  Observatory;  and  in  this 
instance  greater  care  was  taken,  Mr.  Young  calculating  the  distances 
trigonometrically  (instead  of  reading  them  from  a  globe)  and  using 
the  tunes  and  tables  to  seconds  of  time  in  the  computations,  though 
in  giving  the  results  the  unit  O'lm.  has  been  considered  sufficient. 


V. — Comparison  of  Films  for  1911. 

The  chief  object  in  using  this  additional  material  was  as  follows. 
It  was  thought  that  some  of  the  errors  of  the  Milne  instruments  might 
be  due  to  faulty  readings  of  the  records,  susceptible  of  correction.  To 
test  the  general  accuracy  of  such  readings  the  different  stations  Vv'ere 
invited  to  send  their  films  for  the  year  1911  to  Shide,  and  many 
of  them  have  responded.  Some  had  bound  up  their  films  in  such  a 
way  that  transmission  was  undesirable;  but  films  for  1911  have  been 
received  at  Shide  from  Cape  Town,  Cork,  Toronto,  San  Fernando, 
Sydney,  Helwan  (Egypt),  Victoria,  Ascension,  Perth,  Seychelles, 
Eskdale,  Guildford,  and  Colombo,  and  have  been  systematically 
examined  at  Shide  by  Mr.  Burgess  and  Mr.  Pring,  who  have  had 
much  experience  in  reading  the  Shide  films.  It  was  thought  advisable 
to  make  this  examination  quite  independently,  before  knowing 
whether  the  revised  readings  would  suit  the  calculated  facts  better ;  and 
indeed  the  calculations  were  made  at  Oxford,  so  that  the  Shide  readings 
were  made  in  ignorance  of  the  tabular  result  either  before  or  after. 
On  comparing  the  old  and  new  readings  with  expectation,  it  does  not 
appear  that  the  new  afford  any  systematic  improvement  on  the  old. 
The  actual  figures  for  the  above  five  earthquakes  are  as  follows  (the 
quantities  given  being  differences  from  expectation,  calculated  as  already 
indicated).  They  apply  entirely  to  the  phase  P,  the  phase  S  being 
seldom  read  from  the  Milne  records. 


ON  SEISMOLOGICAL  INVESTIGATIONS. 


65 


Table  V. 

Coinparison  of  Original  and  Revised  Readings  of  Varimis  Films  jor  the 

Phase  P. 


Ascension. 

Quake.  Orig.  Rev. 

II —5-5  Not  read 

III +51  +51 


T. 

II. 

III. 

V. 


Cape  Town 

.  -0-9 

.  +2-3 

.  +6-3 

.  +5-5 


+0-2 
+  2-9 
+5-8 
+  5-1 


Helwan. 

Readings  for  Jan.   and  Feb.   confirmed 
former  results  so  consistently  that  the 

super- 


soriitmy 
fluous. 


was   discontinued   as 


Perth. 


III. 
V. 


I. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 


+3-5 

+24 


San  Fernando. 

.  -0-2 

.  +5-9 

.  +6-5 

.  -0-3 


+  3-5 

+  2-5 


-30 
+  6-6 

+21-7 
-0'7 


Quake. 

I. 

II. 
III. 

V. 


Seychelles. 

Orig. 

.    +60 

.    +00 

.        .    +1-5 

.    {37-0) 


Rev. 
Not  read 
-10 
+  1-5 
(340) 

For  V.  epicentre  is  so  distant  that  tables 
fail. 


I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 


Sydney. 


+2-8 
-4-5 
+  1-7 
+9-6 


-14-4 
-41-9 
-13-2 

+  9-2 


For  II.  an  earlier  quake  is  confirmed  by 
Alipore.     For    III.    see    Toronto. 

Toronto.  ! 

I +101  -14-4 

II +  4-9  +  41 

III +  9-7  -14-3 

V -  0-3  -  11 

For  III.  sec  Sydney. 

Victoria. 
V -  01     -  01 

Films  not  sent  for  other  earthquakes. 


After  consideration  of  the  above  figures,  it  was  decided  to  apply 
no  corrections  at  all,  but  to  accept  the  original  readings  as  they  stand, 
and  in  Table  VI.  these  are  compared  with  calculated  values.  The  table 
corresponds  to  Table  III.  except  that  A  was  now  used  in  km.,  and 
the  grouping  is  therefore  a  little  different. 

There  is  room  for  some  difference  of  opinion  as  to  the  17  records 
marked  doubtful;  but  the  12  +  13  +  15  +  3  +  4  =  47  readings  in  the  body 
of  the  table  are  probably  normal.  We  thus  get  at  least  47  but  not 
more  than  64  normal  readings  out  of  108.  These  figures  are  better  than 
the  1913  figures  and  encourage  the  hope  that  on  the  whole  50  per  cent, 
of  the  recorded  readings  for  P  may  be  normal ;  but  the  percentage 
cannot  be  higher  than  this. 

One  feature  of  the  records  seems  to  demand  fui-ther  investigation. 
There  is  a  suggestion  that  the  readings  are  divisible  into  two  groups 
separated  by  about  a  whole  minute;  and  this  applies  also  to  the 
results  for  1913,  though  they  are  scarcely  numerous  enough  to  declare 
it  independently.  It  will  be  seen  that  the  records  —  0'4  m.  and  —  0'5  m. 
are  not  represented  in  either  table,  thus  creating  an  appearance  of 
separation.     But  this  may  be  purely  accidental. 

Coming  now  to  S,  Table  VII.  has  been  formed  in  the 
Bame  manner  as  before,  adopting  the  same  corrections  to  the  tables 
for  time  of  S.  There  are  three  consistent  observations  of  S  at  A 
=  15,000   kms.   for  which  the  tables  are  scarcely   available  but  wei'e 


56 


REPORTS    ON   THE    STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 


Table  VI. 
108  Errors  of  P  for  Milne  Seismographs  in  1911. 


Distance  from  Epicentre  in  kms. 
0     -     .5000  —  9000  -  10000  -  11000  -  13000      over 

Large  Errors     . 

m. 
+  17-2 

m. 
+22-1 
+  16-1 

— 

— 

— 

S         .       .       . 

(2) 

(6) 

(1) 

(3) 

(0) 

—  +10-8? 

—  +  9-7? 

—  +  8-5? 

PRi    .       .       . 

— 

+4-5 
+3-3 

+2-6 
+2-6 

+4-4 
+4-3 

+4-2 

+6-1 

+6-3 

+5-2 
+4-9 

+5-9         +5-2 
+6-7         +5-1 
+5-5         +4-4 
+53         +3-9 

Doubtful   . 

+  1-7 
+  1-2 
+  10 
+  10 

+1-7 
+  1-7 
+  1-5 
+  1-5 

+  1-5 
+  1-5 
+  10 

— 

+2-8        +30          — 
+2-3    1    +24          — 
+10         +14          — 

( 

+0-9 
+0-8 
+0-7 
+0-6 
+0-5 
+0-4 
+0-3 
+0-2 
+0-1 
00 
-01 
-0-2 
-0-3 
-04 
-0-5 
-0-6 
-0-7 
-0-8 
-0-9 
-10 
-11 
-1-2 
-1-3 
-1-4 
-1-5 

1 

1 

1 
1 

2 

1 
2 

1 
1 
1 

1 

1 
1 

1 

2 

1 

3 

1 
1 

1 

1 

T    = 

2            — 

1  — 

2  — 

2            — 
2            — 

1     z 

1      - 

1         — 

1 
1 

1 

z 

1 
1 

1 

Large  Errors    . 

-430 

-3-6 
-4-5 

-4-7 

-4-8       -3-7 

— 

-5-5 

ON  SEISMOLOGICAL  INVESTIGATIONS. 


57 


provisionally  extended.  It  seems  clear  that  an  even  larger  correction  is 
necessary  at  this  distance  than  has  been  assumed.  In  calculating 
the  mean  error  these  observations  have  been  omitted,  and  the  mean 
error  is  then  ±  1"1  m.  as  before.  Including  them  as  they  stand 
raises  it  to  ±  1'2  m. 


Table  VH. 
36  Errors  for  S  for  Milne  Seismographs  in  1911. 


Distance  from 

Epicentre  in  kms. 

c 

>      — 

5000  -  9000   - 

lOOOO  -  11000  -  16000  -  All 

+  2-8  to  +3-2 





1 



__ 

1 

+2-3  to  +2-7 

— 

1 

1 

— 



2 

+  1-8  to  +2-2 

1 

1 

— 

— 



2 

+  1-3  to  +1-7 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

0 

+0-8  to  +1-2 

— 

— 

2 

1 

— 

3 

+0-3  to  +0-7 

— 

3 

2 

1 

— 

6 

-0-2  to  +0-2 

— 

I 

3 





4 

-0-7  to  -0-3 

— 

3 

— 

1 

— 

4 

-1-2  to  -0-8 

4 

2 

— 

1 

— 

7 

—  1-7  to  -1-3 

— 

1 

1 

— 

(1) 

2 

-2-2  to  -1-8 

— 

1 





(2) 

1 

-2-7  to  -2-3 

— 

1 

— 

— 

• 

1 

In  addition  there  are  three  large  positive  errors  (  +  9"9m.,  +7"8m. 
and  +7'8m.)  and  four  large  negative  (  — 5'2m.,  —  5'8m.,  —  6"7m. 
and  -S'l  m.),  which  may  be  reflected  waves.  The  percentage  is 
slightly  less  than  before,  but,  putting  1911  and  1913  together,  we 
have  36  +  39  =  75  tolerably  certain  S  readings  as  against  47  +  25  =  72, 
or  possibly  64  +  39  =  103  P  readings.  The  fact  that  S  is  as  often 
I'eadable  as  P  on  Milne  seismograms,  at  any  rate  for  large  eai'thquakes, 
seems  to  be  thus  fairly  well  established. 

VI. — Comparison  of  Milne  and  Galitzin  Instruments. 

To  the  information  conveyed  by  the  above  discussion  the  following 
may  be  added.  At  Eskdalemuir  Observatory  various  seismographs  have 
been  m.ounted  side  by  side  for  comparison,  and  Mr.  G.  W.  Walker 
made  very  careful  and  thorough  comparisons  of  the  relative  advan- 
tages as  indicated  in  his  book  already  referred  to.  It  seemed  desirable 
at  the  present  juncture  to  have  a  formal  report  on  the  comparison  of 
the  Milne  instrument  with  at  least  one  other;  and  the  Galitzin  seemed 
the  best  to  select  as  standard  of  comparison.  Application  was  there- 
fore made  to  the  Superintendent  of  the  Meteorological  Office,  and  he 
kindly  sent  the  following  report,  to  which  the  names  of  L.  F. 
Richardson  and  L.  H.  G.  Dines  are  attached. 

Comparison  betiveen  the  Milne  and  the  Galitzin  types  of  Seismographs. 

It  is  convenient  to  treat  the  question  under  several  different 
aspects,  and  a  brief  description  of  the  two  instruments  may  usefully 
precede  the  rest. 

It  is  unnecessary  to  say  much  about  the  Milne  instrument. 
Extreme  lightness    and  compactness  characterise  it,    and  no    simpler 


58  REPORTS   ON  THE   STATE   OP  SCIENCE. — 1914. 

method  of  optical  registration  could  well  be  devised.  No  expensive 
lenses  are  needed,  and,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  parts  of  the 
mechanism,  no  specially  high-class  work  is  required  in  manufacture. 
The  whole  of  the  apparatus  is  self-contained  and  does  not  take  up 
much  floor-space.  It  does  not  require  a  continuously  darkened  room 
in  which  to  work.  Two  pendulums  to  record  both  N.S.  and  E.W. 
movemients  can  be  installed  in  the  same  case  and  record  on  the  same 
drum. 

The  Galitzin  instrument,  on  the  other  hand,  is  a  very  much  more 
complicated  affair.  It  is  designed  to  follow  a  somewhat  elaborate 
mathematical  theory,  and  high-class  workmanship  and  accuracy  are 
needed  in  its  construction.  Its  pendulum  is  shorter  than  the  Milne 
and  much  heavier — say,  seven  kilograms.  It  is  hung  by  two  steel 
wires  (Zollner  system),  and  has  no  pivot  at  all  in  some  cases.  Pro- 
vision, however,  is  made  on  the  pendulum  and  frame  for  a  steel  point 
and  cup  to  be  inserted  if  required.  The  supporting  wires  might,  with 
advantage,  be  made  of  tungsten  if  corrosion  were  feared.  At  the  outer 
end  of  the  boom  are  fixed  to  the  frame  four  pow^erful  horseshoe 
magnets.  Between  the  poles  of  one  pair  of  these  moves  a  set  of  wire 
coils  fixed  to  the  boom  and  coupled  in  series  with  a  delicate  galvano- 
meter placed  in  any  convenient  position  elsewhere.  Between  the 
other  pair  is  a  large  copper  plate,  also  fixed  to  the  boom,  and  this  last 
acts  as  a  magnetic  damper.  The  magnets  can  be  adjusted  as  desired 
to  vary  the  magnetic  field  between  the  poles. 

The  galvanometer  is  of  the  moving  coil  type,  and  has  a  long  period 
of  oscillation  when  undamped.  This  galvanometer  is  an  excellent 
piece  of  work  and  is  electrically  damped  so  that  it  can  be  rendered 
just  aperiodic.  With  the  whole  instrument  in  normal  workin_g  it  is 
necessary  that  the  undamped  periods  of  both  pendulum  and  galvano- 
meter should  be  the  same,  and  that  they  both  should  be  damped  just 
to  the  limit  of  aperiodicity. 

The  optical  registration  consists  of  a  collimator  with  a  fine  slit 
powerfully  illuminated.  The  beam  is  reflected  from  a  min'or  on  the 
galvanometer  and  thence  to  the  recording  dram,  whei^e  a  cylindrical 
lens  condenses  the  line  of  light  into  a  point  on  the  paper. 

The  two  pendulums  for  recording  N.S.  and  E.W.  movements  are 
under  entirely  separate  covers,  and  in  a  more  refined  installation  two 
separate  drums  are  also  used;  but  it  is  possible  to  use  one  dram  only 
and  arrange  the  spots  of  light  from  the  two  galvanometers  side  by 
side. 

A  good  deal  of  floor  space  is  required,  and  the  room  in  which  the 
recording  parts  are  placed  must  be  kept  dark. 

The  galvanometers  and  recording  drum  may  be  placed  in  a  separate 
room  altogether;  and,  in  fact,  are  better  so  placed.  The  presence  of 
the  attendant  is  likely  to  disturb  the  pendulum  if  he  brings  his  weight 
near  the  pillar  on  which  it  stands.  The  recording  part  of  the 
apparatus  is  quite  unaffected  by  disturbances  in  the  room  in  which  it 
is  placed. 

For  a  further  description  of  the  Galitzin  instrament  see 
(1)  '  Modern  Seismology, '  by  G.  W.  Walker,  F.E.S.,  chapters  2  and  3. 


ON   SEISMOLOGICAL   INVESTIGATIONS.  59 

(2)  The  catalogue  supplied  by  H.  Masing,  St.  Petersburg,  the 
makers    of    the    pendulum    and    recording    part    of    the    instrument. 

(3)  '  Ueber  ein  neues  Aperiodisches  Horizontalpendel  mit  galvano- 
metrischer  Fernregistrierung, '  by  Prince  B.  Galitzin.  (4)  'Ueber 
einen  neuen  Seismographen  fin-  die  Vertikalkomponente  der  Boden- 
bevvegung, '  by  Prince  B.  Galitzin.  (6)  'Die  electromagnetische 
Registriermethode, '  by  Prince  B.  Galitzin,  Academy  of  Sciences, 
St.  Petersburg. 

The  Galitzin  recorder  for  vertical  movements  operates  electrically 
in  exactly  the  same  manner  as  the  horizontal  instrument,  and  a  similar 
magnetic  damper  is  fitted  to  it.  The  room  in  which  the  pendulum 
is  placed  must  be  maintained  as  far  as  possible  at  a  uniform  tempera- 
ture, as  the  change  in  the  elasticity  of  the  spring  which  supports  the 
pendulum  causes  excessive  wandering  if  the  temperature  changes  by 
even  as  little  as  0.5  per  cent. 

Comparative  cost. — A  Galitzin  installation  is  much  more  expensive 
than  a  corresponding  Milne  one.  Two  horizontal  pendulums  complete 
with  galvanometer  and  one  recording  drum  cost  at  least  148Z.,  while 
the  pendulum  for  vertical  movements  with  galvanometer  and  drum 
costs  at  least  llOL 

This  does  not  exhaust  the  expensiveness  of  the  instruments,  since 
about  six  times  as  much  sensitive  paper  is  required  for  one  Galitzin 
recording  drum  as  for  one  modern  Milne  drum  for  two  pendulums. 
It  is  customary  to  run  the  paper  at  three  centimetres  per  minute,  and 
unless  the  optical  arrangements  were  improved  it  would  be  hardly 
feasible  to  run  it  at  much  less  speed  without  losing  a  good  deal. 
Under  these  circumstances  the  cost  in  paper  alone  of  one  recorder  is 
about  33L  per  annum. 

Attention  required. — The  Milne  instrument  does  not  require  more 
than  ordinary  skilled  attention.  If  the  operator  be  used  to  handling 
delicate  instruments  little  more  is  required.  Of  the  Galitzin  instrument 
the  same  may  be  said  as  far  as  the  ordinary  routine  is  concerned,  but 
the  greater  complexity  of  the  apparatus  means  a  greater  number  of 
things  liable  to  go  wrong,  and  sooner  or  later  it  is  almost  certain 
to  happen  that  highly  skilled  attention  is  necessary.  Both  types  of 
instrument  require  periodical  standardisation,  but  while  in  the  Milne 
type  this  is  quite  a  simple  process,  in  the  Galitzin  it  is  quite  otherwise. 
A  certain  amount  of  auxiliary  apparatus  is  required,  such  as  telescopes 
and  scales,  and  two  persons  are  necessary  to  make  simultaneous  obser- 
vations of  the  pendulum  and  galvanometer;  when  these  have  been 
made  the  constants  of  the  instrument  can  be  determined.  Prince 
Galitzin  has  worked  out  formulae  for  this  purpose. 

The  whole  process  has  in  general  to  be  gone  through  twice  for  each 
instrument,  and  it  is  a  lengthy  operation,  taking  probably  about  two 
working  days.  A  certain  measure  of  observational  skill  is  required  to 
take  the  necessary  readings  accurately,  as  well  as  a  fair  working  know- 
ledge of  mathematics  to  deal  with  the  results  when  obtained. 

It  would  be  possible  to  simplify  the  process  somewhat  more 
than  has  at  present  been  done,  and  reduce  it  largely  to  routine;  but 


60  REPORTS   ON   THE   STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

a  Galitzin  installation  must  always  require  a  greater  measure  of 
skilled  attention  to  run  it  successfully  than  is  the  case  with  the 
simpler  types  of  instruments. 

It  is  difficult  to  estimat-6  what  is  the  minimum  of  mathematical 
and  physical  knowledge  that  must  be  possessed  by  an  assistant  in  order 
to  maintain  successfully  a  Galitzin  installation.  A  working  know- 
ledge of  algebra  is  essential,  arid  probably  with  this  as  a  basis  an 
intelligent  operator  could  learn  the  rest  of  the  routine  with  the  aid 
of  computing-forms.  But  without  a  knowledge  of  higher  mathematics, 
and  particularly  elementary  differential  equations,  it  is  impossible  to 
understand  the  meaning  of  the  formulae  by  which  the  constants  are 
determined. 

Results  obtainable. — ^The  Milne  type  of  instrument  is  very  sensitive 
as  a  mere  seismoscope.  With  the  exception  of  very  faint  movements 
indeed,  some  record  of  a  distant  quake  can  always  be  obtained  by  it ; 
this  is  due  to  the  absence  of  damping  and  almost  entire  absence  of 
solid  friction ;  by  altering  the  period  of  oscillation  of  the  boom 
it  can  be  made  particularly  sensitive  to  any  wave-period  desired. 
The  instrument  at  Eskdalemuir  Observatory  has  at  present  a  period 
of  about  eighteen  seconds,  and  this  corresponds  approximately 
with  the  wave  periods  from  very  faint  and  I'emote  shocks.  For 
waves  of  this  type  the  Milne  instrument  leaves  some  record  of 
almost  any  earthquake  that  affects  the  Galitzin  instrument;  but 
whereas  the  latter  gives  a  trace  that  approximately  follows  the  actual 
movements  of  the  ground,  the  trace  from  the  former  has  little  re- 
semblance to  it.  Maximum  movements  on  the  Milne  record  may 
or  may  not  coincide  with  the  maximum  movements  of  the  ground : 
it  depends  on  the  type  of  the  earth  movements  and  on  the  period  of 
the  pendulum.  By  damping  slightly,  a  more  faithful  record  can  be 
obtained,  and  by  making  the  pendulum  actually  dead  beat  a  moderately 
close  agreement  will  prevail  between  the  actual  earth  movements  and 
those  worked  out  from  the  record.  This  can  be  established  theoreti- 
cally, but  Prince  Galitzin  has  also  conducted  experiments  which  show 
that  theory  and  practice  are  in  close  agi'eement.  See  Professor  0.  G. 
Knott's  book  on  '  The  Physics  of  Earthquake  Phenomena,'  chapter  5, 
Unfortunately  the  reduction  in  the  scale  of  the  record  which  accom- 
panies damping  renders  the  Milne  pendulum  very  insensitive  when 
damped.  For  some  months  an  oil  damper  has  been  fitted  to  one  of  the 
Milne  pendulums  at  Eskdalemuir;  the  ratio  of  successive  elongations 
is  approximately  2:4.  The  results  obtained  are  disappointing  for  the 
reason  given  above. 

If  any  satisfactory  means  could  be  found  of  increasing  the  magnifi- 
cation optically  even  by  a  moderate  amount,  the  damped  Milne 
pendulum  should  be  capable  of  yielding  good  results,  and  the  greater 
simplicity  of  standardisation  should  be  another  point  in  its  favour. 

Turning  to  the  Galitzin  type  of  machine,  as  an  instrument  of 
precision  it  may  safely  be  said  to  be  ahead  of  all  others.  The  inter- 
pretation of  its  records  is  not  a  very  simple  matter,  but  by  those 
prepared  to   spend  the  time   a  vast   amount  of  information    can  be 


ON  SEISMOLOGICAL  INVESTIGATIONS.  61 

obtained.  The  scale  of  magnification  varies  widely  with  different  wave- 
periods,  being  in  general  approximately  800  as  a  maximum  and  for 
periods  of  about  fourteen  seconds,  and  falling  off  for  either  longer  or 
shorter  periods. 

The  preliminary  tremors  of  a  distant  earthquake  can  be  examined 
particularly  well,  and  individual  impulses  analysed.  An  experienced 
observer  can  analyse  these  preliminary  phases  from  the  shape  and 
general  appearance  of  the  record  far  more  easily  than  can  be  done  in 
the  case  of  the  undamped  Milne  record.  See  '  Modern  Seismology,' 
by  G.  W.  Walker,  F.R.S.,  chapter  7,  for  fuller  information  on  this 
point. 

It  is  probably  safe  to  say  that  a  full  and  rigid  investigation  into 
the  theory  of  these  instruments  has  not  yet  been  published,  and  the 
possibilities  of  deducing  complicated  formulae  in  that  direction  are  vast. 
The  high  degree  of  accuracy  that  in  favourable  circumstances  has  been 
obtained  in  locating  epicentres,  using  the  records  from  a  single  station 
only,  is  sufficient  to  demonstrate  the  excellence  of  the  instrument  as 
at  present  used.  It  would  be  well  to  state  here  that,  though  the 
Galitzin  record  does  not  represent  the  ground  motion  accurately  in 
many  cases,  yet  in  the  case  of  the  first  movement  of  the  first 
phase  P  of  an  earthquake  the  movements  on  the  N.S.  and  E.W. 
records  will  be  proportional  to  the  actual  earth  movements  provided 
that  the  two  pendulums  and  galvanometers  are  in  correct  adjustment 
and  have  the  same  undamped  period.  Hence  the  azimuth  can  in 
favourable  circumstances  be  accurately  and  easily  determined,  though 
to  work  out  the  actual  earth  movements  would  be  a  complicated 
matter. 

One  point  worthy  of  mention  in  which  the  Galitzin  instrument 
differs  from  most  or  perhaps  all  others  is  the  absence  of  trouble 
arising  from  the  wandering  of  the  pendulum.  However  the  latter  may 
wander,  the  zero  of  the  galvanometer  is  unaffected.  The  scale  value 
may  be  altered  slightly  if  the  pendulum  be  far  from  the  middle 
position,  but  this  can  easily  be  corrected  from  time  to  time.  This 
quality  renders  the  instrument  useless  for  determining  slow  changes  in 
tilt,  as  can'  be  done  with  other  types. 

Mention  has  been  made  above  of  varying  scale  value;  this  intro- 
duces another  limitation.  For  very  short  periods  the  magnification 
is  very  small,  being  about  110  for  one-second  period  and  varying 
directly  as  the  period  for  lesser  values. 

Hence  rapid  vibrations  will  leave  no  record,  and  this  may  be 
the  explanation  of  the  fact  that  small  local  earthquakes  are  not 
recorded  on  this  type  of  instrument. 

Owing  to  the  high  degree  of  magnification  and  great  sensitivity, 
some  trouble  is  experienced  from  disturbances  due  to  high  winds, 
and  from  experience  at  Eskdalemuir  it  would  seem  desirable  to  house 
the  pendulum  in  a  small  sheltered  building  rather  than  a  large  exposed 
one.  Heavy  weights  moving  in  the  vicinity  cause  trouble,  as  with  any 
other  sensitive  instruments ;  but  the  records  so  produced  being  of  definite 
character  can  be  readily  traced  to  their  origin,  and  are  immaterial  if  not 


62 


REPORTS   ON  THE   STATE   OP  SCIENCE. — 1914. 


too  frequent.     Occasional  traffic  along  a  neighbouring  road  would  not 
cause  much  confusion  on  the  record. 

A  curve  is  shown  attached  giving  the  magnification  of  movement 
in  both  tlie  Mihie   and  Gahtzin  types.     It  refers  solely  to  the  case 


Gn!  ^ziaadjusf-ed so 

ittat fhe Dtnau'd.'^  ^S. 

/ 

and  galvanometer  ha  e  fhe  samepenod 
of2-^-7secs.andar,  both  damped io 
as  to  bejusn  oenodic 

\      i 

/ 

\ 

1 

/ 

• 

II    / 

1  / 

■-S       / 

Qmori,  jusf  s 

beriodic.  Undamned 

nenoa  Itisecs          '                                  ' 

•—...^  morion  of  tip  ofhcom  mai^mfied  60  times  op^icallv 

' 

/ 

^^^ 

^~---___^ 

! 

/  „. 

p..-n;a  !74  <(zz  -r 

;        /         \ : 

of  a  long-continued  series  of  uniform  waves;  but  it  is  noteworthy  that 
in  the  Milne  type  it  cannot  be  applied  to  any  other  kind  of  motion  and 
may  be  considerably  in  error  even  one  or  two  minutes  after  the 
commencement  of  the  series. 

In  the  Galitzin  type,  however,  the  free  motion  dies  away  much 
more  rapidly. 

VII. — Present   Vahie  of  the  Milne  Instrument. 

We  may  summarise  the  present  situation  as  follows:  — 

(a)  The  Milne  instrument  is  undamped,  but  for  one  purpose — viz., 
the  determination  of  times  of  arrival  of  P  and  S — this  does  not  matter. 
There  has  been  an  idea  that  S  (or  Pa)  is  not  easy  to  read  on  Milne 
records;  but  S  has  often  been  read  in  mistake  for  P,  and  when  these 
readings  are  counted  properly  S  seems  to  be  identifiable  as  often  as  P. 
On  the  other  hand,  the  absence  of  damping  makes  the  readings  of 
maximum  of  uncertain  significance. 

(b)  The  time  scale  of  the  Milne  instrument  is  small  and  its  magni- 
fication is  also  small.  Both  might  be  increased  with  advantage,  and 
it  seems  probable  that  then  the  times  of  arrival  of  P  and  S  could 
be  read  as  well  as  on  most  other  instruments. 

(c)  The  present  wide  dispersion  of  Milne  stations  niakes  the  records 
of  great  value.     Most  of  the  modern  instruments  are  in  Europe.     For 


ON    SEISMOLOGICAL    INVESTIGATIONS.  63 

an  earthquake  in  Europe  they  are  distributed  in  various  azimuths 
(not  quite  a  complete  circuit  even  then),  but  for  distant  quakes  they 
cluster  in  the  same  azimuth  and  give  no  material  for  discussion  in 
azimuth  (see  Section  VIII.).  The  Milne  stations,  however,  especially 
those  in  Australia,   can  supply  this  information. 

It  is  clear,  then,  that  the  usefulness  of  the  Milne  instruments  is 
by  no  means  at  an  end,  as  the  perfection  of  modern  seismographs 
(especially  the  Galitzin  instrument)  might  at  first  suggest.  And  it 
should  not  be  difficult  to  extend  it  considerably. 

(a)  It  can  be  ia))iped  effectually.  Mr.  J.  J.  Shaw,  of  West  Brom- 
wich,  has  done  this  electro-magnetically  with  an  aluminium  plate 
in  place  of  the  Galitzin  copper  plate,  which  is  too  heavy  for  the  light 
Milne  boom.  At  present,  however,  he  has  not  obtained  simultaneously 
sufficient  magnification  to  give  the  damping  effect:  damping  is 
chiefly  of  use  for  following  the  movements  of  the  long  waves,  and  the 
scale  should  be  big  enough  to  show  them  clearly.  Mr.  Shaw  is  still 
at  work  on  the  instrument,  and  hopes  to  obtain  the  requisite  magnifi- 
cation. 

(b)  There  should  be  little  difficulty  in  increasing  the  magnification 
moderately  both  in  movement  and  in  time  scale,  though  it  may 
not  be  easy  to  settle  which  is  the  very  best  way  of  doing  it.  The 
experiments  being  made  by  various  observers  should  at  least  give  us 
a  feasible  plan. 

(c)  Meanwhile  if  special  attention  is  paid  to  getting  good  time 
determinations,  and  if  the  films  are  carefully  read  with  a  lens,  the  times 
of  arrival  of  P  and  S  for  Milne  stations  should  enable  us  to  correct 
the  tables  for  considerable  distances  from  the  epicentre  where  the 
European  stations  all  agree  and  are  all  in  error  owing  to  their  con- 
gestion in  azimuth.     (See  next  Section.) 

VIII. — Correction  of  the  Tables  for  P  and  S. 

Recurring  to  the  discussion  of  Section  IV.,  it  was  shown  that  the  tables 
for  both  P  and  S  were  sensibly  in  error,  and  the  question  arises  how  far 
they  can  be  corrected.     The  main  facts  are  these  : — 

(a)  The  tables  for  small  values  of  A  are  sensibly  correct.  This  is 
shown  by  the  agreement  of  determinations  of  epicentres  from  Pulkovo 
and  Eskdalemuir,  quoted  by  G.  W.  Walker  in  his  monograph  (p.  65). 
From  each  station  the  azimuth  a  and  the  distance  A  can  be  determined  ; 
and  from  the  two  azimuths  a  and  a.^  the  epicentre  can  be  determined 
without  reference  to  A  at  all.^  This  is  a  modern  advance,  the  importance 
of  which  is  not  easily  over-estimated.  If  then  the  values  of  A  determined 
from  the  P  and  S  tables  agree  (to  a  fraction  of  a  degree)  with  those  found 
from  the  azimuths,  the  tables  must  be  fairly  correct.  The  value  of  A 
is  about  20°. 

(li)  But  this  single  example  may  give  quite  a  wrong  impression  of 
the  accuracy  with  which  an  epicentre  is  at  present  determined.  _  At 
greater  distances  we  gradually  lose  the  accordance  between  these  stations. 
Thus,  on  January  4,  1912,  Pulkovo  gives  175°  E.,  49°'5  N.,  and  Eskdale- 

'  See  letter  of  Galitzin  aud  Walker  in  iV^oittre  for  September  5^  1912. 


64  REPORTS    ON   THE    STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

muir  177° E.,  51° N. ;  on  July  9  Pulkovo  gives  30°-3 E.,  2°-l  N.,  and  Eskdale- 
muir  33°-9  E.  and  5°-3  N.  ;  and  at  greater  distances  still  the  discordance 
may  be  5°  or  even  10°.  The  azimuths  may  still  be  good,  though  as  the 
azimuthal  lines  do  not  meet  so  sharply,  the  determination  becomes  less 
definite  ;  and,  moreover,  it  must  be  remembered  that  actual  errors  in 
the  adjustment  of  the  booms  become  of  greater  importance.  We  have 
nothing  to  set  against  the  clear  evidence  ofiEered  in  Section  IV.  that  the 
tables  for  S  are  in  error,  though  since  the  errors  there  found  are  only 
relative,  we  may  add  a  constant  to  them  all,  substituting,  for  instance,  for 

Error  at  15°  35°  55°  75°  95°  115° 

m.  m.  m.  m.  m.  m. 

—0-3        —0-1        +0-1        +0-3  +0-5  +0-7 

the  revised  values 

0-0        +0-2        +0-4       +0-6  +0-8  +1-0 

so  that  the  error  is  small  near  the  epicentre. 
Similarly  the  errors  for  P  might  be  written — 

Error  at  15°  35°  55°  75°  95°  115° 

m.  m.  m.  m.  m.  m. 

0-0  0-0  +0-1        +0-2        +0-4  +0-6 

if  we  determine  to  keep  the  error  small  near  the  epicentre.  In  this  case 
it  seems  possible  that  the  revised  tables  just  published  by  the  K.G.  Landes- 
antalt  fiir  Meteorologie  und  Geodynamik  in  Zagreb  (Agram)  might  supply 
information  which  would  determine  the  unknown  arbitrary  constant. 
The  errors  of  the  Galitzin  tables  indicated  by  Zagreb  at  the  above  points 
are 

m.  m.  m  m.  m.  m. 

+0-1         +0-1  0-0        +0-1       +0.2        +0-3 

Difference  +0-1        +0-1      —0-1         -0-1      -0-2        -0-3 

The  differences  do  not,  however,  remain  constant,  even  approximately. 
The  present  comparison  indicates  larger  errors  for  values  of  A  greater 
than  75°  than  the  Zagreb  tables  admit. 

It  thus  appears  that  the  moment  is  not  yet  come  to  suggest  corrections 
to  the  tables  which  are  likely  to  meet  with  general  acceptance.  It  seems 
better  to  retain  the  old  tables  until  a  much  greater  mass  of  material  has 
been  discussed,  and  the  old  tables  will  accordingly  be  used  for  the  com- 
parisons made  at  Shide  at  any  rate  for  the  observations  of  1914.  The 
discussion  of  some  100  earthquakes  should  provide  corrections  approxi- 
mating to  definitive  ones.  Meanwhile,  the  best  available  corrections 
to  the  tables  from  the  material  above  discussed,  incorporating  the  in- 
formation derived  from  the  next  section,  are  given  at  the  end  of  the  next 
section. 

IX. — Discussion  in  Azimuth. 

If  the  receiving  stations  are  arranged  in  azimuth  (A)  round  the  epi- 
centre, then 

(a)  Assuming  the  velocity  of  transmission  constant  in  all  azimuths, 
any  error  (8)  of  position  of  the  epicentre  will  give  rise  to  an  error 

c  +  e  cos  (A  —  Aq) 

in  the  observed  times  at  the  stations  :  where  Aq  is  the  azimuth  in  which 
the  epicentre  is  erroneously  displaced  ;  A  is  the  azimuth  of  the  receiving 


ON    SEISMOLOGICAL    INVESTIGATIONS.  65 

station ;  c  is  the  eiTect  of  the  displacement  (8)  on  P  or  S,  as  the  case  may 
be,  at  the  distance  of  tlie  receiving  station  ;  and  c  is  a  constant  depending 
on  the  position  of  Pnlkovo,  or  other  station  from  which  the  epicentre  is 
determined. 

(b)  If  the  velocity  of  transmission  varies  with  the  azimuth,  then,  if  the 
velocity  in  azimuth  A  is  not  the  same  as  in  azimuth  A  +  180°,  there  will 
be  a  first-order  harmonic  which  will  be  mixed  up  with  that  just  written, 
due  to  the  error  in  position  of  epicentre  ;  and  it  may  be  difficult  to  separate 
the  two.  If,  however,  the  velocity  is  the  same  for  A  and  A  +  180°,  then 
we  may  look  for  a  second-order  harmonic  to  represent  the  variation.  It 
will  be  seen  from  what  follows  that  there  are  no  trustworthy  indications 
of  such  terms  from  the  material  now  discussed.  The  material  is  insufficient 
to  pronounce  definitely  against  the  existence  of  such  terms,  especially 
with  small  coefficients  ;  but  it  is  apparently  sufficient  to  discredit  any 
large  term  of  the  kind.  For  instance,  Milne  suggested  a  velocity  N. 
and  S.  sensibly  less,  in  the  case  of  the  large  waves,  from  the  velocity 
E.  and  W.  (Eighteenth  Report,  §  v).  No  such  difference  can  be  detected 
in  the  velocities  for  P  and  S. 

We  will  first  give  in  some  detail  the  results  for  a  single  earthquake, 
that  of  1913,  January  11,  adopted  epicentre  6°  N.,  117°  E.  The  residuals 
for  P,  when  corrected  for  distance  from  epicentre  as  in  Section  IV.,  and 
arranged  in  azimuth  measured  from  the  N.  point  round  the  epicentre  in 
the  direction  N.,  E.,  S.,  W.,  are  as  shown  in  Table  VIII. 

We  see  at  a  glance  the  better  distribution  of  the  Milne  pendulums  ; 
most  of  the  modern  pendulums  are  in  Europe  and  appear  in  the  same 
azimuth-class  300°— 330°.  Were  it  not  for  the  Milne  instruments  we 
should  have  very  scanty  material  for  an  azimuth  discussion ;  and  yet 
this  is  one  of  the  most  favourable  cases.  The  inferiority  of  the  Milne 
instrument  suggests  giving  a  smaller  weight  to  its  records,  but  it  will  be 
seen  that  we  should  gain  very  little  thereby.  Taking  the  simple  means 
as  in  the  last  column  and  filling  in  vacant  terms  by  simple  interpolation 
(in  brackets),  we  can  make  a  very  rough  harmonic  analysis,  obtaining 

-1-6  +  7-5  cos  (A-330°)  +  2-7  cos  2  (A  -  70°). 
Treating  the  S  observations  in  the  same  way,  we  get  Table  IX. 

The  material  for  discussion  in  azimuth  is  even  more  scanty  and  un- 
certain than  before  ;  but,  analysing  it  for  what  it  is  worth,  we  get 

-  1-2  -f  8-0  cos  (A  -  332°)  +  4-7  cos  2  (A  -  177°). 

Now,  considering  the  nature  of  the  material  and  of  the  process  used, 
it  is  somewhat  remarkable  that  the  results  from  P  and  S  should  accord 
so  well  in  indicating  a  correction  to  the  epicentre.  The  direction  is  in 
azimuth  331°  say,  and  as  the  azimuth  of  Pulkovo  is  330°,  it  is  pretty 
clear  that  the  estimated  A  for  Pulkovo  is  in  error,  owing  doubtless  to 
the  errors  of  the  tables.  The  amount  of  displacement  is  not  so  easy  to 
assess.  In  the  above  simple  process  we  have  treated  all  stations,  at 
whatever  distance  from  the  epicentre,  alike.  A  displacement  of  the 
epicentre  of  1°  will,  however,  alter  the  times  of  arrival  of  P  by  16  s.  near 
the  epicentre,  by  5^  s.  at  90°,  and  by  less  still  at  greater  distances.  Never- 
theless, on  calculating  the  alterations  for  the  actual  distances,  the  mean 

1914. 


F 


66 


REPORTS    ON   THE    STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 


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68  REPORTS    ON    THE   STATE    OF    SCIENCE. — 1914. 

for  the  difEerent  groups  was  found  to  be  nearly  constant  at  about  8  s. 
Since  tlie  coefficient  (8  units  of  0-1  m.)  means  48  s.,  we  may  take  it  that 
the  epicentre  is  about  6°  wrong.  As  regards  direction,  note  that  the 
observed  times  for  receiving  stations  on  the  side  of  the  epicentre  remote 
from  Pulkovo  are  too  small ;  so  that  the  epicentre  must  be  moved  nearer 
to  them  and  further  from  Pulkovo.  The  observed  S-P  at  Pulkovo,  viz. 
10  m.  24  s.,  does  not  correspond  (as  indicated  by  the  present  tables)  to  an 
epicentral  distance  of  83°-5,  but  to  a  distance  of  89°-5. 

Turning  to  S,  we  find  the  average  value  of  1°  to  be  about  13  s.  The 
first  harmonic  of  S  thus  indicates  a  displacement  of  48713  or  3°-7.  We 
may  regard  this  as  a  satisfactory  confirmation  of  the  magnitude  of  the 
error,  which  may  be  put  at  about  5°. 

The  second  harmonics  in  both  cases  are  small,  and  the  phases  are 
quite  discordant.  We  may  fairly  say  that  there  is  no  evidence  of  a  varia- 
tion in  velocity  of  an  elliptic  type. 

As  regards  other  earthquakes  analysed  for  azimuth  the  following 
notes  will  suffice  : — 

1913,  March  14.     Epicentre  11°  N.,  123°  E.,  distant  82°  from  Pulkovo. 

Of  nearly  same  type  as  that  of  1913,  January  11,  but  distribution  of 
stations  not  so  good.     The  numbers  in  the  30°  divisions  for  P  are 

1100121114     33     5 

and  the  harmonic  expression  is  (in  units  of  0-1  m.) 

+  0-2  +  5-0  cos  (A  —  302°)  +  4-0  cos  2  (A  —  36°). 

For  S  the  number  of  stations  are 

1100060002     24    3 

and  the  harmonic  expression  is 

_..  7.8  +  14-5  cos  (A  —  345°)  —  4-2  cos  2  (A  —  7°). 

In  spite  of  the  broken  nature  of  the  series,  the  indication  of 
an  error  of  about  4°  or  5°  in  A  is  tolerably  plain.  The  azimuth 
of  Pulkovo  is  330°,  and  the  magnitudes  of  the  displacement  assigned 
by  the  P  observations  may  be  put  at  30°/8    =  3°-8. 

„      S  „  „  „  87°/13  =  6°-7. 

There  is  some  indication  of  a  second  order  term,  but  it  cannot  be 
regarded  very  seriously. 

1913,  March  23.     Epicentre  26°  N.,  143°  E.,  distant  18°  from  Pulkovo. 

The  only  available  observations  between  azimuths  0°  and  210°  are 
two  Milne  observations  of  P  and  one  Milne  of  S.  There  seems  no 
advantage  in  making  even  a  rough  estimate. 

1913,  April  30.     Epicentre  50°  N .,  176°  E.,  distant  67°  from  Pidkovo. 
Number  of  observations  in  the  separate  groups 

forP        42001000313     14 
forS        43100100121     10 


ON    SEISMOLOGICAL    INVESTIGATIONS.  69 

Harmonic  expressions 

from  P    +  2-1  +    2-7  cos  (A  —  207°)  +  3-6  cos  2  (A  -    73°) 
from  S     +  0-5  +  11-0  cos  (A  -  235°)  +  2-6  cos  2  (A  —  160°) 

Azimuth  of  Pulkovo  being  342°,  the  mean  direction  of  displacement 
(azimuth  220°  say)  is  nearly  at  right  angles  to  the  direction  of  Pulkovo, 
and  cannot  be  wholly  explained  by  an  error  of  tables.  The  small  com- 
ponent in  the  line  joining  epicentre  to  Pulkovo  is  in  the  opposite  direction 
to  that  previously  noted. 

1913,  June  U.     Epicentre  43°  N.,  26°  E.,  distant  11°  from  Pulkovo. 

There  are  unfortunately  no  observations  of  S  from  azimuth  90°  to 
270°,  so  that  we  cannot  make  any  analysis.  The  mean  results  for  the 
other  azimuths  are 

Azimuth  270°— 300°— 330°— 0°— 30°— 60°— 90° 

Mean  +1         — 4         —2—4+40 

No  observations     4  4  11  2  2     1 

which  suggest  a  displacement  in  the  opposite  direction  to  that  of  January  11 
and  March  14,  and  in  the  same  direction  as  the  component  of  April  30. 
The  numbers  for  P  are 

1412001043     11     2 

and  the  harmonic  expression  is 

+  2-1  +  2-8  cos  (6  -  165°)  +  1-6  cos  2  (0  -  111°) 

The  azimuth  of  Pulkovo  being  7°,  the  small  displacement  indicated  is 
nearly  radial  and  in  the  opposite  direction  to  those  of  January  11  and 
March  14. 

Hence,  so  far  as  this  evidence  goes,  the  error  of  S-P  is  about  30  s.  at 
85°,  diminishes  at  lesser  distances,  and  changes  to  a  small  negative  value. 
The  corrections  needed  by  the  Galitzin  tables  would  seem  to  be  approxi- 
mately as  follows  : — 

45°     55°     65°     75°     85°     95°  105° 

s.         s.  s.         s.         s.         s.         s. 

0        0-1-3     -8  -15   -24 

_8  -11    -14  -17  -24  -35  -50 

-8-11    -13  -14  -16   -20  -20 

-t-13  +18  +24  +28  +31  +42   -f52 

the  correctiou  to  A  being  expressed  in  units  of  0°'l. 


A 

=  15° 

25° 

35° 

s. 

s. 

s. 

Correction        P 

-=     0 

0 

0 

Correction         S 

-+5 

0 

-4 

Correction  (S-P) 

=+5 

0 

-4 

Correction         A 

=  -5 

0 

+6 

Investigation  of  the  Upper  Atmosphere. — Thirteenth  Report  of 
the  Committee,  consisting  of  Dr.  W.  In.  Shaw  (Chairman), 
Mr.  E.  Gold  (Secretary),  Messrs.  C.  J.  P.  Cave  and  W.  H. 
Dines,  Dr.  E.  T.  Glazebrook,  Sir  J.  Larmoe,  Professor 
J.  E.  Petavel,  Dr.  A.  Schuster,  and  Dr.  W.  Watson. 

A  MEETING  of  the  Joint  Committee  was  held  in  the  rooms  of  the  Eoyal 
Meteorological  Society  on  May  5,  1914.  It  was  decided  to  allocate  the 
grant  from  the  British  Association  towards  the  expense  of  investigations 
with  pilot  balloons  over  the  ocean  to  be  undertaken  by  the  Secretary 
on    the    journey    to    Australia,    via    the    Cape    of    Good    Hope.     An 


70  REPORTS    ON   THE   STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

additional  grant  was  made  from  the  funds  of  the  Royal  Meteorological 
Society  to  enable  simultaneous  observations  to  be  made  by  Dr.  W. 
Eosenhain,  of  the  National  Physical  Laboratory,  on  the  journey  via 
the  Suez  Canal.  A  report  on  the  observations  is  in  preparation  and 
will  be  pubHshed  in  due  course. 

The  report  by  Mr.  G.  I.  Taylor  on  the  observations  which  he  made 
on  board  the  Scotia  in  1913,  referred  to  in  the  Committee's  report  last 
year,  has  been  pubHshed  in  the  official  account  of  the  results  of  the 
Scotia  Expedition,  issued  by  the  Board  of  Trade.  The  results  which 
Mr.  Taylor  obtained  throw  much  light  on  the  formation  of  fog  and 
on  the  propagation  of  heat  through  the  atmosphere  by  means  of  eddies. 
He  found  generally  that  thick  fogs  were  associated  with  a  large  increase 
in  the  temperature  of  the  air  in  a  vertical  direction,  while  light  fogs 
occurred  when  the  increase  was  small. 

The  Committee  records  with  regret  the  death  during  the  year  of 
Mr.  Douglas  Archibald,  who  was  one  of  the  earliest  investigators  of 
the  upper  air  by  means  of  kites,  and  had  served  on  the  Committee 
since  its  appointment  at  Glasgow  in  1901. 

The  Committee  asks  for  reappointment,  with  a  grant  of  25Z. 


Radiotelegraphic  Investigations. — Interim  Report  of  the  Com- 
mittee, consisting  of  Sir  Oliver  Lodge  (Chairman) ,  Dr.  W.  H. 
EccLES  (Secretary),  Mr.  Sidney  G.  Brown,  Dr.  C.  Chree, 
Professor  A.  S.  Eddington,  Dr.  Erskine-Murray,  Professors 
J.  A.  Fleming,  G.  W.  0.  Howe,  and  H.  M.  Macdonald, 
Sir  H.  Norman,  Captain  H.  E.  Sankey,  Professor  A. 
Schuster,  Dr.  W.  N.  Shaw,  and  Professor  S.  P.  Thompson. 

The  past  year  has  been  occupied  mainly  by  the  designing,  printing, 
and  distribution  of  books  of  forms  for  recording  observations,  by  the 
enrolment  of  observers,  and  by  the  preliminary  work  in  connection  with 
the  observations  to  be  made  during  the  forthcoming  solar  eclipse. 

I.   Collection  of  Ordinary  Daily  Statistics. 

We  have  obtained  the  cordial  support  of  many  Government  Depart- 
ments of  the  British  Empire  and  of  other  countries.  In  the  British 
Empire  the  Navy  has  taken  forms  sufficient  to  distribute  to  about 
120  ships.  The  Post  Office  has  sent  forms  to  nine  stations.  The 
Government  of  Canada  have  undertaken  to  get  statistics  from  four 
stations  on  the  Pacific  Coast.  The  South  African  Government  have 
authorised  the  collection  of  statistics  at  Cape  Town  and  Durban.  The 
Australian  Government  have  brought  eight  stations  into  the  scheme,  and 
the  New  Zealand  Government  and  the  Indian  Government  each  several 
stations.  The  Colonial  Office  has  kindly  circularised  other  of  the 
Colonies,  and  of  these  the  following  have  already  replied  favourably,  and 
have  had  supplies  of  forms  despatched  to  them  :  — 

Falkland  Islands.  Zanzibar.  British  Guiana. 

Bahamas  Somaliland.  Jamaica. 

Trinidad.  Fiji.  Sierra  Leone. 

Ceylon.  Gold  Coast. 


ON  RADIOTELEGRAPHIC  INVESTIGATIONS.  71 

The  Government,  of  Norway  have  agreed  to  have  statistics  collected 
at  four  stations;  the  United  States  Government  at  five;  in  Germany 
the  Telegraphs  Versuchsamt  is  making  observations  at  Berlin,  and 
there  are  some  Eussian  Government  stations  likely  to  co-operate. 

The  following  Companies  are  taking  a  prominent  part  in  the  collec- 
tion of  statistics :  The  Marconi  International  Marine  Communication 
Company,  Ltd.,  have  already  twenty-three  ships  at  work;  the  Marconi 
Company  of  Canada  have  thirteen  stations  at  work  on  the  East  Coast  of 
Canada,  in  Newfoundland  and  on  the  Great  Lakes;  the  American  Mar- 
coni Company  have  put  fifteen  land  stations  (between  Alaska  and  the 
Gulf  of  Mexico)  to  work,  and  several  ships;  the  Federal  Wireless  Tele- 
graph Company  of  America  have  started  observations  at  their  San 
Francisco  station ;  the  Gesellschaft  fur  drahtlose  Telegraphie  will  put  a 
considerable  number  of  stations  to  work  as  soon  as  forms  have  been 
translated,  and  they  have  the  intention  of  establishing  a  small  prize 
scheme  amongst  their  operators  for  the  best  series  of  obsei-vations.  At 
the  Slough  station  the  Anglo-French  Wireless  Company  started  obser- 
vations which  will  be  continued  by  the  Galletti  Company ;  while  the 
English  Mai'coni  Company  are  doing  the  like  at  Chelmsford. 

With  regard  to  Eussia,  the  language  difficulty  was  likely  to  prove 
formidable,  but  the  Editor  of  the  Eussian  '  Journal  of  Wireless  Tele- 
graphy '  has  arranged  that  the  forms  be  translated  into  Eussian  and 
that  the  collection  of  statistics  be  urged  upon  readers  of  his  Journal. 
The  Societe  Eusse  de  T^l^graphes  et  T6l6phones  sans  Fil  have  agreed 
that  the  forms,  when  translated,  shall  he  used  at  a  number  of  the 
stations  under  the  control  of  the  Company  in  Eussia. 

Among  private  experimenters  of  note  we  have  obtained  the  support 
of  several  gentlemen  abroad,  who  will  doubtless  have  to  be  mentioned 
in  subsequent  reports.  There  are  also  a  number  of  Professors  in  the 
British  Isles  and  in  the  Colonies  helping,  and  about  sixty-one  amateurs. 
Of  these  there  are  thirty-six  in  England,  two  in  Scotland,  six  in  Ireland, 
and  one  in  Wales. 

A  considerable  number  of  completed  forms  have  already  come  to 
hand  and  a  start  has  been  made  on  the  analysis. 

II.   Observations  to  he  made  during  the  Eclipse   of  August  21,  1914. 

The  central  line  of  the  eclipse  passes  across  Norway,  Sweden,  the 
Baltic,  Central  Eussia,  the  Black  Sea,  and  Persia,  to  the  coast  of  India. 
Accordingly,  the  Governments  of  Noi'way,  Sweden,  Eussia,  and  India 
have  been  approached.  The  Noi-wegian  Government  have  generously 
placed  practically  all  their  stations  at  the  disposal  of  the  Committee ; 
tlie  Swedish  Government  have  agreed  that  the  observations  they  wish  to 
make  on  their  own  behalf  shall  be  made  in  accord  with  the  pi-ogramme 
of  the  Committee,  to  whom  copies  will  be  supplied ;  and  the  Eussian 
Government  will  set  a  number  of  stations  to  work,  but  the  number  and 
position  of  these  have  not  yet  been  settled.  The  Soci6t6  Eusse  will  place 
their  high-power  station  at  St.  Petersburg  at  the  disposal  of  the  Com- 
mittee, and  the  Gesellschaft  fiir  drahtlose  Telegraphie  is  also  willing 
to  allow  two  or  three  large  stations  to  come  into  the  scheme.     This 


72  REPORTS    ON   THE    STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

Company  will  enact  tHat  observations  on  the  day  of  the  eclijose  shall  be 
compulsory  in  many  of  its  stations  in  the  Baltic  and  in  Germany.  The 
Indian  Government  have  agreed  to  help  also.  In  Western  Europe  the 
transmission  of  special  signals  is  not  of  such  great  importance  as  in 
the  districts  nearer  the  central  line  of  the  eclipse,  but  some  observa- 
tions ought  to  be  instituted  on  signals  in  that  part  of  the  world.  The 
Marconi  Company  have  kindly  expressed  their  willingness  to  aid  the 
Committee  by  transmitting  from  certain  high-power  stations  a  few 
special  signals,  if  desired,  at  times  to  be  arranged  by  the  Committee. 

Many  private  observers  in  different  parts  of  the  world  have  signified 
their  wilUngness  to  make  a  special  effort  on  the  day  of  the  ecliiDse.  It 
has  been  explained  to  the  authorities  in  the  United  States,  Canada, 
Australia,  South  Africa,  and  New  Zealand,  that  although  there  is  not 
much  likelihood  of  the  effects  of  the  eclipse  being  perceived  in  their 
territories,  yet  they  will  be  advised  of  the  programme  of  the  Com- 
mittee, in  order  that  they  may,  if  they  will,  determine  precisely  whether 
there  is,  or  is  not,  any  effect.  Since  it  seemed  important  to  enlist  the 
sympathies  of  as  large  a  number  as  possible  ol  skilled  observers  on  the 
Eastern  boundaries  of  GeiTnany,  Austria,  and  Hungary,  the  Editor  of 
the  '  Jahrbuch  fiir  drahtlose  Telegraphie  '  was  asked,  and  has  agreed, 
to  seek  German-speaking  observers,  conduct  all  preliminary  corre- 
spondence with  them,  translate  forms  and  get  them  printed  and  dis- 
tributed, and  to  collect  the  forms.  It  has  recently  been  arranged  that  a 
large  proportion  of  this  work  may  be  shared  with  the  International 
Commission  of  Brussels. 

In  addition  to  all  this  welcome  assistance,  we  are  especially  glad 
to  report  that  the  Board  of  the  Admiralty  have  agreed  to  co-operate  on 
an  extensive  scale. 


The  Belatiovfi  hciv>een  this  Commiliee  and  llie  lulcrnational 
Commission  of  Brussels. 

As  a  member  of  the  British  Section  of  the  International  Commission, 
the  Secretary  was  made  a  delegate  to  the  recent  Conference  in  Brussels, 
and  there  suggested  that  it  might  be  to  the  advantage  of  both  organisa- 
tions, especially  when  requesting  assistance  from  Government  Depart- 
ments or  Companies,  or  even  private  experimenters,  that  a  public 
announcement  should  be  made  showing  that  the  aims  of  the  two  bodies 
are  different,  that  there  is  room  for  both,  that  there  is  little  danger  of 
any  Government  or  Company  or  private  experimenter  being  asked  to 
do  the  same  thing  twice,  or  to  favour  one  to  the  detriment  of  the  other ; 
and  that  if  on  any  occasion  there  were  overlapping,  then  the  two 
organisations  should  endeavour  to  coi-operate.  The  International 
Commission  therefore  drew  up  and  passed  the  following  resolution  :  — 

'  La  Commission  Internationale  de  T.S.F.S.,  ayant  pris  connais- 
sance  du  but  des  travaux  du  ' '  Committee  for  Radio-telegraphic  Investi- 
gation of  the  British  Association,"  estime  que  les  travaux  des  deux 
organisations  ont  des  objets  diff brents. 

'  La  Commission  Internationale  de  T.S.F.S.  se  propose,  en  effet,  de 
faire  des  recherches  qui  portent  principalement  sur  les  mesures  quantita- 


ON    RADIOTELEGRAPHIC    INVESTIGATIONS.  73 

tiives  se  rapportant  h  remission,  k  la  propagation  et  h  la  reception  des 
ondes  eleclriques. 

'  L'Association  Britannique  a  decide,  de  son  c6t6,  de  recueillir,  de 
classer  et  de  commenter  les  resultats  des  observations  susceptibles  de 
faii'e  ressortir  les  relations  entre  les  ph^nomenes  geophysiques  et  la 
propagation  des  ondes  electriques.  II  entre  egalement  dans  ses  vues  de 
dresser  la  statistique  et  de  faire  1 'etude  des  phenomfenes  anormaux  et  des 
perturbations  atmospheriques. 

'  En  consequence,  si  les  champs  d'activite  des  deux  organisations 
viennent  a  avoir  des  points  communs,  la  Commission  Internationale  de 
T.S.P.S.  engage  ses  adherents  a  preter  eventuellement  le  concours  le 
plus  complet  i  la  "  British  Association."  ' 

At  a  meeting  of  the  British  Association  Committee  on  May  8,  1914, 
the  following  resolution  was  adopted:  — 

'  That  the  Eadiotelegraphic  Investigation  Committee  of  the  British 
Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science  take  cognisance  of  the 
resolution  adopted  by  the  Commission  Internationale  de  Telegraphie  sans 
Fils  Scientifique  at  the  recent  conference  in  Brussels,  and  desire  to 
affirm  that  they  find  themselves  in  full  accord  with  the  definitions,  as 
expresse^l  in  the  resolution,  of  the  differences  between  the  aims  and 
methods  of  the  researches  promoted  by  the  two  organisations ;  while, 
in  regard  to  those  researches  in  which  the  two  bodies  both  take  an 
active  interest,  this  Committee  warmly  welcome  and  value  highly  the 
offer  of  co-operation,  and  gladly  undertake  to  give  all  assistance  in 
their  power. '  i 

The  Committee  has  expended  up  to  the  present  in  office  expenses, 
printing,  and  distribution  of  forms,  the  sum  of  144L 

[Note. — The  following  communication  was  circulated  to  Members  of  the  Com- 
mittee by  the  Secretary  on  behalf  of  the  Chairman  in  December,  1914  : — 

The  war  has  naturally  had  a  very  direct  effect  on  radiotelegraphic  investi- 
gations. About  August  1  last,  private  wireless  telegraph  stations  throughout 
the  Empire  were  nearly  all  dismantled  or  taken  possession  of  by  military  authori- 
ties, while  naval  and  other  Government  stations  stopped  all  merely  scientific 
observing.  The  radiotelegraphic  stations  in  Russia,  Germany,  and  neighbouring 
countries  doubtless  discontinued  the  filling  up  of  our  forms  as  soon  as  mobilisa- 
tion began.  A  few  stations  in  India,  Australia,  Canada,  the  West  Indies,  and 
the  United  States  are,  however,  still  at  work.  In  the  last-named  country  about 
thirty  stations  are  making  observations. 

The  Committee's  programme  for  the  collection  of  statistics  three  days  a  week 
in  all  parts  of  the  English-speaking  world  and  in  a  few  other  countries  was 
planned  to  embrace  one  complete  round  of  the  seasons.  The  fact  that  the  pro- 
gramme has  been  interrupted  after  only  three  months  of  really  full  work 
diminishes  greatly  the  scientific  value  of  such  statistics  as  have  been  collected. 
It  also  implies  considerable  financial  loss.  A  large  batch  of  forms  was  distri- 
buted to  our  Navy  in  July  :  in  clearing  for  action  these  forms  would  probably 
be  wasted.  The  Gei-man  edition  was  distributed  in  June.  The  Russian  edition 
also  was  probably  distributed  before  the  outbreak  of  war. 

The  extensive  scheme  of  special  observations  projected  for  the  occasion  of 
the  solar  eclipse  failed  almost  completely  in  the  countries  in  which  the  eclipse 
was  visible.  A  small  amount  of  work  was  done  in  Norway  and  Sweden.  All 
the  necessary  forms  had  been  printed,  and  some  had  been  circulated  before  the 
war  started".  The  financial  loss  to  the  Committee  in  this  re.spect  exceeds  a 
hundred  pounds. 


74  REPORTS   ON   THE   STATE   OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

The  day-by-day  statistics  collected  in  the  period  April  to  July  are  now  being 
analysed.  The  conclusions  drawn  from  these  observations  will,  it  may  be 
hoped,  have  some  scientific  value  of  their  own,  and  in  any  case  they  should  yield 
information  which  may  guide  the  Committee,  when  the  time  comes,  to  further 
attacks  on  the  problems  concerned.  A  similar  thought  may  be  set  down  as 
consolation  for  the  eclipse  failure. 

In  October  last,  at  a  special  meeting  summoned  by  the  Inspector  of  Wireless 
Telegraphy  at  the  General  Post  OflBce,  where  it  happened  that  the  Committee 
were  represented  by  Dr.  Erskine-Murray  and  the  Secretary,  the  Committee  were 
asked  to  draw  up  for  the  Home  Office  a  list  of  gentlemen  distributed  over  the 
British  Isles  who  would  be  veiling,  if  and  when  called  upon,  to  assist  the 
police  by  acting  as  voluntary  experts  in  wireless  telegraphy.  The  police  cannot 
in  general  be  expected  to  possess  sufficient  technical  knowledge  to  discriminate 
between  dangerous  radiotelegraphic  apparatus  and  other  apparatus.  Co-operation 
with  the  police  authorities  in  each  locality  by  someone  possessing  technical 
knowledge  will  help  to  prevent  blunders  and  may  assist  in  detecting  illicit 
traffic.  Accordingly  gentlemen  whose  names  appear  in  the  address  book  of  the 
Committe.e  have  been  written  to,  and  lists  of  voluntary  experts  have  been  sup- 
plied to  the  Home  Office.] 


Establishing  a  Solar  Observatory  in  Australia. — Report  of  the 
Committee,  consisting  of  Px-ofessor  H.  H.  Turner  {Chair- 
man), Dr.  W.  G.  DuFFiELD  {Secretary),  Eev.  A.  L.  Cortie, 
Dr.  F.  W.  Dyson,  and  Professors  A.  S.  Eddington,  H.  F. 
Newall,  J.  W.  Nicholson,  and  A.  Schuster,  appointed  to 
aid  the  ivork  of  Establishing  a  Solar  Observatory  in  Australia. 

The  Committee  records  with  great  sorrow  the  death  of  its  former 
Chairman  Sir  David  Gill,  whose  name  has  always  been  so  prominently 
associated  with  scientific  enterprises  connected  with  the  Southern 
Hemisphere.  Professor  H.  H.  Turner  has  been  appointed  Chairman 
in  his  place. 

The  Secretary  has  great  pleasure  in  reporting  that  the  following 
letter  has  been  received  from  the  Commonwealth  Authorities  in  re- 
sponse to  further  representations  regarding  the  desirability  of  erecting 
a  Solar  Observatory  within  the  Commonwealth:  — 

Commonwealth  Offices, 

72  Victoria  Street,  Westminster,  S.W. 

March  10,  1914. 
Dear  Dr.  Duffield, 

With  reference  to  previous  correspondence  in  regard  to  the  estab- 
lishment of  a  Solar  Observatory  in  Australia,  I  desire  to  inform  you 
that  I  have  now  received  a  memorandum  from  the  Commonwealth 
Government  advising  that  in  the  scheme  for  the  organisation  of  services 
in  connection  with  the  Seat  of  Government  at  Canberra,  provision 
has  been  made  for  the  establishment  amongst  general  astronomical 
studies  of  a  section  to  be  devoted  to  solar  physics  in  particular. 

Yours  sincerely, 
(Signed)     R.   Muieiie.\d  Cotjjns. 
Dr.   Geoffrey  Duffield, 

University  College,  Beading. 

The  Committee  records  its  great  satisfaction  at  the  promise  of  the 


ON   ESTABLISHING    A    SOLAR    OBSERVATORY    IN    AUSTRALIA.         75 

institution  of  Solar  Research  in  Australia — an  end  for  which  it  has 
worked  since  its  appointment  at  the  Dublin  Meeting  of  the  Association 
in  1908.  The  Prime  Minister  of  the  Commonwealth  has  consented 
to  receive  a  deputation  of  overseas  astronomers  with  regard  to  the 
nature  of  the  solar  work  which  should  be  undertaken  in  Australia. 


The  Calculation  of  Mathematical  Tables.— Report  of  the  Com- 
mittee, consisting  of  Professor  M.  J.  M.  Hill  (Chairman) , 
Professor  J.  W.  Nicholson  (Secretary),  Mr.  J.  R.  Airey, 
Professor  L.  N.  G.  Filon,  Sir  George  Greenhill,  Professor 
B.  W.  HoBSON,  Professor  Alfred  Lodge,  Professor 
A.  E.  H.  Love,  Professor  H.  M.  Macdonald,  and  Professor 
A.  G.  Webster. 

The  grant  given  to  the  Committee  during  the  past  year  has  been  ex- 
pended on  the  calculation  of  the  Logarithmic  Bessel  Functions,  for  which 
it  was  specially  allocated.  In  the  present  report  are  Tables  of  the  functions 
Yo(a;)  and  Yi(a;),  whose  significance  was  explained  on  page  29  of  the  last 
report.  These  proceed  from  argument  x  =  0-02  to  a;  =  15-50,  at 
intervals  of  0-02,  and  are  correct  to  six  significant  figures. 

Some  further  Tables  of  the  functions  G„(a;)  are  also  included,  for 
varying  order  n  of  the  functions.  These  are  incomplete  at  present.  The 
Committee  is  proceeding  with  the  further  calculation  of  the  functions 

Yo(x),  Yg(x), on  the   same  scale   as   the   present   Tables  of   Yq 

and  Yi. 

The  Committee  desires  to  ask  for  a  further  grant  of  301.  during  the 
coming  year,  to  be  allocated  to  this  work. 

Some  Tables  calculated  by  Mr.  Doodson,  of  the  University  of  Liverpool, 
are  given  at  the  end  of  the  report.  They  deal  with  the  functions  of 
type  J,i  +  x{x),  where  n  is  a  positive  or  negative  integer.  A  considerable 
demand  for  these  Tables  exists  at  present.  Mr.  Doodson  is  continuing 
this  work,  and  it  is  suggested  that  his  name  be  added  to  the  Committee. 
The  previous  requisition  that  a  large  number  of  copies  of  the  report 
(about  100)  should  be  placed  in  the  hands  of  the  Secretary  for  distribution 
is  repeated,  as  the  demand  for  these  Tables  from  physicists  is  increasing. 

Tables  of  the  Neumann  Functions  Yo(a;)  and  Y,(a;)  or  Bessel  Functions  of 

the  Second  Kind. 

The  second  solution  of  Bessel's  differential  equation 

has  been  given  in  several  forms — G„(x),  Y„(x),  K„(x),  &c.  Tables 
of  Go(a?)  and  G.(x)  for  values  of  x  from  0-01  to  16-00  by  intervals  of  0-01 
were  published  in  the  report  for  1913. 

Short  Tables  of  the  Yo(a;)  and  Yi(a;)  functions  defined  by 
Yo(a;)  =  J,{x)  .  log.x  +  (|)'  -  (1  +  i)  (|)'/  2 


I  2 


+(i+i+^)(l)y3!^-. 


16 


REPORTS   ON   THE   STATE   OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 


Y,{z)  =  J,{x) .  log,x  -  Jo{x)lx  -  I  +  (1  +  ^)  (|)'/1 !  2  ! 

-(!+*  +  *)  (|//2!3!  +  ... 

have  been  calculated  by  B.  A.  Smitb  for  x  =  001  to  1-00  and  10  to 
10-2  to  four  places  of  decimals,  and  by  J.  R.  Airey  for  x  —  0-1  to  16-0 
to  seven  places. 

The  following  Tables  have  been  computed  from  the  relation 

Y„(a;)  =  (log  2  -  y)  J„(a;)   -  G„(x) 

and  verified  by  the  method  of  differences. 

The  interpolation  formulae  for  other  values  of  the  argument  are 

Y.(x±*)  =  [l    -     *"    ±1    ...]y.(x)+    [:FJ  +  ^^...]Y,W 


y,(.  ±  i,  =  [1  T  *  -  *  (1  -  j„)  . .]  Y,(.)  +  [±  A  -  4  . .]  Y,W. 


Tables  of  the  Neumann  Cylinder  Functions. 

X 

Yo(x) 

Y^[x) 

X 

Yo(a;) 

Y,[x) 

002 

-3-911532 

-50-044118 

0-76 

-0-099484 

-1-569515 

0  04 

-3-217189 

-25-074360 

0-78 

-0-068482 

-1-530927 

006 

-2-809980 

-16-766014 

0-80 

-0-038237 

-1-493705 

008 

-2-520090 

-12-620908 

0-82 

-0-008725 

-1-457735 

010 

-2-294335 

-10-139907 

0-84 

+  0-020080 

-1-422912 

012 

-2-109042 

-8-490185 

0-86 

+  0-048199 

-1-389144   1 

014 

-1-951600 

-7-314934 

0-88 

+0  075652 

-1-356346   1 

016 

-1-814487 

-6-435818 

0-90 

+  0-102458 

-1-324442   i 

018 

-1-692861 

-5-753809 

0-92 

+  0-128635 

-1-293362   1 

0-20 

-1-583421 

-5-209517 

0-94 

+0-154198 

-1-263043 

0-22 

-1-483817 

-4-765173 

0-96 

+0-179162 

-1-233429 

0-24 

-1-392318 

-4-395614 

0-98 

+0-203539 

-1-204467 

0-26 

-1-307611 

-4-083430 

1-00 

+  0-227344 

-1-176110 

0-28 

-1-228681 

-3-816195 

1-02 

+  0-250588 

-1-148315 

030 

-1-154725 

-3-584806 

1-04 

+0-273280 

-1-121042 

0-32 

-1-085096 

-3-382440 

1-06 

+0-295433 

-1-094256 

0-34 

-1-019269 

-3-203886 

1-08 

+  0-317054 

-1-067922 

0-36 

-0-956809 

-3-045093 

1-10 

+0-338152 

-1042011 

0-38 

-0-897355 

-2-902869 

1-12 

+  0-358737 

-1-016496 

0-40 

-0-840601 

-2-774662 

114 

+0-378815 

-0-991350 

0-42 

-0-786288 

-2-658408 

1-16 

+0-398393 

-0-966551 

0-44 

-0-734196 

-2-652423 

1-18 

+  0-417479 

-0-942079 

0-46 

-0-684132 

-2-455317 

1-20 

+0-436078 

-0-917912 

0-48 

-0-635932 

-2-365931 

1-22 

+  0-454197 

-0-894033 

0-50 

-0-589450 

-2-283297 

1-24 

+  0-471841 

-0-870426 

0-62 

-0-544561 

-2-206594 

1-26 

+0-489016 

-0-847076 

0-54 

-0-501152 

-2135127 

1-28 

+  0-505726 

-0-823970 

0-56 

-0-459125 

-2-068299 

1-30 

+  0-521976 

-0-801094 

0-58 

-0-418392 

-2-005598 

1-32 

+0-537771 

-0-778438 

0-60 

-0-378875 

-1-946580 

1-34 

+  0-553115 

-0-755991 

0-62 

-0-340507 

-1-890861 

1-36 

+  0-568012 

-0-733743 

0-64 

-0-303222 

-1-838105 

1-38 

+0-582466 

-0-711687 

0-66 

-0-266965 

-1-788017 

1-40 

+  0-596481 

-0-689814 

0-68 

-0-231685 

-1-740338 

1-42 

+  0-610060 

-0-668116 

070 

-0-197337 

-1-694840 

144 

+  0-623207 

-0-646589 

0-72 

-0-163878JI 

-1-651320 

1-46 

+  0-635926 

-0-625226 

0-74 

-0-131272 

-1-609599 

1-48 

+  0-648217 

-0-604021 

ON   THE    CALCULATION    OF    MATHEMATICAL    TABLES. 


77 


Neumann  Cylinder  Functions— 

-continued. 

X 

Yo(^) 

Y,(a-) 

X 

2-68 

Yo(a;) 

Y,(^) 

1-50 

+  0-660086 

-0-582971 

+0-714906 

+0-397539 

1-52 

+  0-671537 

-0-662070 

2-70 

+  0-706843 

+  0-408760 

1-54 

+  0-682570 

-0-541317 

2-72 

+  0-698557 

+  0-419757 

1-56 

+0-693190 

-0-520706 

2-74 

+  0-690054 

+0-430529 

1-58 

+  0-703399 

-0-500237 

2-76 

+  0-681338 

+0-441073 

1-60 

+  0-713200 

-0-479905 

2-78 

+0-672413 

+0-451389 

1-62 

+0-722596 

-0-459710 

2-80 

+0-663284 

+0-461474 

1-64 

+0-731590 

-0-439650 

2-82 

+  0-653955 

+0-471327 

1-66 

+0-740183 

-0-419723 

2-84 

+0-644432 

+0-480947 

1-68 

+  0-748380 

-0-399929 

2-86 

+0-634719 

+0-490331 

1-70 

+0-756181 

-0-380266 

2-88 

+0-624821 

+0-499477 

1-72 

+0-763591 

-0-360734 

2-90 

+  0-614742 

+0-508385 

1-74 

+  0-770612 

-0-341333 

2-92 

+0-604487 

+0-517054 

1-76 

+  0-777245 

-0-322063 

2-94 

+  0-594061 

+0-525482 

1-78 

+0-783495 

-0-302924 

2-96 

+  0-583469 

+  0-533667 

1-80 

+  0-789363 

-0-283916 

2-98 

+0-572716 

+0-541608 

1-82 

+0-794853 

-0-265040 

3-00 

+0-561806 

+  0-549305 

1-84 

+0-799966 

-0-246297 

3-02 

+0-550745 

+0-556756 

1-86 

+0-804705 

-0-227687 

3-04 

+0-539538 

+  0-563960 

1-88 

+0-809074 

-0-209212 

3-06 

+0-528189 

+0-570917 

1-90 

+0-813075 

-0190874 

,     3-08 

+  0-516703 

+0-577625 

1-92 

+0-816710 

-0-172672 

3-10 

+0-505085 

+0-584083 

1-94 

+  0-819982 

-0-154608 

312 

+0-493341 

+0-590291 

1-96 

+0-822895 

-0-136685 

3-14 

+  0-481475 

+0-596249 

1-98 

+0-825451 

-0118904 

316 

+0-469493 

+0-601955 

2-00 

+0-827652 

-0101266 

318 

+0-457399 

+0-607408 

202 

+0-829602 

-0083773 

3-20 

+0-445198 

+0-612620 

204 

+0-831004 

-0-066427 

3-22 

+0-432896 

+0-617559 

206 

+0-832161 

-0-049231 

3-24 

+0-420498 

+0-622254 

208 

+0-832974 

-0-032186 

3-26 

+0-408008 

+0-626696 

210 

+0-833449 

-0015294 

3-28 

+  0-395431 

+0-630885 

212 

+  0-833587 

+0-001443 

,     3-30 

+0-382774 

+0-634820 

214 

+0-833392 

+0-018022 

3-32 

+  0-370040 

+0-638501 

216 

+  0-832867 

+0-034441 

3-34 

+  0-357236 

+0-641929 

2-18 

+  0-832016 

+0-050698 

3-36 

+  0-344365 

+0-645103 

2-20 

+0-830841 

+0-066791 

3-38 

+0-331433 

+0-648024 

2-22 

+0-829345 

+  0-082717 

3-40 

+0-318446 

+0-650691 

2^24 

+0-827533 

+0098473 

3-42 

+0-305407 

+0-653106 

2-26 

+0-825407 

+0-114058 

3-44 

+  0-292323 

+0-655269 

2-28 

+0-822972 

+0129470 

3-46 

+0-279198 

+0-657180 

2-30 

+0-820230 

+0-144705 

3-48 

+0-266038 

+0-658840 

2-32 

+0-817185 

+0-159762 

3-50 

+0-252846 

+0-660249 

2-34 

+0-813841 

+0-174637 

3-52 

+  0-239629 

+0-661408 

2-36 

+0-810201 

+0-189329 

3-54 

+0-226392 

+0-662318 

2-38 

+  0-806269 

+0-203836 

3-56 

+0-213138 

+  0-662980 

2-40 

+0-802048 

+0-218154 

3-58 

+0-199874 

+0-663395 

2-42 

+0-797544 

+0-232281 

360 

+  0186604 

+0-663564 

2-44 

+0-792758 

+0-24621,5 

3-62 

+0173333 

+0-663487 

2-46 

+  0-787696 

+0-259954 

3-64 

+0160066 

+0-663166 

2-48 

+  0-782362 

+0-273495 

3-66 

+  0-146808 

+0-662602 

2-50 

+0-776758 

+0-286837 

3-68 

+0-133564 

+0-661797 

2-52 

+0-770889 

+0-299976 

3-70 

+0-120338 

+0-660752 

2-54 

+0-764760 

+0-312910 

3-72 

+0-107135 

+0-659468 

2-56 

+  0-758374 

+0-325637 

3-74 

+0-093961 

+0-657947 

2-58 

+0-751736 

+0-338156 

3-76 

+0-080819 

+0-656190 

2-60 

+  0-744850 

+  0-350464 

3-78 

+0-067715 

+0-654199 

2-62 

+  0-737719 

+  0-362558 

3-80 

+0-054653 

+0-651976 

2-64 

+0-730349 

+  0-374436 

3-82 

+0-041637 

+0-649523      1 

2-66 

•    +0-722743 

+0-386097 

384 

+0028673 

+0-646841      , 

78 


REPORTS    ON   THE    STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 


Neumann  Cylinder  Functions  ^co-atinxied. 


X 

Yo(a;) 

Y,(^) 

X 

Yo(:r) 

Yi(a-) 

3-86 

+0015765 

+0-643933 

5-04 

-0-512543 

+0-172467 

3-88 

+0002917 

+  0-640800 

506 

-0-516883 

+  0-161621 

3-90 

-0009866 

+0-637444 

6-08 

-0-519004 

+0-160656 

3-92 

-0022579 

+0-633868 

5-10 

-0-521905 

+0-139577 

3-94 

-0035219 

+0-630073 

5-12 

-0-624587 

+0-128687 

3-96 

-0047781 

+0-626063 

6-14 

-0-627048 

+0-117590 

3-98 

-0  060260 

+0-621839 

6-16 

-0-529290 

+0-106591 

4-00 

-0072653 

+0-617404 

6-18 

-0-531312 

+0-095594 

402 

-0  084955 

+0-612760      1 

6-20 

-0-533114 

+0  084602 

404 

-0097162 

+0-607909 

5-22 

-0-634696 

+  0073619 

406 

-0109270 

+0-602855 

6-24 

-0-536059 

+0062650 

4.08 

-0121275 

+0-597600 

5-26 

-0-637202 

+0051700 

4.10 

-0133172 

+0-592146 

5-28 

-0-638127 

+0-040771 

4-12 

-0144959 

+0-586497 

5-30 

-0-638833 

+0029867 

4-14 

-0156631 

+0-580656 

5-32 

-0-639322 

+0-018994 

4-16 

-0-168184 

+0-574623 

6-34 

-0-639593 

+0-008154 

4-18 

-0179615 

+0-568403 

5-36 

-0-639648 

-0002660 

4-20 

-0190919 

+0-562000 

5-38 

-0-639488 

-0013412 

4-22 

-0-202093 

+0-555415 

6-40 

-0-539112 

-0024128 

4-24 

-0-213134 

+0-648652 

5-42 

-0-638523 

-0034796 

4-26 

-0-224038 

+0-541715 

6-44 

-0-637721 

-0-045411 

4-28 

-0-234802 

+0-534605 

5-46 

-0-536707 

-0-055970 

4-30 

-0-245422 

+0-527327 

6-48 

-0-536482 

-0066468 

4-32 

-0-255894 

+0-519884 

6-50 

-0-634048 

-0-076903 

4-34 

-0-266216 

+  0-512279 

6-52 

-0-532406 

-0-087270 

4-36 

-0-276384 

+  0-504515 

6-54 

-0-630558 

-0-097566 

4-38 

-0-286395 

+0-496596      1 

6-66 

-0-628504 

-0107786 

4-40 

-0-296247 

+0-488525      ; 

5-58 

-0-526247 

-0-117929 

4-42 

-0-305936 

+0-480306      j 

6-60 

-0-523788 

-0-127990 

4-44 

-0-315458 

+0-471943      ! 

5-62 

-0-521128 

-0-137965 

4-46 

-0-324812 

+0-463438 

6-64 

-0-518270 

-0-1478.52 

4-48 

-0-333995 

+0-464795 

6-66 

-0-515215 

-0-157646 

4-50 

-0-343003 

+0-446018 

5-68 

-0-511964 

-0-167345 

4-52 

-0-351834 

+0-437112 

5-70 

-0-508521 

-0176946 

4-54 

-0-360487 

+0-428078 

5-72 

-0-504887 

-0-186443 

4-56 

-0-368957 

+0-418921 

6-74 

-0-501064 

-0-196836 

4-68 

-0-377243 

+0-409646 

6-76 

-0-497066 

-0-205120 

460 

-0-385342 

+0-400255 

5-78 

-0-492861 

-0-214293 

4-62 

-0-393252 

+0-390753 

5-80 

-0-488484 

-0-223350 

4-64 

-0-400971 

+0-381144 

5-82 

-0-483927 

-0-232290 

4-66 

-0-408497 

+0-371430 

6-84 

-0-479194 

-0-241110 

4-68 

-0-415828 

+0-361617 

6-86 

-0-474284 

-0-249806 

4-70 

-0422961 

+0-351708 

5-88 

—0-469202 

-0-258375 

4-72 

-0  429895 

+0-341706 

5-90 

-0-463949 

-0-266815 

4-74 

-0-436629 

+0-331617 

6-92 

-0-468629 

-0-275123 

4-76 

-0-443160 

+0-321444 

6-94 

-0-462945 

-0-283297 

4-78 

-0-449486 

+0-311191 

5-96 

-0-447199 

-0-291333 

4-80 

-0-455607 

+0-300862 

5-98 

-0-441293 

-0299229 

4-82 

-0-461520 

+0-290461 

600 

-0-435231 

-0-306982 

4-84 

-0-467225 

+0-279992 

602 

-0-429015 

-0-314690 

4-86 

-0472719 

+0-269459 

6-04 

-0-422648 

-0-322051 

4-88 

-0-478003 

+0-258867 

6-06 

-0-416134 

-0-329363 

4-90 

-0-483074 

+0-248219 

608 

-0-409474 

-0-336622 

4-92 

-0-487931 

+0-237519 

6-10 

-0-402674 

-0-343527 

4-94 

-0-492574 

+0-226772 

612 

-0-396735 

-0-350376 

4-96 

-0-497002 

+0-215981 

6-14 

-0-388660 

-0-357066 

4-98 

-0-501213 

+0-205161 

616 

-0-381463 

-0-363595 

5-00 

-0-505208 

+0-194286 

618 

-0-374117 

-0-369961 

602 

-0-508984 

+  0-183390 

6-20 

-0-366666      '\ 

-0-^76164 

ON  THE    CALCULATION    OP   MATHEMATICAL   TABLES. 


79 


Neumann  Cylinder  Functions — continued. 


X 

Yo(a!) 

Yi(a;) 

X 

Yo(^) 

Yi(x) 

6-22 

-0-359072 

-0-382201 

7-40 

+0-174739 

-0-416299 

6-24 

-0-351369 

-0-388069 

7-42 

+0  183019 

-0-411604 

6-26 

-0-343550 

-0-393768 

7-44 

+0-191203 

-0-406760 

6-28 

-0-335619 

-0-399295 

7-46 

+0-199288 

-0-401770 

6-30 

-0-327579 

-0-404649 

7-48 

4-0-207272 

-0-396635 

6-32 

-0-319434 

-0-409828 

7-50 

+0-215153 

-0-391359 

6-34 

-0-311187 

-0-414832 

7-52 

+0-222926 

-0-385943 

6-36 

-0-302842 

-0-419657 

7-54 

+0-230589 

-0-380390 

6-38 

-0-294402 

-0-424305 

7-56 

+0-238140 

-0-374702 

6-40 

-0-285871 

-0-428773 

7-58 

+0-245577 

-0-368882 

6-42 

-0-277253 

-0-433060 

7-60 

+0-252895 

-0-362933 

6-44 

-0-268550 

-0-437165 

7-62 

+0-260093 

-0-356857 

6-46 

-0-259767 

-0-441086 

7-64 

+0-267168 

-0-350657 

6-48 

-0-250908 

-0-444824 

7-66 

+0-274118 

-0-344335 

6-50 

-0-241976 

-0-448377 

7-68 

+0-280941 

-0-337895 

6-52 

-0-232974 

-0-451743 

7-70 

+0-287633 

-0-331339 

6-54 

-0-223907 

-0-454924 

7-72 

+0-294193 

-0-324670 

6-56 

-0-214778 

-0-457917 

7-74 

+0-300619 

-0-317890 

6-58 

-0-205592 

-0-460723 

7-76 

+0-306909 

-0-311003 

6-60 

-0-196351 

-0-463340 

7-78 

+0-313059 

-0-304012 

6-62 

-0187059 

-0-465768 

7-80 

+0-319068 

-0-296919 

6-64 

-0177721 

-0-468008 

1     7-82 

+0-324935 

-0-289727 

6-66 

-0168340 

-0-470058 

7-84 

+0-330657 

-0-282440 

6-68 

-0-158920 

-0-471918 

7-86 

+0-336232 

-0-275061 

6-70 

-0-149465 

-0-473589 

7-88 

+0-341659 

-0-267593 

6-72 

-0139978 

-0-475069 

7-90 

+0-346935 

-0-260038 

6-74 

-0-130463 

-0-476360 

7-92 

+0-352060 

-0-252399 

6-76 

-0-120925 

-0-477461 

7-94 

+0-357031 

-0-244681 

6-78 

-0-111366 

-0-478372 

7-96 

+0-361846 

-0-236886 

6-80 

-0-101791 

-0-479093 

7-98 

+0-366505 

-0-229018 

6-82 

-0-092203 

-0-479626 

8-00 

+0-371007 

-0-221079 

6-84 

-0-082607 

-0-479969 

8-02 

+0-375348 

-0-213073 

6-86 

-0-073006 

-0-480123 

8-04 

+0-379529 

-0-205003 

6-88 

-0-063403 

-0-480090 

8-06 

+0-383548 

-0-196873 

6-90 

-0-053804 

-0-479868 

8-08 

+0-387404 

-0-188686 

6-92 

-0-044211 

-0-479460 

8-10 

+0-391095 

-0-180445 

6-94 

-0-034627 

-0-478865 

812 

+0-394621 

-0172152 

6-96 

-0-025057 

-0-478085 

8-14 

+0397981 

-0-163812 

6-98 

-0-015504 

-0-477120 

8-16 

+0-401173 

-0-155429 

7-00 

-0-005973 

-0-475972 

8-18 

+0-404198 

-0-147005 

702 

+0-003533 

-0-474640 

8-20 

+0-407053 

-0-138543 

704 

+0-013011 

-0-473126 

8-22 

+0-409739 

-0-130048 

7-06 

+0-022457 

-0-471431 

8-24 

+0-412255 

-0-121522 

708 

+0-031867 

-0-469557 

8-26 

+0-414600 

-0-112969 

7-10 

+0-041238 

-0-467504 

8-28 

+0-416773 

-0-104392 

7-12 

+0-050566 

-0-465274 

8-30 

+0-418775 

-0-095795 

7-14 

+0-059848 

-0-462868 

8-32 

+0-420605 

-0087181 

716 

+0-069080 

-0-460288 

8-34 

+0-422262 

-0-078553 

7-18 

+0-078258 

-0-457534 

8-36 

+0-423747 

-0-069914 

7-20 

+0-087380 

-0-454609 

8-38 

+0-425059 

-0-061269 

7-22 

+0096442 

-0-451514 

8-40 

+0-426198 

-0-052621 

7-24 

+0-105440 

-0-448250 

8-42 

+0-427164 

-0-043972 

7-26 

+0114371 

-0-444820 

8-44 

+0-427957 

-0-035326 

7-28 

+0-123231 

-0-441225 

8-46 

+0-428577 

-0-026687 

7-30 

+0-132018 

-0-437467 

8-48 

+0-429024 

-0-018058 

7-32 

+0-140729 

-0-433548 

8-50 

+0-429299 

-0-009442 

7-34 

+0149359 

-0-429470 

8-52 

+0-429402 

-0-000843 

7-36 

+0-157907 

-0-425234 

8-54 

+0-429333 

+0-007737 

7-38     1 

+0166368 

-0-420843 

8-66 

+0-429093 

+0016293 

80 


REPORTS    ON   THE    STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — I9l4. 


Neumann  Cylinder  Fimctions — continued. 


X 

Y„(a;) 

Yi(^) 

X 

Yo{«) 

Y,(x) 

8-58 

+0-428682 

'  +0-024823 

9-76 

+0-152558 

+0-380212 

8-60 

+  0-428100 

+0  033324 

9-78 

+0-144931 

+0-382406 

8-62 

+0-427349 

+  0-041792 

9-80 

+0-137263 

+0-384445 

8-64 

+0-426428 

+  0-050223 

9-82 

+0-129555 

+0-386327 

8-66 

+0-425340 

+  0-058615 

9-84 

+0-121811 

+  0-388053 

8-68 

+  0-424084 

+0-066964 

9-86 

+0-114034 

+0-389622 

8-70 

+  0-422662 

+0075268 

9-88 

+0-106227 

+0-391034 

8-72 

+  0-421074 

+  0-083524 

9-90 

+0-098393 

+0-392288 

8-74 

+  0-419321 

+  0-091728 

9-92 

+0-090536 

+0-393385 

8-76 

+  0-417405 

+0-099876 

9-94 

+0-082659 

+0-394323 

8-78 

+0-415327 

+0-107966 

9-96 

+0-074764 

+0-395104 

8-80 

+0-413087 

+0-115996 

9-98 

+0-066856 

+0-395727 

8-82 

+0-410687 

+  0-123962 

10-00 

+0  058936 

+0-396193 

8-84 

+  0-408129 

+0131860 

10-02 

+0-051009 

+0-396500 

8-86 

+  0-405413 

+  0-139689 

1004 

+0-043077 

+0-396650 

8-88 

+  0-402542 

+0-147445 

10-06 

+  0-035144 

j  +0-396643 

8-90 

+  0-399516 

+  0-155126 

1008 

+0027213 

+0-396479 

8-92 

+0-396338 

+0-162728 

10-10 

+  0-019286 

+0-396158 

8-94 

+0-393008 

+  0-170249 

10-12 

+0011367 

+  0-395681 

8-96 

+0-389528 

+0-177686 

1014 

+0-003460 

+0-395049 

8-98 

+  0-385901 

+0185036 

10-16 

-0004434 

+0-394262 

9-00 

+  0-382127 

+0-192297 

10-18 

-0012310 

+0-393320 

9-02 

+0-378209 

+  0-199465 

10-20 

-0-020165 

+0-392224 

9-04 

+  0-374149 

+0-206539 

10-22 

-0  027998 

+0-390975 

9-06 

+  0-369948 

+  0-213517 

10-24 

-0-035804 

+0-389574 

9  08 

+0-365609 

+0-220394 

10-26 

-0043580 

+0388021 

910 

+0-361133 

+  0-227169 

10-28 

-0-061323 

+0-386318 

912 

+  0  356523 

+  0-233840 

10-30 

-0-059031 

+  0  384466 

914 

+  0-351781 

+0-240404 

10-32 

-0  066701 

+  0-382464 

916 

+  0-346908 

+  0-246858 

10-34 

-0074329 

+0  380316 

9-18 

+  0-341907 

+0-253201 

10-36 

-0081912 

+  0-378020 

9-20 

+0-336780 

+  0-259430 

10-38 

-0089449 

+  0-375680 

9-22 

+  0-331530 

+0-265644 

10-40 

-0096935 

+0-372996 

9-24 

+0-326159 

+  0-271539 

10-42 

-0104367 

+0-370269 

9-26 

+0-320670 

+  0-277414 

10-44 

-0-111744 

+  0-367400 

9-28 

+  0-315064 

+0-283167 

10-46 

-0-119063 

+0364392 

9-30 

+  0-309344 

+  0-288795 

10-48 

-0-126319   , 

+0-361245 

9-32 

+  0-303513 

+  0-294297 

10-50 

-0133511 

+  0-357961 

9-34 

+0-297673 

+0-299672 

10-52 

-0140637 

+0-354541 

9-36 

+0-291527 

+0-304917 

10-54 

-0-147692 

+0-360987 

9-38 

+  0-285377 

+0-310030 

10-56 

-0-154676 

+0-347302 

9-40 

+  0-279126 

+  0-315009 

10-58 

-0-161683 

+  0-343486 

9-42 

+  0-272778 

+  0-319853 

10-60 

-0-168414 

+0-339541 

9-44 

+  0-266334 

+  0-324561 

10-62 

-0-175164 

+0-335469 

9-46 

+  0-259796 

+0-329131 

10-64 

-0-181832 

+0-331271 

9-48 

+  0-253169 

+0-333661 

10-66 

-0-188414 

+0-326950 

9-50 

+  0-246455 

+0-337850 

10-68 

-0-194909 

+0-322608 

9-52 

+0-239656 

+  0-341996 

10-70 

-0-201314 

+0-317947 

9-54 

+0-232776 

+0-345999 

10-72   1 

-0-207626 

+0-313268 

9-56 

+0-225817 

+0-349856 

10-74 

-0-213844 

+0-308474 

9-58 

+0-218783 

+0-363667 

10-76 

-0-219964 

+0-303566 

9-60 

+0-211675 

+0-357131 

10-78 

-0-225985   i 

+0-298547 

9-62 

+0-204498 

+0-360546 

10-80 

-0-231905 

+0-293419 

9-64 

+  0197264 

+0-363811 

10-82 

-0-237722 

+0-288185 

9-66 

+0-189947 

+  0-366926 

10-84 

-0-243433 

+  0-282846 

9-68 

+  0182578 

+0-369890 

10-86 

-0-249035 

+0-277405 

9-70 

+0-175152 

+0-372701 

10-88 

-0-254528 

+0-271864 

9-72 

+0-167671 

+0-375359 

10-90 

-0-259909 

+0-266225 

9-74 

+0-160139 

+0-377862   ! 

10-92  1 

-0-265176 

+0-260491 

ON    THE    CALCULATION    OF    MATHEMATICAL    TABLES. 


81 


Neumann  Cylinder  Functions — continued. 


X 

Yo(x) 

Y,(x) 

X 

YoCo!) 

YiW 

10-94 

-0-270328 

+0-254665 

12-12 

-0-332007 

1     -0-155112 

10-96 

-0-275362 

+0-248748 

1214 

t     -0-328841 

-0-161460 

10-98 

-0-280277 

+0-242743 

12-16 

-0-325550 

-0-167733 

1100 

-0-285071 

1     +0-236653 

12-18 

-0-322133 

-0173929 

11-02 

!     -0-289743 

i     +0-230480 

12-20 

-0-318593 

-0180046 

11-04 

-0-294290 

+0-224228 

12-22 

;     -0-314932 

-0-186082 

11-06 

-0-298711 

'     +0-217898 

12-24 

-0-311150 

-0-192034 

1108 

-0-303005 

+0-211492 

12-26 

-0-307251 

\     -0197899 

1110 

-0-307170 

+0-205014 

12-28 

-0-303235 

-0-203676 

11-12 

-0-311205 

+  0-198467 

12-30 

-0-299104 

,     -0-209364 

11-14 

-0-315109 

+0191853 

12-32 

-0-294861 

-0-214959 

1116 

-0-318879 

+0-185175 

12-34 

;     -0-290507 

1     -0-220460 

11-18 

-0-322515 

+0-178435 

12-30 

i     -0-286043 

-0-225864 

11-20 

-0-326016 

+0-171637 

12-38 

-0-281473 

-0-231170 

11-22 

-0-329380 

+0-164783 

12-40 

!     -0-276797 

-0-236376 

11-24 

-0-332607 

+0-157875 

12-42 

-0-272018 

-0-241479 

11-26 

-0-335695 

+0-150917 

12-44 

-0-267139 

-0-246478 

11-28 

-0-338643 

+0-143912 

12-46 

-0-262160 

-0-251372 

11-30 

-0-341451 

+0-136862 

12-48 

-0-257084 

-0-256158 

11-32 

-0-344118 

+0-129771 

12-50 

-0-251914 

-0-260834 

11-34 

-0-346642 

+0-122640 

12-52 

-0-246652 

-0-265399 

11-36 

-0-349023 

+0-115473 

12-54 

-0-241299 

—0-269851 

11-38 

-0-351261 

+0-108274 

12-56 

-0-235859 

-0-274189 

11-40 

-0-353354 

+0-101044 

12-58 

-0-230333 

-0-278412 

11-42 

-0-355302 

+0093786 

12-60 

-0-224723 

-0-282517 

11-44 

-0-357105 

+0-086504 

12-62 

-0-219032 

—0  286503 

11-46 

-0-358762 

+0  079200 

12-64 

-0-213263 

-0-290369 

11-48 

-0-360273 

+0-071878 

12-66 

-0-207418 

-0-294114 

11-50 

-0-361637 

+0-064540 

12-68 

-0-201500 

—0-297737 

11-52 

-0-362854 

+0-057189 

12-70 

-0195510 

-0-301235 

11-54 

-0-363924 

+0-049828 

12-72 

-0189451 

-0-304608 

11-56 

-0-364847 

+0-042460 

12-74 

-0-183326 

-0-307855 

11-58 

-0-365623 

+0-035088 

12-76 

-0-177138 

—0-310974 

11-60 

-0-366251 

+0-027715 

12-78 

-0-170888 

—0-313965 

11-62 

-0-366731 

+0020344 

12-80 

-0-164580 

-0-316827 

11-64 

-0-367065 

+0-012977 

12-82 

-0-158216 

—0-319558 

11-66 

-0-367251 

+0-005617 

12-84 

-0151799 

-0-322158 

11-68 

-0-367289 

-0-001732 

12-86 

-0-145331 

—0-324626 

11-70 

-0-367181 

-0009068 

12-88 

-0138815 

—0-326961 

11-72 

-0-366927 

-0-016387 

12-90 

-0-132253 

—0-329163 

11-74 

-0-366526 

-0023688 

12-92 

-0125649 

—0-331231 

11-76 

-0-365979 

-0-030967 

12-94 

-0119005 

—0-333163 

11-78 

-0-365288 

-0038221 

12-96 

-0112323 

—0-334960 

11-80 

-0-364451 

-0-045447 

12-98 

-0-105607 

—0-336622 

11-82 

-0-363470 

-0-052643 

1300 

-0-098859 

-0-338147 

11-84 

-0-362345 

-0-059807 

13-02 

-0-092082 

—0-339536 

11-86 

-0-361078 

-0-066935 

13-04 

-0-085279 

—0-340787 

11-88 

-0-359668 

-0074024 

1306 

-0078452 

—0-341901 

11-90     1 

-0-358117 

-0081071 

13-08 

-0-071604 

—0-342878 

11-92 

-0-356426 

-0-088075      , 

13-10 

-0064738 

-0-343717 

11-94     ' 

-0-354595 

-009503i? 

13-12 

-0057856 

—0-344418 

11-96 

-0-352625 

-0-101939 

13-14 

-0-050962 

—0-344981 

11-98 

-0-350517      1 

-0-108795 

13-lG 

-0044058 

-0-345406 

12-00 

-0-348273      i 

-0-115596 

13-18 

-0037147 

—0-345694 

12-02 

-0-345894      I 

-0-122340 

13-20 

-0-030231 

—0-345843 

12-04 

-0-343380      ' 

-0129024 

13-22 

-0-023314 

-0-345855 

12-06 

-0-340733 

-0-135645 

13-24 

-0016398 

—0-345729 

1208 

-0-337955 

-0-142202 

13-26 

-0  009485 

—0-345466 

1210 

-0-336046      1 

-0148692 

13-28 

-0-002580 

—0-345067 

I'JU. 

n 

82 


EEPORTS    ON   THE    STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 


Neumann  Cylinder  Functions — continued. 


X 

Yo(.r) 

Yi{x) 

X 

Yo(a;) 

Y,{x] 

1330 

+0004316 

-0-344531 

14-42 

+0-299680 

-0-129889 

13-32 

+0-011201 

-0-343858 

14-44 

+0-302216 

-0-123694 

13-34 

+0-018070 

-0-343050 

14-46 

+0-304628 

-0-117459 

13-36 

+0-024922 

-0-342107 

14-48 

+0-306914 

-0-111185 

13-38 

+0-031753 

-0-341029 

14-50 

+0-309075 

-0-104876 

13-40 

+0-038562 

-0-339817 

14-52 

+0-311109 

-0-098534 

13-42 

+0-045345 

-0-338472 

14-54 

+0-313016 

-0092161 

13-44 

+0-052100 

-0-336994 

14-56 

+0-314795 

-0-085760 

13-46 

+0-058824 

-0-3.35386 

14-58 

+0-316446 

-0-079334 

13-48 

+0065515 

-0-333645 

14-60 

+0-317968 

-0-072886 

13-50 

+0072169 

-0-331775 

14-62 

+0-319362 

-0-066417 

13-52 

+0-078785 

-0-329776     ! 

14-64 

+0-320625 

-0-059931 

13-54 

+0085359 

-0-327649 

14-66 

+0-321759 

-0-053429 

13-56 

+0-091890 

-0-325395 

14-68 

+0-322762 

-0-046915 

13-58 

+0-098374 

-0-323014 

14-70 

+0-323635 

-0-040392 

13-60 

+0-104809 

-0-320508      ' 

14-72 

+0-324378 

-0-033861 

13-62 

+0-111193 

-0-317879      ' 

14-74 

+0-324990 

-0027326 

13-64 

+0-117524 

-0-315127 

14-76 

+0-325471 

-0-020788 

13-66 

+0-123798 

-0-312254 

14-78 

+0-325821 

-0-014251 

13-68 

+0-130013 

-0-309261 

14-80 

+0-326041 

-0-007717 

13-70 

+0-136167 

-0-306150      ' 

14-82 

+0-326130 

-0-001189 

13-72 

+0-142258 

-0-302922 

14-84 

+0-326088 

+0  005330 

13-74 

+0-148283 

-0-299577 

14-86 

+0-325917 

+0-011839 

13-76 

+0-154241 

-0-296118 

14-88 

+0-32,5615 

+0-018334 

13-78 

+0-160128 

-0-292547 

14-90 

+0-325183 

+0024813 

13-80 

+0-165942 

-0-288865 

14-92 

+0-324622 

+0-031274 

13-82 

+0-171681 

-0-285073 

14-94 

+0-323932 

+0-037714 

13-84 

+0-177344 

-0-281173 

14-96 

+0-323114 

+0044130 

13-86 

+0-182928 

-0-277167 

14-98 

+0-322167 

+0-050519 

13-88 

+0-188430 

-0-273056 

15-00 

+0-321093 

+0-056880 

13-90 

+0-193849 

-0-268843 

15-02 

+0-319893 

+0063210 

13-92 

+0-199183 

-0-264529 

15-04 

+0-318566 

+0-069507 

13-94 

+0-204430 

-0-260116 

15-06 

+0-317113 

+0-075767 

13-96 

+0-209587 

-0-255606 

15-08 

+0-315535 

+0081989 

13-98 

+0-214653 

-0-251001 

15-10 

+0-313833 

+0-088171 

1400 

+0-219627 

-0-246303 

1512 

+  0-312008 

+0094309 

14-02 

+0-224505 

-0-241513 

15-14 

+0-310061 

+0-100401 

14-04 

+0-229286 

-0-236634 

15-16 

+0-307993 

+0-106445 

1406 

+0-233969 

-0-231668 

15-18 

+0-305804 

+0-112439 

14-08 

+0-238553 

-0-226617 

15-20 

+0-303496 

+0-118380 

14-10 

+0-243034 

-0-221483 

15-22 

+0-301069 

+0-124266 

14-12 

+0-247411 

-0-216268 

15-24 

+0-298525 

+0-130095 

14-14 

+0-251684 

-0-210975 

15-26 

+0-295865 

+0-135865 

14-16 

+0-255850 

-0-205605 

15-28 

+0-293091 

+0-141573 

14-18 

+0-259908 

-0-200161 

15-30 

+0-290203 

+0-147217 

14-20 

+0-263856 

-0-194645 

15-32 

+0-287203 

+0-162796 

14-22 

+0-267693 

-0-189059      i 

15-34 

+0-284092 

+0-158306 

14-24 

+0-271418 

-0-183406      ! 

15-36 

+0-280871 

+0163746 

14-26 

+0-275029 

-0-177688      ! 

15-38 

+0-277542 

+0-169113 

14-28 

+0-278525 

-0-171907 

15-40 

+0-274107 

+0-174406 

14-30 

+0-281905 

-0-166066 

15-42 

+0-270567 

+0-179624 

14-32 

+0-285167 

-0-160167 

15-44 

+0-266923 

+0-184763 

14-34 

+0-288311 

-0-154213 

15-46 

+0-263177 

+0-189822 

14-36 

+0-291335 

-0-148205 

1548 

+0-259330 

+0194799 

14-38 

+0-294239 

-0-142147 

15-50 

+0-255385 

+0-199691 

14-40 

+0-297021 

-0136041 

ON   THE    CALCULATION    OP    MATHEMATICAL    TABLES. 


83 


The  Neumann  G  Functions. 

The  Neumann  Functions  Gr„(a;)  of  order  greater  than  unity  are  of 
frequent  occurrence  in  physical  problems,  such  as  the  diffraction  of  light, 
pressure  of  radiation,  &c.  Tables  of  the  functions  have  been  found  from 
those  of  Go(a;)  and  Gi(a;)  by  {a)  direct  calculation  and  (6)  logarithmic 
computation  from  the  recurrence  formula 

G„.i(a?)  =  -  ^M  -  G-i(^) 

X 

and  verified  in  the  case  when  x  is  an  integer  by  the  relation 
Jn(«)  G„„(x)   -  J„+i(a;)  G„(a;)  =    . 

X 

The  Bessel  Functions  J„(x)  for  positive  integral  values  of  n  and  x  have 
been  given  by  Meissel  for  x  =  1  to  a;  =  24. 

The  Tables  may  be  used  to  calculate  G„(x)  for  other  values  of  the 
argument  x  by  employing  the  following  formula  : 


G„(x  +  h)  =  G„(a;)  +  h  g  G„(x)  -  G„,,(x)1 

A^rrn(n_-2)_iJci„(.)+lG,„,(.)]  + 


-ffl 


Tables 

of  the  Neumann  Functions. 

G„(a^)- 

G«(a-) 

.T=   0-1 

0-2 

0-3 

0-4 

0-5 

m  =  0 
1 
2 

+  2-40998 
+  1014570 

+  1-69820 
+  5-22105 

+  1-26806 
+  3-60200 

+0-95194 
+  2-79739 

+0-69825 
+2-31138 
+  8-54729 

G„(ar) 

x=      0-6 

0-7 

0-8 

0-9 

1-0 

w  =  0 

1 
2 
3 

+0-48461 
+  1-97982 
+  6-11479 

+0-29950 
+  1-73298 

+4-65188 

+0-13635 
+  1-53647 
+  3-70481 

-0-00884 
+  1-37150 
+  3-05663 

-0-13863 
+  1-22713 
+  2-59289 
+  9-14442 

G„(a-) 

a;=   11 

1-2 

1-3 

1-4 

1-6 

»  =  0 
1 
2 
3 

-0-25473 
+  1-09660 

+  2-24855 
+  7-07994 

-0-35827 
+0-97568 
+  1-98440 
+  5-63900 

-0-45009 
+0-86161 
+  1-77565 
+4-60192 

-0-53076 
+0-75264 
+  1-60597 
+3-83584 

-0-60075 
+0-64765 
+  1-46429 
+  3-25711 

1 

Gr{x) 

x=      1-6 

1'7 

1-8 

1-9 

2-0 

n  =  0 
1 
2 
3 
4 

-0-66041 
+0-54597 
+  1-34287 
+2-81121 
+  919916 

-0-71004 
+0-44725 
+  1-23622 
+2-46149 
+  7-45141 

-0-74995 
+0-35133 
+  1-14032 
+  2-18271 
+6-13537 

-0-78040 
+0-25825 
+  1-05224 
+  1-95700 
+5-12776 

-0-80170 
+0-16813 
+0-96982 
+  1-77152 
+4-34473 

G   Z 


84 


REPORTS    ON   THE    STATE    OF    SCIENCE.— 1914. 


Tables  of  the  Neumann  Functions.     G„(a') — continued. 

Qnix) 

a;=      2-1 

2-2 

23 

2-4 

2-5 

n  =  0 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

-0-81413 

+0-08118 
+0-89144 
+  1-61681 
+  3-72802 

-0-81805 
-000234 
+0-81592 
+  1-48583 
+  3-23634 

-0-81379 
-0-08212 
+0-74238 
+  1-37322 

+  2-83993 
+  8-50480 

-0-80176 
-0-15785 
+0-67022 
+  1-27488 
+2-51698 
+  711504 

-  0-78237 
-0-22921 
+0-59900 
+  1-18761 
+  2-25126    ! 
+  601643 

Qn(x) 

x=      2-6 

-0-75607 
-0-29588 
+0-52847 
+  1-10891 
+  2  03056 
+  5-13897 

2-7 

2-8 

2-9 

80 

n  «=  0 
1 
2 
■      3 
4 
6 
6 

-0-72336 
-0-35756 
+0-45849 
+  1-03682 
+  1-84554 
+4-43145 

-0-68474 
-0-41398 
+0-38904 
+0-96974 
+  1-68899 
+  3-85593 

-0-64075 
-0-46486 
+0-32015 
+0-90645 
+  1-55526 
+  3-38393 

-0-59195 
-0-51000 
+0-25196 
+  0-84594 
+  1-43992 
+  2-99385 
+  8-53959 

Gn{T) 

M    =    0 

1 

2 
3 
4 
6 
6 

a;=      81 

8-2 

-0-48232 
-0-58231 
+  011837 
+0-73028 
+  1-25090 
+2-39697 
+  6-23963 

3-3 

-0-42269 
-0-60924 
+0  05345 
+0-67403 
+  1-17206 
+216732 
+  5-39557 

3-4 

8-5 

-0-53894 
-0-54920 
+  0-18462 
+0-78742 
+  1-33942 
+  2-66914 
+  7-27071 

-0-36068 
-0-62991 
-0-00986 
+0-61832 
+  110100 
+  1-97228 
+  4-69982 

-0-29692 
-0-64432 
-007127 
+0-56287 
+  103619 
+  1-80557 
+  4-12257 

G-.(a-) 

x=      3-6 

3-7 
-0-16662 

3-8 

8-9 

40 

«  -  0 

-0-23202 

-0-10132 

-0-03672 

+0-02661 

1 

-0-65250 

-0-65451 

-0-65049 

-0-64060 

-0-62506 

2 

-013048 

-0-18717 

-0-24104 

-0-29180 

-0-33914 

3 

+0-50752 

+  0-45217 

+0-39676 

+0-34133 

+  0-28592 

4 

+0-97635 

+0-92041 

+0-86751 

+0-81691 

+  0-76802 

5 

+  1-66214 

+  1-53791 

+  1-42957 

+  1-33439 

+  1-25012 

6 

+3-64070 

+  3-23611 

+  2-89452 

+2-60460 

+  2-35728 

'7 

— 

+  8-95757 

.  +  7-71102 

+  6-67976 

+5-82172 

G„(*) 

:«=      4-1 

1 

4-2 

4-3 

4-4 

4-5 

n  =  0 

\             1 

+008811 
-0-60412 

+0-14726 

-0-57807 

+0-20357 
-0-54726 

+0-25657 
-0-51203 

+0-30584 
-0-47281 

2 

-0-38281 

-0-42254 

-0-45811 

-0-48931 

-0-51598 

3 

4 
6 
6 
7 
8 

+0-23065 
+0-72034 
+  117490 
+214526 
+6-10391 

+0-17566 
+0-67348 
+  1-10715 
+  1-96260 
+4-60029 

+0-12111 
+0-62710 
+  1-04558 
+  1-80449 
+  3-99020 

+0-06721 
+0-58095 
+0-98908 
+  1-66694 
+3-55714 
+9-65122 

+001416 
+  0-53486 
+0-93670 
+  1-54669 
+3-18781 
+  8-37095 

ON    THE    CALCULATION    OF    MATHEMATICAL    TABLES. 


85 


Tables  of  the  Neumann  Functions.    G„(a;) — continued. 


Qn(x) 

n  =  0 

x=      4-6 
+0-35101 

4-7 

4-8 

4-9 
+0-45876 

5-0 

+0-39174 

+0-42773 

+0-48462 

1 

-0-43000 

-0-38406 

-0-33547 

-0-28470 

-0-23226 

2 

-0-53797 

-0-55517 

-0-56751 

-0-57496 

-0-57752 

3 

-0-03780 

-0-08842 

-0-13746 

-0-18466 

-0-22976 

4 

+0-4886G 

+  0-44229 

+0-39569 

+0-34885 

+0-30182 

5 

+0-88765 

+0-84125 

+0-79694 

+0-75421 

+0-71266 

G 

+  1-44101 

+  1-34761 

+  1-26460 

+  1-19036 

+  112351 

7 

+  2-87150 

+  2-59946 

+  2-36457 

+  216095 

+  1-98376 

8 

+  7-29834 

+  6-39546 

+  5-63205 

+  4-98377 

+4-43101 

Gn(x) 

x=      6-1 

5-2 
+0-52033 

5-8 

5-4 

5-5 

n  =  0 

+0-50517 

+0-53005 

+0-53433 

+0-53325 

1 

-017866 

-012439 

-006998 

-001591 

+0-03732 

2 

-0-57523 

-0-56817 

-0-55645 

-0-54023 

-0-51968 

3 

-0-27251 

-0-31266 

-0-34999 

-0-38426 

-0-41527 

4 

+0-25464 

+0-20741 

+0-16024 

+011327 

+  0  06666 

5 

+0-67194 

+0-63175 

+0-59186 

+0-55207 

+  0-51223 

6 

+  1-06289 

+  1-00750 

+0-95647 

+0-90908 

+0-86467 

7 

+  1-82897 

+  1-69324 

+  1-57374 

+  1-46811 

+  1-37432 

8 

+  3-95783 

+  3-55123 

+  3-20058 

+  2-89712 

+  2-63361 

9 

— 

+  9-23362 

+  8-08839 

+  711596 

+  6-28707 

G„(xy 

X  ^      5-6 

5-7 

n  =  0 

+0-52691 

+  0-51547 

1 

+  0-08923 

+013937 

2 

-0-49505 

-0-46657 

3 

-0-44283 

-0-46678 

4 

+0-02058 

-002478 

5 

+0-47224 

+0-43200 

6 

+0-82270 

+0-78268 

7 

+  1-29069 

+  1-21574 

8 

+2-40402 

+  2-20335 

9 

+  5-57794 

+4-96911 

10 

— 

1          — 

5-8 

6-9 

6-0 

+0-49911 

+0-47810 

+0-45270 

+0-18729 

+0-23260 

+0-27491 

-0-43453 

-0-39925 

-0-36106 

-0-48697 

-0-50328 

-0-51561 

-0-06923 

-0-11256 

-015455 

+0-39148 

+0-35066 

+0-30954 

+0-74419 

+0  70689 

+0-67046 

+  1-14823 

+  1-08709 

+  1-03137 

+  2-02740 

+  1-87264 

+  1-73607 

+  4-44461 

+  3-99125 

+  3-59816 

— 

— 

+  9-05841 

Ct„(x) 

X-      6-5 

7-0 

1 
7-5 

8-0 

8-5 

ti  =  0 

+0-27213 

+0-04076 

-0-18428 

-0-35111 

-0-42444 

1 

+0-43054 

+0-47543 

+0-40704 

+  0-24828 

+004111 

2 

-0-13965 

+  0  09507 

+0-29282 

+  0-41318 

+0-43411 

3 

-0-51648 

-0-42110 

-0-25087 

-004169 

+0-16318 

4 

-033710 

-0-4.5602 

0-49351 

-  0-44445 

-0-31892 

5 

+0-10159 

-0-10006 

-0-27555 

-0-40275 

-0-46334 

(> 

+0-49339 

+0-31307 

+0-12612 

-0-05900 

-0-22619 

7 

+0-80929 

+0-63676 

+  0-47734 

+0-31426 

+  0-14402 

8 

+  1-24969 

+0-96044 

+0-76491 

+0-60895 

+  0-46340 

9 

+  2-26687 

+  1-55854 

+  1-15447 

+  0-90364 

+0-72826 

10 

+  5-02780 

+  3-04723 

+  2-00582 

+  1-42424 

+  1-07879 

11 



+  7-14782 

+  4-19437 

+2-65697 

+  1-81008 

12 

. 



+  5-88241 

+3-60612 

13 

— 

— 

+  8-37191 

86 


REPORTS    ON   THE   STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 


Tables  of  the  Neumann  Functions.    G„(a;) — oontinued. 

G„(a;) 

x=     90 

9-5 

10-0 

10-5 

11-0 

n  =  0 

-0-39260 

-0-26894 

-008745 

+0-10608 

+0-26522 

1 

-0'16386 

-0-31915 

-0-39115 

-0-36710 

-0-25715 

2 

+0-35619 

+0-20175 

+000922 

-0-17600 

-0-31198 

3 

+0-32216 

+0-40410 

+0-39484 

+0-30005 

+0-14370 

4 

-014141 

+0-05347 

+0-22769 

+0-34746 

+0-39036 

5 

-0-44786 

-0-35907 

-0-21269 

-0-03532 

+0-14020 

6 

-0-35621 

-0-43144 

-0-44038 

-0-38110 

-0-26291 

7 

-002709 

-0-18591 

-0-31576 

-0-40022 

-0-42701 

8 

+0-31408 

+0-15747 

-000169 

-0-15253 

-0-28056 

9 

+0-58544 

+  0-45112 

+0-31306 

+0-16780 

+0-01893 

10 

+0-85681 

+0-69729 

+0-56519 

+0-44018 

+0-31153 

11 

+  1-31859 

+  1-01685 

+0-81733 

+0-67064 

+0-54749 

12 

+2-36640 

+  1-65763 

+  1-23293 

+0-96497 

+0-78344 

13 

-+4-99180 

+317058 

+2-14171 

+  1-53501 

+  1-16185 

Gn{x) 

x=     11-5 

12-0 

12-5 

13-0 

13-& 

,1  =  0 

+0-35379 

+0-35380 

+0-26894 

+0-12285 

-0-04724 

1 

-0-09102 

+008969 

+0-24165 

+0-33000 

+  0-33619 

2 

-0-36962 

-0-33885 

-0-23028 

-007208 

+0-09705 

3 

-003755 

-0-20264 

-0-31534 

-0-35217 

-0-30743 

4 

+0-35003 

+0-23753 

+0-07892 

-009046 

-0-23369 

5 

+0-28105 

+0-36100 

+0-36584 

+0-29651 

+0-16895 

6 

-0-10564 

+0-06330 

+0-21376 

+0-31854 

+0-35883 

7 

-0-39128 

-0-29770 

-0-16064 

-0-00247 

+0-15001 

8 

-0-37070 

-0-41061 

-0-39367 

-0-32120 

-0-20326 

9 

-0-12448 

-0-24979 

-0-34326 

-0-39285 

-0-39092    ! 

10 

+0-17587 

+003593 

-0-10063 

-0-22275 

-0-31796    ' 

11 

+0-43034 

+0-30968 

+0-18226 

+0-05016 

-0-08013    ' 

12 

+0-64738 

+0-53181 

+0-42140 

+0-30763 

+0-18737 

13 

+0-92073 

+  0-75394 

+0-62684 

+0-51778 

+0-41324 

G  (x) 

x=     14-0 

14-5 

15-0 

15-5 

16-0          1 

1 

H    =    0 

-019979 

-0-29893 

-0-32274 

-0-26805 

-0-15050 

1 

+0-26177 

+0-12730 

-0-03310 

-0-18031 

-0-27956 

2 

+0-23719 

+0-31648 

+0-31833 

+0-24478 

+0-11555 

3 

-019400 

-003999 

+0-11799 

+0-24348 

+0-30845 

4 

-0-32033 

-0-33303 

-0-27113 

-0-15053 

+000012 

6 

+0-01095 

-0-14375 

-0-26259 

-0-32117 

-0-30839 

6 

+0-32815 

+0-23390 

+009607 

-0-05667 

-0-19286 

7 

+0-27032 

+0-33732 

+0-33945 

+0-27730 

+0-16375 

8 

-0-05783 

+0-09179 

+0-22075 

+0-30713 

+0-33614 

9 

-0-33641 

-0-23603 

-010398 

+003975 

+0-17239 

10 

-0-37470 

-0-38480 

-0-34553 

-0-26098 

-0-14220    1 

11 

-0-19887 

-0-29472 

-0-35672 

-0-37649 

-0-35014 

12 

+0-06218 

-0-06237 

-0-17766 

-0-27340 

-0-33925 

13 

+0-30548 

+0-19149 

+007246 

-004683 

-0-15873 

ON    THE   CALCULATION    OF   MATHEMATICAL    TABLES.  87 

Bessel  Functions  of  Half-integral  Order. 
The  solution  of  the  equation 

dx^         I  X-       J 

being  taken  in  the  symbolical  form 

As-  "•  +  Be^ 


"--■(-ii)" 


X 

yields  as  standard  functions  of  real  quantities 

a  /  \         n  +  \  (      \    d\"  mix 

\       X  dxj      X 

with  E„(x)  =  X"  '^  (  -  ^  ^^y  I" '"   =  C"  (a;)  -  i  S„  (x) 

as  an  important  associated  function. 

The  functions    (E„  [x)  f  =  (S„  (x)  y  +  (C„  (.*;)  y- 

(E,:{x)y  =  (>ij{x)y-^{c„'(x)y 

are  of  importance,  and  have  been  tabulated  with  S„  (x),  C„  {x),  and  their 
derivatives  S„'  (x),  C„'  {x). 

The  connection  with  Bessel  Functions  is  apparent  from  the  differential 
equation,  giving 

S„ (x)  =  s/ \vx  J„  y  1  [x) 

From  the  differential  equation,  we  obtain 

X 

S,/(x)  =  S„_i(x)-^'S„(x) 

X 

with  corresponding  formulse  for  C,,'  {x),  E,,'  (a;). 

By  elimination  of  S,/  (x),  we  get  the  recurrence  formula 

^n.Ax)^—^-    S„(a;)-S„_,(x). 


88 


REPORTS    ON   THE    STATE    OF    SCIENCE. — 1914. 


Bessel  Functions  of  Half-infegral 

Order. 

M 

S„(l) 

C„(l) 

[E„(l)]* 

n 
0 

0 

•8414710 

•5403023 

1-0 

1 

•3011687 

1-3817733 

2^0 

1 

2 

•0620351 

3-005018 

13-0 

2 

3 

•0090066 

16-64331 

2770 

3 

4 

•0010110 

112-8982 

5 

•0000926 

999-4403 

6 

•0000072 

10880-95 

7 

•0000005 

140452-8 

n 

S„'(l) 

C  '(1) 

[E,.'(l)]' 

n 

0 

•5403023 

—8414710 

1-0 

0 

1 

•5403023 

—8414710 

10 

1 

2 

•1770986 

-5-828262 

340 

2 

3 

•0350153 

-46-32493 

2146-0 

3 

4 

•0049625 

-434-9494 

5 

•0005482 

-4884-304 

6 

-0000496 

-64286-23 

7 

-0000038 

-972289-0 

0 

1 

2 

3 
4 


Log.  [S„(l)] 


Log.[C„(l)J 


1-9250391 
1-4788098 
2-7926371 
3  9545600 
3-0047580 


1-7326308 

•1404368 

•5569074 

1-2212399 

2-0526869 


Log.[E„(X)]2 

•0000000 

•3010300 

11139434 

24424798 


n               Log.  [S„'(l)] 

Log.  [C»'(l)] 

Log.  [E„'(l)]-' 

•0000000 

•0000000 

1-5314789 

3-3310297 

n 

0 

1 
o 

3 

0 
1 
2 

3 

4 

1  •7326368 
i-7326368 
i-2482150 
2-5442579 
3-6957021 

1-9250391 
1-9250391 
-7655390 
1-6658147 
2-6384387 

n 
0 

S„(2) 

Cn{2)                           j 

[E«(2)]» 

n 

•9092974 

—•4161468 

1-000000 

0 

1 

•8707955 

•7012240 

1-250000 

1 

O 

•3968959 

1-4679828 

2-312500 

•r* 

3 

•1214442 

2-968733 

8-828125 

3 

4 

•0281588 

8-922583 

79-61328 

4 

5 

•0052703 

37-18289 

1382-567 

5 

6 

•0008281 

195-5833 

7 

•0001122 

1234-109 

8 

•0000134 

9060-232 

9 

•0000014 

75777-86 

10 

•0000001 

710829-4 

ON    THE    CALCULATION    OF    MATHEMATICAL   TABLES. 


89 


Bessel  Functions  of  Half-integral  Order — continued. 


n 
0 

S„'(2) 

C,.'{2) 

[E'''(2)]' 
1-0000000 

n 

0 

-•4161468 

-•9092974 

1 

•4738997 

-•7667588 

-8125000 

1 

2 

•4738997 

-•7667588 

•8125000 

2 

3 

•2147296 

-2-985117 

8957031 

3 

4 

■0651266 

-1487643 

2213125 

4 

5 

•0149829 

-8403464 

7061^821 

5 

6 

•0027861 

-549^5671 

7 

•0004354 

-4123-797 

8 

•0000587 

-3500682 

9 

•0000070 

-3319401 

10 

■0000007 

-3478369^ 

n 
0 

Log.  [S„(2)] 

Log.  [C„(2)] 
1-6192466 

Log.  [E„(2jP 

n 
0 

1-9587060 

•0000000 

1 

i-9399162 

1-8458568 

•0969100 

1 

2 

1-5986767 

•1667210 

•3640817 

2 

3 

10843767 

•4725711 

•9458684 

3 

4 

2-4496139 

•9504906 

1-9009855 

4 

5 

3-7218386 

r5703431 

\           3-1406862 

5 

6 

4-9180733 

22913318 

n 

Log.  [S„'(2)] 

Log.  [C„'(2)] 
L9587000 

Log.  [E„'(2)]» 
•0000000 

n 
0 

0 

i-6192466 

1 

r67568C4 

1-8846588 

1^9098234 

1 

2 

1^6756864 

1-8846588 

1-9098234 

2 

3 

1-3318919 

•4749613 

-9521642 

3 

4 

2-8137585 

1-1724988 

2-3450059 

4 

5 

2-1755970 

1-9244583 

3-8489167 

5 

G 

3-4449957 

2-7400207 

n 
0 

S„(3) 

C,.(3) 

^_     [En(3)]* 

1 
n 

0 

■1411200 

-■9899925 

]  0000000 

1 

1-03703-25 

-•1888775 

11111111 

1 

2 

•8959125 

•80111.50 

1  4444444 

0 

3 

•4561550 

1-5240692 

2^530864 

3 

4 

■1684491 

2-755040 

7-618656 

4 

5 

•0491924 

6-741070 

45^44444 

5 

6 

•0119231 

21-96221 

482-3389 

6 

7 

•0024745  . 

88-42851 

8 

■0004495 

420-1803 

9 

■0000726 

2292-593 

10 

■0000106 

14099-58 

11 

•0000014 

96404-45 

12 

■0000002 

725001-2 

1 

90 


REPORTS   ON   THE    STATE    OP   SCIENCE. — 1914. 


Bessel  Functions  of  Half-integral  Order — continued. 


n 

S„'(8) 

C,/(3) 

[E„'(3)]2 

n 

0 

-•9899925 

-•1411200 

1-0000000 

0 

1 

-■2045575 

-•9270333 

-9012346 

1 

2 

•4397575 

-•7229542 

•7160494 

2 

3 

•4397575 

-•7229542 

•7160494 

3 

4 

■2315561 

-2149326 

4^673220 

4 

5 

■0864617 

-8^480070 

71^91907 

5 

6 

•0253460 

-37^18335 

1382-602 

6 

7 

•0061492 

-184-3710 

8 

•0012759 

-1032052 

9 

•0002316 

-6457-600 

10 

•0000374 

-4470500 

11 

•0000054 

-3393834 

12 

•0000007 

-2803600- 

n 

Log.  [S„(3)] 

Log.  [C„(3)] 

Log.[En(3)P 

n 

0 

i-1495886 

i9956319 

•0000000 

0 

1 

•0157924 

r2761801 

-0457574 

1 

2 

1-9522656 

19036949 

-1597008 

2 

3 

1-6591125 

•1830046 

-4032688 

3 

4 

r2264687 

•4401289 

-8818784 

4 

5 

2-6918984 

•8287288 

1-6574808 

5 

6 

2^0763909 

1-3416761 

2-6833523 

6 

7 

3-3934926 

19465923 

n 

Log.[S«'{3)l 

Log-[C„'(3)] 

Log.  (E„'(3)]2 

n 
0 

0 

1-9956319 

i-1495886 

'0000000 

1 

i-3108155 

1-9670954 

1-9548378 

1 

2 

1-6432133 

1-8591108 

1-8549430 

2 

3 

1-6432133 

1-8591108 

1-8549430 

3 

4 

1-3646563 

•3323022 

-6696163 

4 

5 

2-9368240 

■9283995 

1-8568440 

5 

6 

2-4039119 

r 5703485 

3-1406973 

6 

7 

3-7888217 

2-2656927 

n 

S„(4) 

C„(4) 

[E„(4)? 

n 

0 

-•7568025 

-•6536436 

1-0000000 

0 

1 

•4644430 

-•9202134 

10625000 

1 

2 

11051347 

-•0365164 

1-2226562 

2 

3 

•9169754 

•8745679 

1-6057129 

3 

4 

■4995723 

15670102 

2-705093 

4 

5 

•2070622 

2-6512051 

7071763 

5 

6 

•0698487 

57238037 

32-76681 

6 

7 

•0199460 

15-95116 

254-4398 

7 

8 

•0049490 

54-09304 

2926-056 

8 

9 

•0010870 

2139442 

10 

•0002144 

9621421 

11 

•0000384 

4837-302 

12 

•0000063 

26862-34 

13 

•0000009 

162989-8 

14 

•0000001 

1073329- 

ON   THE   CALCULATION   OF   MATHEMATICAL   TABLES. 


91 


Bessel  Functions  of  Half -integral  Order — continued. 


71 

S"'(4) 

C„'(4) 

[En'(i)7 

)i 

0 

—6536436 

+  •7668025 

10000000 

0 

1 

-•8729132 

-•4235903 

-9414062 

1 

2 

-0881244 

-•9019552 

•8212891 

2 

3 

•4174032 

-•6924423 

•6537018 

3 

4 

•4174032 

-•6924423 

•6537018 

4 

5 

•2407446 

-1  •746996 

3109954 

5 

6 

•1022891 

-5-934501 

35^22876 

6 

7 

•0349431 

-2219072 

4924293 

7 

8 

•0100481 

-92-23491 

8507279 

8 

9 

•0025032 

-427-2815 

10 

•0005511 

-2191-411 

11 

•0001088 

-12340-44 

12 

•0000195 

-75719-73 

13 

•0000032 

-5028647 

U 

•0000005 

-3593662^ 

71 

Log.  [S„(4)] 

Log.  [C„{4)] 

Log.  [En(4)]-' 

71 

0 

18789825 

1-8153410 

-0000000 

0 

1 

16669324 

1-9638885 

-0263289 

1 

2 

00434153 

2-5624884 

•0873043 

2 

3 

1-9623577 

1-9417935 

•2056678 

3 

4 

1-6985983 

01950719 

-4321823 

4 

5 

1-3161007 

•4234433 

•8495276 

5 

6 

2-8441582 

•7576848 

1-5154341 

6 

7 

2-2998566 

12027922 

2-4055851 

7 

8 

3-6945133 

1  7331414 

3-4662827 

8 

9 

3-0362346 

2-3303006 

n 
0 

Log.  [S„(4)] 

Log.  [C„'(4)] 

Log.  [(E„'(4)]2 

71 

1-8153410 

r8789825 

00000000 

0 

1 

1-9409711 

16269460 

1-9737771 

1 

2 

2-9450960 

19551850 

1-9144960 

2 

3 

1-6205557 

18403836 

1-8153797 

3 

4 

1-6205557 

1-8403836 

1-8153797 

4 

5 

1-3815565 

-2422918 

-4927540 

5 

6 

10098296 

•7733841 

1-5468972 

6 

7 

25433616 

13461714 

26923439 

7 

8 

2-0020852 

19648953 

39297907 

8 

9 

3-3984910 

26307141 

92 


REPORTS    ON    THE   STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 


Bessel  Functions  of  Half -integral  Order — continued. 


n 

S„'(6) 

C„'(5) 

[E'(5„)P 

n 

0 

•2836622 

•9589243 

.  -1  0000000 

0 

1 

-■8638349 

•4641006 

•9616000 

1 

2 

-•7449095 

-■5722009 

•8823040 

2 

3 

-0158058 

-•8713060 

•7594240 

3 

4 

•4010325 

-•6692476 

•6087194 

4 

5 

•4010325 

-•6692476 

•6087194 

6 

6 

•2462544 

-15081202 

2  ■335068 

6 

7 

•1145151 

-4599725 

21  17059 

7 

8 

•0435824 

-15-37324 

236-3383 

8 

9 

■0141443 

-56-38612 

10 

•0040171 

-2281139 

11 

•0010165 

-1013648 

12 

•0002323 

-4912292 

13 

•0000484 

-2582365 

14 

•0000093 

-1461979 

15 

•0000017 

-887167^7 

16 

•0000003 

-5744114^ 

?! 

Log.[S„(5)] 

Log.  [C„(5)] 

Log.[E„(5)]2 

1 
n      j 

0 

1'9817843 

1-4528015 

•0000000 

0 

1 

1-6771021 

19552989 

-0170333 

1 

2 

1-8284378 

19164420 

■0547662 

<> 

3 

-0603589 

2^8876992 

-1226745 

3 

4 

1-9708527 

f-9699178 

-2418014 

4 

5 

1-7275867 

•2047506 

-45.52503 

5 

0 

1-3799116 

-4130413 

•8309850 

6 

7 

2-9518904 

-7107073 

1-4215464 

7 

8 

2-4579904 

1-1078501 

22157021 

8 

9 

3-9079754 

1-5848650 

10 

3-3089316 

2-1247668 

ON   THE    CALCULATION    OF    MATHEMATICAL    TABLES. 


93 


Bessel  Functions  of  Half-integral  Order — continued. 


n 

Log.  [S,/(5)l 

Log.  [C  «'(5)] 

Log.  [E,.'(5)]' 

n 

0 

1-4.528015 

r9817843 

-0000000 

0 

1 

1-9364307 

1-6666121 

i -9829945 

1 

2 

1-872103.') 

1-7.575486 

1-9456183 

2 

3 

2-1988161) 

1-9401707 

1-8804846 

3 

4 

1-6031796 

1-825.5868 

1-7844172 

4 

5 

1-6031796 

1-825.5868 

1-7844172 

5 

6 

1-3913840 

•17843.59 

•3682996 

0 

7 

1-0.588626 

-6627318 

1 -.3257329 

7 

8 

2-6393112 

1-1867653 

2-3735.342 

8 

9 

2-1505807 

1-7511723 

10 

3-6039080 

2-3581517 

n 

S„(6) 

C„(6) 

[En(6)]» 

n 
0 

0 

-  -2794155 

•9601703 

1-0000000 

I 

-1-0067395 

-•1193871 

1-0277778 

1 

2 

-  -2239543 

-1-0198638 

1-0902778 

2 

3 

•8201110 

-•7304994 

1-2062114 

3 

4 

11 807504 

•1676145 

1-4222661 

4 

5 

•9510146 

•9819212 

1-868.5981 

5 

6 

•5627764 

1  6325743 

2-982016 

6 

7 

•2683343 

25553232 

6-601680 

7 

8 

•1080593 

4^755734 

22-62868 

8 

9 

•0378337 

109192G 

119-2316 

9 

10 

•0117474 

2982191 

889-3466 

10 

11 

•0032822 

93-45743 

12 

•0008345 

328-4316 

13 

•0001948 

1275007 

U 

•0000420 

5409-102 

15 

•0000084 

24868-98 

16 

•0000016 

123080-6 

17 

•0000003 

652074-6 

n 

S,.'(G) 
•9601703 

C„'(6) 

[E»'(6)]^ 

n 

0 

•2794155 

10000000 

0 

1 

-1116256 

•9800681 

•9729938 

1 

2 

-•9320881 

•2205675 

•9174383 

2 

3 

-•6340098 

-•6546141 

•8304880 

3 

4 

•0329440 

-•8422424 

•7104576 

4 

5 

•3882382 

-•6506531 

•5740783 

5 

6 

■3882382 

-•6506531 

•5740783 

6 

7 

-2497198 

-13486361 

1-8811792 

7 

8 

•1242552 

-3^785655 

14-34662 

8 

9 

-0513087 

-11-62315 

135-1002 

9 

10 

•0182547 

-38-78393 

1504-193 

10 

11 

•0057300 

-141-6167 

12 

•0016133 

-563-4057 

13 

•0004125 

-2434-084 

14 

•0000967 

-11346-23 

15 

•0000197 

-56763-36 

16 

•0000040 

-3033461 

17 

•0000008 

-1833143- 

94 


REPORTS   ON   THE   STATE   OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 


Bessel  Functions  of  Half-integral  Or<?flr— continued. 


n 

Log.  [S„(6)] 

Log.  [C„(6)] 

Log.[E„(6)]» 

n 

0 

i -4462504 

1-9823482 

-0000000 

0 

1 

•0029172 

1-0769574 

•0118993 

1 

2 

1-3501593 

•0085422 

•0375371 

2 

3 

1-913872G 

1-8636199 

•0814234 

3 

4 

-0721581 

12243116 

-1529808 

4 

5 

1-9781872 

1-9920766 

-2715159 

6 

6 

1-7503359 

-2128730 

-4745099 

6 

7 

1-4286762 

-4074458 

•8196545 

7 

8 

10336621 

•6772176 

1-3546592 

8 

9 

2-5778788 

10381930 

20763912 

9 

10 

2-0699421 

1-4745354 

2-9490710 

10 

11 

3-5161693 

1-9706139 

3-9412276 

11 

n 

Log.  [S„'{6)] 

Log.  [C,/(6)] 

Log.  [E„'(6)]> 

w  . 

0 

i  •9823482 

f-4462504 

-0000000 

0 

1 

10477638 

1-9912562 

1-9881101 

1 

2 

1-9694570 

1-3435416 

1-9625768 

2 

3 

1-8020960 

1-8159854 

1-9193334 

3 

4 

2-5177768 

1-9254370 

1-8515380 

4 

5 

i -5890982 

1-8133495 

i -7.589712 

5 

6 

1-5890982 

1-8133496 

1-7689712 

6 

7 

1-3974530 

•1298948 

-2744302 

7 

8 

10943146 

•5781411 

1-1667497 

8 

9 

2-7101914 

1-0653238 

2-1306561 

9 

10 

2-2613742 

1-5886518 

3-1773036 

10 

11 

3-7581532 

21508077 

n 

S„(7) 

0(7) 

LEn(7)]2 

1 
n 

0 

-6569866 

■7539023 

1-0000000 

0 

1 

- -6600470 

-7646869 

1-0204082 

1 

2 

--9398639 

- -4261793 

10649730 

2 

3 

-0112843 

-10691007 

1-1431036 

3 

4 

-9285796 

-•6429214 

1-2756080 

4 

5 

1-2051723 

•2424875 

15112406 

5 

61 

•9652627 

10239731 

1  •9802530 

6 

7 

-5874584 

1-6591769 

3  097975 

7 

8 

•2935767 

2-531406 

6-494203 

8 

9 

•1255135 

4-488523 

20-16258 

9 

10 

-0471029 

9-651729 

93-15808 

10 

11 

-0157952 

24-46666 

598-6178 

11 

12 

-0047955 

70-73873 

13 

-0013317 

2281717 

14 

-0003410 

809-3520 

15 

-0000811 

3124-858 

16 

-0000180 

13029-31 

17 

-0000037 

58299-01 

18 

-0000007 

278466-7 

.19 

1 

-0000001 

1413591- 

ON  THE   CALCULATION    OF  MATHEMATICAL   TABLES. 


95 


Bessel  Functions  of  Half-integral  Order — continued. 


n 

S„'(7) 

C„'(7) 

[E„'(7)]» 

■n 

0 

•7539023 

-•6569866 

10000000 

0 

1 

•7512790 

•f  •6446613 

•9800082 

1 

2 

-•3915145 

+  •8864524 

•9390815 

2 

3 

-•9350278 

+  0320067 

•8753014 

3 

4 

-•5419012 

-•7017170 

•7860638 

4 

5 

•0677422 

-•8161267 

•6706518 

5 

6 

•3778043 

-•6352038 

•5462200 

6 

7 

•3778043 

-•6352038 

•5462200 

7 

8 

•2519422 

-12338585 

1  •585882 

8 

9 

•1322021 

-3  239553 

1051218 

9 

10 

•0582237 

-9299661 

86^48708 

10 

U 

•0222819 

-28^79588 

8292033 

11 

12 

•0075743 

-96^79974 

13 

•0023224 

-3530087 

14 

•0006497 

-1390532 

15 

•0001673 

-5886-773 

16 

■0000400 

-2665641 

17 

•0000089 

-1285440 

18 

•0000019 

-6577558 

19 

•0000004 

-3558425^ 

n 
0 

Log.  [S„(7)J 

Log.  [C„(7)] 

Log  [E,,(7)]2 

n 

i  •8175564 

i  8773150 

•0000000 

0 

1 

18195749 

18834836 

•0087739 

1 

1      2 

19730650 

16295924 

•0273386 

2 

3 

20524737 

•0290186 

•0580857 

3 

4 

19678191 

18081579 

•1057172 

4 

5 

•0810491 

1-3846893 

•1793337 

6 

6 

19846455 

•0102885 

•2967208 

6 

7 

1  •7689771 

•2198927 

•4910780 

7 

8 

14677215 

•4033618 

•8125259 

8 

9 

10986904 

•6521034 

13045461 

9 

10 

26730476 

•9846051 

1-9692206 

10 

11 

21985243 

13885748 

27771497 

11 

12 

3-6808361 

18496573 

13 

31244043 

23582617 

96 


REPORTS   ON   THE    STATE    OF  SCIENCE. — 1914. 


Bessel  Functions  of  Half-integral  Order — continued. 


n 
0 

Log.  [S„'(7)] 

Log,  [C„'(7)] 

Log.  [E„'(7)P 

11 
0 

18773150 

1-8175564 

-0000000 

1 

1-8758012 

i-8093316 

1-9912297 

1 

2 

1-5927478 

1-9476554 

1-9727033 

2 

3 

i -9708245 

2-5052413 

1-9421576 

3 

4 

i -7339202 

1-8461593 

1-8954578 

4 

6 

2-8308592 

1-9117576 

i -8264970 

5 

6 

i-5772670 

1-8029131 

17373676 

6 

7 

1-5772670 

1-8029131 

1-7373676 

7 

8 

1-4013009 

-0912654 

•2002709 

8 

9 

1-1212385 

•5104850 

1-0216928 

9 

10 

2-7650977 

•9684671 

1-9369512 

10 

11 

2-3479526 

14593304 

2-9186610 

11 

12 

3  8793411 

1-9858742 

13 

3-3659326 

2-5477854 

71 

S„(8) 
•9893582 

C,.(8) 

[E,.(8)]2 

n 
0 

0 

-1455000 

10000000 

1 

•2691698 

■9711707 

10156250 

1 

2 

-■8884196 

-5096891 

10490725 

2 

3 

-•8244320 

- -6526151 

1-1055944 

3 

4 

•1670415 

-1-0807273 

11958744 

4 

5 

10123538 

- -5632031 

"  13420578 

5 

6 

1  2249449 

•3063230 

1-5943238 

6 

7 

•9781817 

10609780 

2082514 

7 

8 

•6091458 

1-6830107 

3  203583 

8 

9 

•3162531 

2-515420 

6427352 

9 

10 

•1419553 

4-291111 

1843378 

10 

11 

•0563796 

8^748747 

7654376 

11 

12 

-0201360 

2086164 

4352041 

12 

'    13 

-0065454 

5644356 

14 

-0019547 

1696355 

15 

■0005403 

"568  4850 

16 

-0001391 

1994494 

17 

-0000336 

7668802 

18 

-0000076 

3155652 

19 

-0000016 

1382801 

20 

■0000003 

642558  9 

ON   THE   CALCULATION  OP  MATHEMATICAL  TABLES. 


97 


Bessel  Functions  of  Half-integral  Order — continued. 


n 
0 

S„'(8) 

C,.'(8) 

[E«'(8)]-^ 

n 
0 

-    1455000 

-•9893582 

10000000 

1 

■9557120 

-  2668964 

•9846190 

1 

2 

•4912747 

•8437485 

•9532622 

2 

3 

-■5792576 

•7544197 

•9046883 

3 

4 

-•9079528 

-1122515 

-8369787 

4 

5 

-•4656796 

-  7287253 

■7478982 

5 

6 

■0936451 

-•7929453 

■6375318 

6 

7 

•3690359 

-  6220327 

•5231121 

7 

8 

•3690359 

-•6220327 

■5231121 

8 

9 

•2533611 

-11468365 

1-379426 

9 

10 

•1388090 

-2848469 

8-133044 

10 

11 

•0644334 

-7-738416 

59-88724 

11 

12 

•0261760 

-2254356 

508-2127 

12 

13 

•0094997 

-70-85924 

14 

■0031247 

-2404185 

15 

•0009416 

-877-5239 

16 

■0002621 

-3430503 

17 

•0000679 

-1430171 

18 

•0000165 

-63333-36 

19 

•0000038 

-296858^7 

20 

■0000008 

-1468117^ 

n 
0 

Log-  [S»(8)] 

Log.  [C,;(8)] 

Log.  [E„(8)] 

n 
0 

i -9953536 

1-1628630 

0-0000000 

1 

1-4300263 

1-9872956 

-0067334 

1 

2 

1-9486181 

1-7073053 

-0208055 

2 

3 

1-9161549 

1-8146570 

-0435958 

3 

4 

1-2228244 

-0337162 

-0776855 

4 

5 

•0053323 

1-7506650 

-1277712 

5 

6 

-0881165 

1-4861797 

-2025765 

6 

7 

1-9904195 

-0257063 

-3185878 

7 

8 

i -7847213 

-2260868 

•5056360 

8 

9 

1-5000347 

-4006105 

•8080321 

9 

10 

11521516 

-6325697 

12656145 

10 

11 

2-7511219 

-9419459 

18839098 

11 

12 

23039729 

1-3193463 

26386930 

12 

13 

3-8159352 

1-7516144 

14 

3-2910760 

2-2296167 

1914. 


98 


REPORTS   ON    THE    STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 


Bessel  Fmictions  of  Half-integral  Ort^cr-— continued. 


n 

Log.[S„'(8)] 

Log.  LC„'(9)] 
1-9953536 

Log.  [E„'(8)]2 

0 

0 

1 -1628630 

-0000000 

1 

1  •9803270 

1-4263426 

1-9932682 

1  ; 

2 

1-6913243 

i-9262130 

1-9792124 

2 

3 

1-7628717 

1-8776130 

1-9564990 

3 

4 

1-9580633 

1-0501919 

1-9227145 

4 

6 

i -6680872 

1-8625639 

1-8738424 

5 

6 

2-9714850 

1-8992433 

1-8045018 

6 

7 

i -5670687 

1-7938132 

1-7185948 

7 

8 

1-5670687 

1-7938132 

1-7185948 

8   1 

9 

1-4037399 

■0595015 

0-1396984 

9 

10 

1-1424175 

-4546115 

■9102531 

10  1 

11 

2-8091109 

■8886521 

1-7773344 

11 

12 

2-4178966 

1-3530225 

2-7060455 

12   1 

13 

3-9777117 

1-8503964 

14 

3-4948071 

2-3809678 

n                   i 

!u(9) 

C„(9) 

[E«(9)P 

n 
0 

0 

4121185 

-•9111303 

1-0000000 

1 

9569212 

•3108818 

1-0123457 

1 

2       - 

0931448 

1-0147575 

1-0384086 

2 

3      -1 

0086683 

•2528724 

1-0813561 

3 

4 

6913750 

-•8180790 

1-1472525 

4 

5 

3172933 

-10709514 

1-2476118 

5 

6       1 

0791779 

-•4908616 

1-4055701 

6 

7       1 

2415193 

•3619291 

1-6723628 

7 

8 

9900209 

r0940767 

2-177146 

8 

9 

6285202 

17046603 

3-300904 

9 

10 

3368550 

2-604651 

6-386745 

10 

11 

1574749 

4139524 

17-16046 

11 

12 

0655808 

8074134 

65-19594 

12 

13 

0246941 

18^28863 

3344745 

13 

14 

0085014 

4679174 

21894-67 

14 

15 

0026992 

132-4848 

16 

0007959 

409-5447 

17 

0002192 

1369179 

18 

0000567 

4915041 

19 

0000138 

18837^10 

20 

0000032 

76712^39 

21 

0000007 

3306304 

22 

1 

0000001 

1502966^ 

ON  THE   CALCULATION   OP  MATHEMATICAL   TABLES. 


99 


Begael  Functions  of  Half-integral  Order — continued. 


71 

S,/(9) 
-•9111303 

C  '(9) 

[En'(9)]' 

n 

0 

-•4121185 

l^OOOOOOO 

0 

1 

•3057939 

-  0456727 

•9878066 

1 

2 

•9776200 

•0853801 

•9630307 

2 

3 

■2430780 

•9304667 

•9248551 

3 

4 

-•7013905 

•6164631 

•8719753 

4 

5 

—8676491 

-•2231060 

•8025912 

5 

6 

-•4021587 

-•7437103 

•7148366 

6 

7 

•1135518 

-•7723620 

•6094370 

7 

8 

•3616007 

-•6105836 

•5034950 

8 

9 

•3615007 

-•6105836 

•5034950 

9 

10 

•2542368 

-r0782848 

1227334 

10 

11 

•1443857 

— 2^554768 

fr547686 

11 

12 

•0700338 

-6^625988 

43^90862 

12 

13 

•0299116 

-18-34277 

336-4581 

13 

14 

•0114697 

-54-49853 

2970090 

14 

15 

•0040027 

-174^0162 

16 

•0012842 

-5955946 

17 

•0003818 

-2176-682 

18 

•0001059 

-8460-902 

19 

•0000275 

-34852-17 

20 

•0000068 

-151634-87 

21 

•0000016 

-694758-6 

22 

•0000003 

-3343287- 

n 
0 

Log.  [S„(9)] 

Log.  [C„(9)] 

Log.  [E„(9)]2 

n 
0 

f-6150221 

f-9595804 

0-0000000 

1 

f-9808761 

1-4925953 

-0053288 

1 

2 

2^9691584 

-0063623 

-0163683 

2 

3 

-0037484 

1-4029014 

•0339688 

3 

4 

1-8397137 

1-9127952 

•0596590 

4 

5 

1-5014608 

-0297698 

•0960795 

5 

6 

•0330930 

1-6909590 

•1478524 

6 

7 

•0939534 

1-5586235 

•2233305 

7 

8 

1-9956444 

-0390477 

•3378876 

8 

9 

1-7983192 

•2316378 

•5186329 

9 

10 

1-5274431 

•3987471 

■8052796 

10 

11 

1-1972113 

•6169504 

1-2345289 

11 

12 

2-8167769 

•9070959 

1-8142206 

12 

13 

2-3925925 

12621811 

2-5243630 

13 

14 

3-9294886 

r6701692 

3-3403384 

14 

15 

3"-4312382 

2^  1221659 

16 

4-9008836 

2-6123012 

H 


100 


REPORTS    ON   THE    STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 


Bessel  Functions  of  Half-integral  Order — continued. 


n 

S  (10) 

C„(10) 

[E,.  (10)]' 

71 

0 

-•5440211 

-•8390715 

1^0000000 

0 

1 

■7846694 

-•6279283 

1  0100000 

1 

2 

•7794219 

•6506930 

P0309000 

2 

3 

-•3949584 

•9532748 

V0647250 

3 

4 

-1-0558929 

•0165993 

M151852 

4 

5 

-•5553451 

-•9383354 

1-1888816 

5 

«} 

•4450132 

-r0487683 

1-2979516 

6 

7 

11 338623 

-•4250633 

1-4663225 

7 

8 

1-2557802 

•4111733 

1-7460475 

8 

9 

10009641 

1-1240579 

2-265235 

9 

10 

•6460515 

1-7245367 

3-391409 

10 

11 

-3557441 

2-497469 

6-363907 

11 

12 

-1721600 

4019643 

16-18716 

12 

13 

-0746558 

7551637 

57-03279 

13 

14 

-0294108 

16^36978 

267-9704 

14 

15 

•0106354 

39-92072 

1593-663 

15 

IG 

•0035590 

107-3844 

17 

•0011094 

314-4480 

18 

•0003239 

993^1834 

19 

•0000890 

3360^331 

20 

•0000231 

1211211 

21 

•0000057 

46299-30 

22 

•0000013 

186974-9 

23 

•0000003 

795087^8 

ON  The  calculation  of  mathematical  tables. 


101 


Bessel  Functions  of  Half-integral  Order— continued. 


n         S 

„'(10) 

C  '(10) 

[E»'(10)]' 

n 

0       - 

8390715 

•5440211 

1-0000000 

0 

1       - 

6224881 

-•7762787 

-9901000 

1 

2 

6287850 

-•7580669 

•9700360 

2 

3 

8979095 

•3647106 

•9392552 

3 

4 

0273987 

•9466351 

•8968684 

4 

5       - 

7782203 

•4857670 

•8415964 

5 

6       - 

8223531 

-•3090745 

•7717916 

0 

7 

3486904 

-•7512239 

•6859223 

7 

8 

1292381 

-•7540019 

•6852213 

8 

9 

3549126 

-•6004788 

•4865378 

9 

10 

3549126 

-•6004788 

•4865378 

10 

11 

2547330 

-r0226794 

M10762 

11 

12 

1491522 

-2326102 

5-432996 

12 

13 

0751074 

-5797486 

3361647 

13 

14 

0334807 

-1536605 

236-1167 

14 

15 

0134576 

-43-51130 

1893-233 

15 

16 

0049410 

-131-8944 

17 

0016730 

-427^1771 

18 

0005264 

- 1473-282 

19 

0001549 

-5391-445 

20 

0000428 

-20863-88 

21 

0000112 

-85116-43 

22 

0000028 

-365045-5 

23 

0000007 

-1641727- 

n 

Log.  [S„(10)] 

Log.  [C„(10)] 

Log.  [E„(10)]» 

n 

0 

i-7356158 

f-9237990 

•0000000 

0 

1 

1-8946867 

1-7979100 

•0043214 

1 

2 

1-8917726 

1-8133761 

-0132165 

2 

3 

1-5965514 

1-9792181 

-0272375 

3 

4 

00236199 

2-2200898 

•0473370 

4 

5 

1-7445630 

1-9723581 

•0751386 

5 

6 

1-6483729 

0-0206795 

•1132584 

6 

7 

-0545604 

1-6284536 

•1662294 

7 

8 

-0989136 

1-6140292 

•2420560 

8 

9 

-0004185 

00507886 

-3551134 

9 

10 

1-8102671 

0-2366724 

•5303798 

10 

11 

1-5511378 

0-3975001 

-8037238 

11 

12 

1-2359323 

0-6041873 

1-2091707 

12 

13 

2-8730639 

0-8780411 

1-7561246 

13 

14 

2-4685065 

1-2140428 

2-4280865 

14 

15 

2-0267549 

1-6011983 

3-2023961 

16 

16 

3-5513330 

2-0309414 

17 

3-0450910 

2-4975488 

102 


REPORTS    ON   THE   STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914.' 
Bessel  Functimis  of  Half-integral  Order — continued. 


n 

Log.  [S„'(10)] 

Log.  [C„'{10)] 
1-7356158 

Log.  [E„'(10)J--' 
•0000000 

n 

0 

1-9237990 

0 

1 

f-7941311 

f-8900177 

1-9956791 

1 

2 

r-7985024 

f-8797075 

1-9867879 

2 

3 

1-9532326 

f-5619484 

1-9727835 

3 

4 

2-4377299 

1-9761826 

1-9527289 

4 

5 

r8911026 

r6864279 

i-9251039 

5 

6 

1-9150583 

1-4900631 

r-8875001 

6 

7 

r-5424400 

1-8757693 

f8362748 

7 

8 

1-1113905 

1-8773724 

1-7673201 

8 

9 

1-5501214 

1-7784977 

r6871163 

9 

10 

1-5501214 

1-7784977 

1-6871163 

10 

11 

i -4060852 

0-0097390 

-0456210 

11 

12 

1-1736296 

-3666287 

-7350394 

12 

13 

2"-8756827 

-7632397 

1-5265521 

13     1 

14 

2"-5247951 

1-1865623 

2-3731267 

14 

15 

2'- 1289691 

1-6386021 

3-2772041 

15 

16 

3'-6938116 

21202264 

17 

3"-2235085 

2-6306079 

1 

Binary  Canon. — Report  of  the  Committee,  consisting  of  Lt.-Col. 
Allan  Cunningham,  K.E.  {Chairman),  Prof.  A.  E.  H.  Love 
(Secretary),  and  Major  P.  A.  MacMahon,  appointed  for 
Disposing  of  Copies  of  tlie  Binary  Canon  by  presentation  to 
Mathematical  Societies. 

The  Committee  have  sent  out  fifty-eight  copies  of  the  above  w^ork 
to  representative  Mathematical  Societies  at  home  and  abroad  (thirteen 
and  forty-five  respectively)  at  a  cost  of  il.  9s.,  as  per  enclosed  account, 
and  return  now  the  unexpended  balance  of  eleven  shillings. 


Dynamic  Isomerism. — Report  of  the  Committee,  consisting  of 
Professor  H.  E.  Armstrong  (Chairman),  Dr.  T.  M.  Lowry 
(Secretanj),  Professor  Sydney  Young,  Dr.  C.  H.  Desch, 
Dr.  J.  J.  DoBBiE,  and  Dr.  M.  O.  Forster.  (Drawn  up  by 
the  Secretary^) 

Anomalous  Rotatory  Dispersion. 

During  the  year  much  justification  has  been  found  for  the  view 
expressed  in  the  Eeport  presented  at  Birmingham  '  that  a  knowledge 
of  the  phenomena  of  dynamic  isomerism  is  essential  for  the  interpreta- 
tion of  optical  rotation,  especially  in  the  case  of  liquids  which  show 
anomalous    rotatory     dispersion,'    and    that    '  the    study    of  rotatory 


ON    DYNAMIC    ISOMERISM.  103 

dispersion  will  open  up  a  new  and  fruitful  field  for  the  investigation  of 
dynamic  isomerism.'  The  importance  of  this  aspect  of  the  subject  is 
«hown  by  the  conspicuous  part  which  it  played  in  a  general  discussion 
on  '  Optical  Eotatory  Power, '  held  before  the  Faraday  Society  on 
March  27,  1914,  to  which  the  Chairman  and  Secretary  of  this  Com- 
mittee contributed  papers.  Preliminary  experiments,  which  will  be 
described  in  a  subsequent  Eeport,  have  shown  (1)  that  ethyl  tartrate, 
the  typical  example  of  anomalous  rotatory  dispersion,  is  probably  a 
mixture,  and  (2)  that  nitrocamphor,  the  typical  example  of  dynamic 
isomerism,  gives  rise  to  anomalous  rotatoiy  dispersion  in  certain 
solvents. 

Dynamic  Isomerism,  Metavierism,   Tautomerism,   avd,  Desmotropy. 

Attention  has  recently  been  directed  {Proc.  Chem.  Soc,  April  4, 
1914)  to  the  importance  of  maintaining  strict  accuracy  in  the  use  of 
terms  to  describe  the  phenomena  of  reversible  isomeric  change. 

Briefly,  it  may  be  said  that  all  the  essential  facts  in  reference  to 
the  conception  of  equilibrium  between  isomerides  are  set  out  in 
Butlerow's  classical,  but  almost  forgotten,  paper,  '  Ueber  Isodibutylen  ' 
(Annalen,  1877,  189,  44).  The  name  dynamic  isomerism  was  intro- 
duced in  1899  (Trans.  Chem..  Soc,  75,  235)  as  a  paraphrase  of  Butle- 
row's description  of  '  a  condition  of  equilibrium  depending  on  incessant 
isomeric  change  ';  but  the  adjective  isodynamic  had  already  been  sug- 
gested by  Armstrong  in  1889  {Watts'  Dictionary,  'Isomerism')  to 
describe  those  isomerides  '  which  change  their  type  with  exceptional 
facility  in  the  course  of  chemical  interchanges.'  The  word  metameric 
had  been  used  in  this  sense  in  1833  by  Berzelius  to  describe  isomerides 
which  were  readily  converted  into  one  another,  but  the  usefulness  of 
the  word  was  destroyed  by  a  misguided  attempt  to  transfer  it  to  another 
usage. 

The  hypothesis  of  tautomerism  was  introduced  by  Laar  in  1885 
(Ber.  18,  648 ;  19,  730)  to  account  for  the  facts  which  had  already  (a? 
time  has  shown)  been  explained  adequately  by  Butlerow.  Laar  asserts 
that,  in  every  case  of  tautomerism,  the  different  formulae  suggested 
by  the  reactions  of  the  substance  represent,  '  not  isomeric,  but  identical 
bodies  ';  the  term  cannot,  therefore,  be  applied  to  any  case  of  isomer- 
ism, however  readily  the  isomerides  may  be  converted  into  one  another. 

It  is  impossible  to  say  whether  tautomerism  exists ;  but  it  has  at 
least  been  proved  by  the  work  of  Knorr  that  the  two  substances  repre- 
sented by  the  formulae 

CH3-C0-CH,-C0,Et  and  CH3-C(0H)  :CH-CO.Et 

are  not  tautomeric,  but  have  a  real  existence  as  well-defined  isomeric 
compounds,  which  only  change  into  one  another  under  definite  physical 
and  chemical  conditions. 

The  word  desmotropy  was  introduced  by  Jacobson  (Ber.  1887,  20, 
17.3^,  footnote;  1888,  21,  2628,  footnote)  in  1887,  when  it  had  become 
evident  that  Laar's  theory  of  tautomerism  had  brolien  down  in  the 
very  case  to  which  it  had  been  most  frequently  applied,  namely,  the 
labile  isomerism  which  results  from  the  contiguity  of  a  double  bond 
and  an  acidic  hydrogen  atom.     Jacobson  considered  'that  the  known 


104  REPORTS    ON   THE   STATE    OP   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

forms  of  such  compounds  are  to  be  represented  by  a  definite  grouping 
of  atoms,  which  in  certain  reactions  passes  over  into  an  isomeric  group- 
ing by  a  rearrangement  of  bonds  consequent  upon  the  displacement 
of  a  hydrogen  atom  ' ;  it  was  to  express  this  view  that  the  word  '  desmo- 
tropy  '  was  introduced.  If  used  in  this  sense,  to  describe  the  labile 
isomerism  produced  by  the  mobility  of  a  hydrogen  atom,  it  might  be 
of  real  value;  unfortunately  the  meaning  of  the  word  was  tampered 
with  by  Hantzsch  and  Hermann  (Ber.  1887,  20,  2802),  and,  as  an 
inevitable  consequence,  it  has  become  ambiguous,  and  has  ceased  to 
be  clearly  significant. 

Nearly  all  the  cases  to  which  the  word  '  tautomerism  '  has  been 
misapplied  in  recent  years  are  examples  of  isomerism  pure  and  simple, 
the  only  special  feature  being  the  fact  that  the  isomerides  can  be 
converted  into  one  another  with  greater  or  less  ease.  It  is  therefore 
very  rarely  necessaiy  to  use  any  other  words  than  '  isomerism  '  and 
'  isomeric  change  '  to  describe  the  phenomena.  Isomeric  compounds 
which  owe  their  lability  to  a  mobile  hydrogen  atom  might  well  be 
distinguished  as  '  desmotropic  '  but  for  the  ambiguity  arising  from  the 
ill-advised  action  of  Hantzsch  in  attempting  to  extend  the  meaning  of 
this  term.  At  the  present  time  the  least  ambiguous  phrase  that  can 
be  used  to  distinguish  ethyl  acetoacetate  and  its  allies  from  the  very 
much  larger  group  of  substances  which  exhibit  '  dynamic  isomerism  ' 
or  reversible  isomeric  change  is  to  refer  to  them  as  examples  of  '  keto- 
enol  '  isomerism,  and  in  other  cases  to  use  some  similar  specific  name, 
describing  the  nature  of  the  two  compounds  between  which  a  condition 
of  equilibrium   may  exist. 

Isomeric   Halogen-derivafives    of   Camphor. 

Another  fruitful,  though  expensive,  line  of  research  has  been  opened 
out  during  the  year  by  applying  the  process  of  dynamic  isomerism  to 
the  preparation  of  new  halogen-derivatives  of  camphor.  A  new 
isomeride  has  been  prepared  from  a-chlorocamphor  by  acting  on  it 
with  alkali.  In  order  to  produce  a  condition  of  dynam.ic  isomerism  in 
the  liquid,  and  then  arresting  the  isomeric  change  by  the  addition  of 
acid.  On  freezing  the  alcoholic  solution,  most  of  the  original  substance 
crystallises  out,  and  the  mother-liquor  contains  the  isomeric  a-chloro- 
camphor. This  melts  at  117°  (instead  of  94°)  and  has  ra]i,+41o 
(instead  of  +97°).  As  the  new  compound  can  be  prepared  readily 
on  a  large  scale,  it  promises  to  be  of  great  value  in  studying  the  type 
of  dynamic  isomerism  in  which  a  catalvtic  r.gent  must  be  added 
deliherately  in  order  to  bring  about  a  condition  of  equilibrium  between 
Isomers.  The  whole  series  of  compounds  which  is  now  under  investi- 
gation will  provide  valuable  data  for  the  study  of  dynamic  isomerism 
and  rotatory  dispersion,  and  for  the  elucidation  of  the  crystallographic 
structure  of  the  camphor  molecule. 

The  Committee  asks  for  reappointment  with  a  grant  of  £40.  An 
Increased  grant  is  asked  for  to  cover  the  heavy  cost  of  the  organic 
preparations  referred  to  in  the  last  section  of  the  Report. 


ON   THE   TRANSFORMATION    OF    AROMATIC    NITROAMINES.         105 

The  Transformation  of  Aromatic  Nitroamines  and  Allied 
Substances ,  and  its  Relation  to  Substitution  in  Benzene 
Derivatives. — Report  of  the  Committee,  consisting  of 
Professor  F.  S.  Kipping  (Chairman),  Professor  K.  J.  P. 
Orton  (Secretary),  Dr.  S.  Ruhemann,  and  Dr.  J.  T. 
Hewitt. 

The  Acetylation  of  Anili)ies   by  Acetic  A^ihydride  in  the  presence  of 

Catalysts. 

(With  W.  H.  Gray,  M.Sc.) 

The  accelerating  action  of  catalysts  on  the  interaction  of  acetic  anhy- 
dride and  hydroxy-  groups  has  long  been  known:  it  was  first  observed 
by  Pranchimont^  in  the  acetylation  of  cellulose,  and  was  later  noted 
by  numerous  observers.*  That  catalysts  had  a  similar  effect  in  the 
action  of  acetic  anhydride  on  the  amino- gi'oup  seems,  however,  to 
have  been  overlooked  until  Smith  and  Orton  ^  made  the  discovery  that 
negatively  di-ortho- substituted  anilines,  such  as  s-tribromoaniline,  can 
be  acetylated  at  great  speed  at  the  ordinary  temperature  in  the  presence 
of  sulphuric  and  other  acids. 

Such  anilines  are  particularly  suitable  for  such  an  investigation  as 
they  react  very  slowly  indeed  with  acetic  anhydride  at  the  ordinary 
temperature,  and  at  higher  temperature  mainly  yieFd  diacetyl  deriva- 
tives, Ar-NAcj;  in  the  presence  of  a  catalyst  at  low  temperatures  they 
yield,  on  the  other  hand,  the  monoacetyl  derivative.  Anilines  with 
one  ortho-  position  unoccupied  form  monoacetyl  derivatives  with  such 
extreme  ease  that  the  presence  of  an  acid  is  of  no  advantage,  but,  on  the 
contrary,  inhibits  the  reaction,  most  probably  by  forming  stable  saTts 
which  do  not  react  with  acetic  anhydride. 

Such  salts  as  sodium  acetate  have  long  been  known  as  catalysts  of 
the  acetylation  of  phenols.  We  have  found  that  vai'ious  salts  have 
a  similar  effect  in  the  case  of  amines.  Ferric  salts  are  as  pre-eminent 
in  this  capacity  as  in  the  bromination  of  acetic  anhydride  and  other 
compounds,  which  we  are  investigating. 

An  early  attempt  (Smith  and  Orton,  Joe.  cit.)  to  throw  light  on  the 
mechanism  of  such  catalyses,  using  s-tribromophenol,  demonstrated 
that  acids  varied  greatly  in  catalytic  effect;  that  the  change  was  a  re- 
action of  the  second  order;  that  the  speed  was  proportional  to  the 
concentration  of  the  catalyst. 

To  follow  quantitatively  the  interaction  of  acetic  anhydride  and  a 
di-ortho  negatively  substituted  aniline  has  proved  a  very  difficult 
matter.  The  small  capacity  for  forming  salts,  which  is  an  advantage 
in  following  the  effect  of  acid  catalysis  on  acetylation,  is  a  barrier  to 
the  estimation  of  unchanged  aniline  by  the  diazo-  method.  Moreover, 
the  slowness  with  which  the  anilide  is  hydrolysed  equally  prevents 
estimation  of  the  extent  of  acetylation. 

'  Cnmpt.  rend.,  ISlf),  99.1]}. 

2  Skraup,  Monntsh.  1898,  19,  4o8  :  Freyss.  Bull.  Soc.  hid.  Mulhousc.  1809,  44: 
J.  Thiele,  Ber.  1898,  31,  1249;  O.  Stillich,  Ber.  1903,  36,  3115;  190.5,38,124; 
J.  Boeseken,  Recueil  dci  Trav.  CMm..  1911,  31,  3i")0. 

•'  Trans.  Chem.  Sor..  1008.  93, 1243  :  1909.  95.  lOfiO. 


lOG  REPORTS    ON   THE    STATE    OP   SCIENCE, 

A  most  excellent  method  has  now  been  devised  for  determining  the 
amount  of  unchanged  aniline.  This  consists  in  stopping  the  reaction 
by  adding  anhydrous  sodium  acetate,  equivalent  to  the  acid  catalyst, 
followed  by  some  excess  of  an  acetic  acid  solution  of  nitric  acid.  The 
aniline  is  rapidly  and  quantitatively  converted  into  a  nitroamine 
(Orton'^;  W.  H.  Gray  ^).  The  nitroamine  is  completely  extracted 
from  the  diluted  solution  by  shaking  three  times  with  chloroform,  and 
its  quantity  measured  by  titration  of  its  alcoholic  solution  with  baryta. 
The  composition  of  the  system  could  also  be  checked  by  direct  estima- 
tion of  the  remaining  acetic  anhydride  by  the  method  devised  by  Orton 
and  M.  G.  Edwards,"  and  amplified  by  Orton  and  Marian  Jones.' 
The  amount  of  anhydride  found  at  a  given  period  of  the  reaction  corre- 
sponded well  with  that  calculated  from  the  initial  concentration  on 
the  assumption  that  the  loss  of  anhydride  was  solely  due  to  acetylation. 
The  accuracy  and  the  refinements  of  this  method  of  analysing  the 
system  are  mainly  due  to  the  exhaustive  experiments  of  Mr.  "W.  H. 
Gray  *  on  the  stability  of  nitric  acid  in  acetic  acid  solution  and  allied 
problems.  The  error  in  the  estimation  of  the  nitroamine  in  an  acetic 
acid  solution  is  not  above  J  per  cent. ,  whilst  the  error  in  the  determina- 
tion of  the  aniline  by  conversion  into  nitroamine  falls  below  1  per  cent. 

The  velocity  coefficients  for  a  reaction  of  the  second  order  are  re- 
markably constant,  in  spite  of  the  complicated  and  intricate  analyses 
by  which  they  are  obtained. 

Illustrations  of  the  results  are  given  in  the  following  table:  — 
Exp.  A.  Initial  concentrations: — s-tribromoaniline,  0"04;  acetic  anhy- 
dride 0-04  x  3-83;  H^SO.-M/SGS-S. 

Percentage  aniline 

Time  from  mixing.  acetylated.  Kn- 
Min. 

41  17-52  0031 

86  31-5  0030 
146  4814  0031 
240                                   69-92  0-037 

Exp.  B.  s-tribromoaniline,  0'02;  acetic  anhydride,  0'02x7'D8; 
H,SO,  =  M/363-8. 

Min. 

66  38-19  0053 

157  69-65  0069 

283  90-05  0  064 

Exp.  C.  s-tribromoaniline,  0'02;  acetic  anhydride,  0"02x7"08; 
H,SO^=M/727-6. 

Min. 

40  17-25  0  032 

87  28-55  0-026 
142  40-3  0-025 
240  61-3  0  028 

Since  in  the  presence  of  sulphuric  acid  the  anhydride  is  immediately 

*  Trans.  Chem.  Soc.  1902.  81,  490. 

'  Thesis  submitted  to  the  University  of  Wales,  1914. 

e  Trans.  Chem.  Soc.  1911,  99,  1181. 

'  Trans.  Chem..  Soc.  1912,  101,  1716. 

"  Loc.  cit..  and  Analyst,  1912,  37,  303, 


1 


ON   THE    TRANSFORMATION    OF    AROMATIC    NITROAMINES.         107 

liydrolysed  by  water  in  the  acetic  acid  medium,  the  initial  coucentration 
was  arrived  at  by  deducting  an  amount  equivalent  to  the  water  from 
the  anhydride  used. 

The  experiments  have  led  to  some  very  interesting  results:  — 
.  The  reaction  is  of  the  second  order;  the  value  of  the  expression, 

-     ~ — ,  is  approximately  halved  by  doubling  the  dilution. 

t         \Qi  —  3J) 

2.  The  speed  is  approximately  proportional  to  the  concentration  of 
the  catalyst  when  the  concentrations  of  the  aniline  and  anhydride  are 
kept  constant. 

3.  A  very  remarkable  effect  was  produced  by  variation  of  the 
concentration  of  the  aniline,  when  anhydride  and  catalyst  are  kept 
constant.  It  would  be  expected  that  the  speed  of  acetylation  would  fall 
on  decreasing  the  concentration  of  the  aniline;  on  the  contrary,  how- 
ever, the  speed  increases.  A  comparison  of  experiments  A  and  B 
shows  that  on  halving  the  concentration  of  the  aniline  the  speed  is 
roughly  doubled.  The  most  obvious  explanation  of  the  observation 
is  that  the  acid  catalyst  is  partly  combined  with  the  aniline.  Such  a 
balanced  action  would  follow  the  equation  of  equilibrium:  — 

[Aniline]  [H2SO4]  =  K  [anilinium  salt]. 
rrr  ci^  t      t-  [anilinium  salt] 

[112804]=   K^ -; — - — \ 

'-    ^      *■■  [aniline] 

Since  the  proportion  of  the  acid,  and  therefore  of  the  salt,  is  very 
small  in  comparison  with  that  of  the  aniline  in  these  systems,  the 
concentration  of  the  acid  is  roughly  inversely  proportional  to  that  of 
the  aniline.  The  concentration  of  the  free  acid  (or  perhaps  acid  salt) 
is  the  dominant  factor  in  the  reaction,  and  hence  the  effect  (if  there 
be  one)  of  the  decrease  of  the  aniline  is  completely  concealed.  This 
suggestion  is  made  more  probable  by  the  effect  of  simultaneous  reduc- 
tion of  the  concentration  of  both  acid  and  aniline ;  the  velocity  of  acety- 
lation is  scarcely  changed  (Exp.  C).  It  appears,  then,  that  the  speed 
of  acetylation  is  independent  (within  certain  limits)  of  the  concentra- 
tions of  the  acid  and  aniline,  provided  that  these  quantities  remain  in 
the  same  ratio. 

The  action  of  the  catalyst  probably  lies,  as  has  been  frequently 
suggested,  in  producing  an  '  active  modification  '  of  the  acetic  anhy- 
dride, which  alone  reacts  with  the  aniline.  The  evidence,  so  far  as  it 
goes,  points  to  the  reaction  of  the  anhydride  and  catalyst  being  momen- 
tary, whilst  that  of  the  '  active  '  form  and  the  aniline  is  a  time  reaction. 
Too  much  stress  cannot  be  put  upon  the  fact  that  the  reaction  was  of 
the  second  order,  for  the  excess  of  anhydride  was  considerable.  The 
combination  of  the  acid  with  the  aniline,  moreover,  obscures  the  issue, 
and  renders  a  decision  difficult  with  an  acid  catalyst. 

A  complete  account  of  this  research  will  be  published  in  one  of 
the  usual  chemical  journals. 


108  REPORTS   ON  THE   STATE   OF   SCIENCE — 1914. 

The  Study  of  Plant  Enzymes,  particularly  with  relation  to 
Oxidation. — Third  Report  of  the  Committee,  consisting  of 
Mr.  A.  D.  Hall  (Chairman),  Dr.  E.  F.  Armstrong 
(Secretary),  Professor  H.  E.  Armstrong,  Professor  F. 
Keeble,  and  .Dr.  E.  J.  Eussell. 

WoBK  is  being  continued  along  the  lines  indicated  in  former  reports. 

The  further  investigation  of  the  distribution  of  oxydases  (per- 
oxydase)  in  the  flowers  of  Primula  sinensis  has  led  to  the  discovery 
that  in  certain  white-flowered  races  which  breed  true  to  whiteness 
the  peroxydase  has  a  definite  zonal  distribution.  Such  white-flowered 
races,  when  crossed  with  coloured  forms,  yield  in  the  Fj  generation 
a  certain  number  of  plants  having  flowers  which  exhibit  a  colour  pattern 
of  a  similar  zonal  character.  Hence  this  pattern  may  be  referred  to 
a  lack  of  uniformity  in  distribution  of  the  peroxydase  constituent  of 
the  colom'-forming  mechanism,  not  of  the  chromogen.  This  investiga- 
tion has  involved  the  study  of  a  large  number  of  plants  of  known 
genetic  constitution  and  of  their  progeny ;  it  may  be  expected  that 
eventually  it  will  throw  light  on  the  phenomena  of  flaking  and  colour 
pattern  in  flowers. 

Concurrently  with  the  study  of  the  distribution  of  oxydases  in 
plants,  the  occurrence  of  reductases  has  also  been  investigated,  using 
this  term  as  a  general  expression  for  substances  which  exert  a  re- 
ducing action.  After  many  trials,  partial  success  has  been  achieved 
by  the  discovery  of  agents  indicative  of  such  compounds,  and  evidence 
of  the  zonal  distribution  of  reductases  has  been  obtained. 

A  general  summary  of  the  bearing  of  chemical  observations  on 
genetic  constitution  and  the  relation  of  enzymes  to  colour  inheritance 
in  plants  was  given  before  the  Linnean  Society  in  March,  when  it 
was  particularly  pointed  out  that,  in  life,  interaction  takes  place 
between  substances  in  pairs,  the  one  being  oxidised  and  the  other 
reduced.  Consequently  the  same  interaction  is  often  recorded  whether 
oxydase  or  reductase  be  indicated  by  the  agent  used.  This  conception 
materially  simplifies  the  study  of  the  oxidative  changes  in  plants. 

The  formation  of  red  pigments  from  yellow  flowers  by  reduction 
and  subsequent  oxidation  described  in  the  last  report  has  been  further 
studied  during  the  year.  To  elucidate  the  precise  nature  of  the  change 
by  working  with  material  of  known  structure,  the  experiments  were 
extended  to  quercetin,  \\hich  has  been  reduced  under  a  variety  of 
conditions.  As  a  rule,  colourless  compounds  are  formed  which  become 
red  on  exposure  to  the  air  or  on  the  addition  of  hydrogen  peroxide. 
The  problem  has  been  investigated  independently  at  Beading  by 
A.  E.  Everest  ('  The  Production  of  Anthocyanins  and  Anthocyanidins, ' 
Proc.  Roy.  Society,  1914,  87  B.  144),  who  finds  that  the  change  from 
yellow  to  red  may  be  effected  by  i-eduction  alone,  and  that  reduction 
takes  place  quite  readily  without  the  occurrence  of  hydrolysis.  As 
Willstatter  has  now  directed  his  attention  to  the  chemical  structure 
of  the  anthocyanic  class  of  pigments,  it  is  not  proposed  to  continue 
the  research  in  this  direction. 

A  study  has  been  made  of  the  rate  at  which  various  carbohydrate 
solutions  are  able  to  decolourise  methylene  blue  in  alkaline  solution. 


ON   THE    STUDY    OF    PLANT   ENZYMES.  109 

as  this  iiifcthod  is  of  value  in  discriminating  between  glucose  and 
fructose  (compare  Muster  and  Woker,  Pfliigers  Archiv,  1913,  155,  92). 
On  adding  a  f6w  drops  of  methylene  blue  to  a  freshly  prepared  solution 
containing  one  per  cent,  of  the  carbohydrate,  together  with  half  of  one 
per  cent,  of  solution  of  sodium  hydroxide,  the  blue  color  is  almost 
immediately  discharged  in  presence  of  fructose,  but  only  after  a  certain 
interval — 15  minutes — by  glucose.  After  standing,  the  glucose  solu- 
tion acts  much  more  rapidly,  whereas  the  fructose  is  less  active  than 
at  first.  Most  probably  the  active  agent  is  the  enolic  form  common 
to  Both  sugars;  as  Lobry  de  Bruyn  was  the  first  to  show,  this  is 
formed  from  both  by  the  action  of  alkali.  The  possibility  of  the 
formation  of  fructose  from  glucose  and  vice  versa  in  this  manner  in 
the  plant  must  not  be  overlooked.  The  methylene  blue  test  has  been 
applied  to  a  number  of  carbohydrates,  so  as  to  compare  their  rela- 
tive rates  of  enolisation.  Indigo-blue  solution,  which  changes  from 
green  to  red,  and  finally  to  yellow,  as  it  is  reduced,  is  an  equally 
sensitive  agent.  In  all  cases,  agitation  with  air  restores  the  colour; 
the  colour  is  not  destroyed  in   faintly  acid  solution. 

The  behaviour  of  lipase  has  been  further  studied  during  the  year. 
It  has  been  shown  tEat  synthesis  takes  place  under  the  influence  of 
the  enzyme  to  the  greatest  extent  in  the  absence  of  all  but  traces 
of  water,  and  that  the  presence  of  even  a  small  proportion  of  water 
greatly  favours  action  in  the  reverse  direction.^ 

In  view  of  the  presence  of  ammonia  in  the  nodular  growths  appear- 
ing on  the  roots  of  Leguminosae,  it  appeared  probable  that 
the  enzyme  urease  would  be  found  in  these.  It  has  been  detected 
in  the  nodules  from  Lupins  and  a  number  of  other  Leguminosae. 
Attempts  to  detect  the  enzyme  in  organisms  cultivated  from  the 
nodules  have  thus  far  been  attended  with  negative  results. 

Mr.  Benjamin,  working  at  the  Hawkesbury  Agricultural  College, 
near  Sydney,  Australia,  has  detected  urease  in  nodules  from  several 
Australian  plants,  including  wattles ;  also  on  tubercles  derived  from 
the  Cycad  Macrozamia  spiralh.  He  has  found  urease  also  in  the  seeds 
of  Abrus  precatorius. 


Correlation  of  CnjstaUine  Form,  with  Molecular  Structure. — 
Report  of  the  Gornmittec,  consisting  0/ Professor  W.  J.  Pope 
(Chairman),  Professor  H.  E.  Armstrong  (Secretary),  Mr. 
W.  Barlow  and  Professor  W.  P.  Wynne. 

The  following  communications  have  been  made  to  the  Eoyal  Society 
during  the  year:  — 

Morphological  Studies  of  Benzene  Derivatives.  V.  The  Correlation 
of  Crystalline  Form  with  Molecular  Structure :  A  Verification  of 
the    Barlow-Pope    Conception   of    Valency-Volume.       By    Henry    E. 

'  Proc.  Boy.  .S'oc.  1914,  Series  B,  'Studies  on  Enzyme  Action,'  xxii..  Lipas?  (iv.) 
'  The  Correlation  of  Hydrolytic  and  Synthetic  Activity,'  by  Henry  E.  Armstrong  and 
H.  W.  Gosney.  "  ° 


110        REPORTS  ON  THE  STATE  OF  SCIENCE.— 1914. 

Armstrong,  E.    T.   Colgate  and  E.   H.  Eodd.       Proc.  Eoy.   Soc, 
Series  A,  Vol.  90,  pp.  111-173. 

VI.  Parasulphonic  derivatives  of  Chloro-,  Bromo-,  Todo,  and  Cyano- 
benzene.     By  C.  S.  Mummery,  B.Sc. 

VII.  The  Correlation  of  the  Forms  of  Crystals  with  their  Molecular 
Structure  and  Orientation  in  a  Magnetic  Field  in  the  Case  of  Hydrated 
Sulphonates  of  Dyad  Metals.     By  Henry  E.  Armstrong  and  E.  H. 

EoDD. 

In  the  first  of  these  it  is  shown  that  the  method  of  treatment 
introduced  hy  Barlow  and  Pope  is  applicable  to  a  large  number  of 
derivatives  of  benzenesulphochloride  or  bromide  of  the  formula 
CgHgE,  .  SOoCl,  E  being  an  atom  of  halogen.  When  equivalence 
parameters  are  calculated  from  the  axial  ratios  and  the  valency  volume, 
in  nearly  thirty  cases  the  values  found  of  two  of  the  parameters  are 
all  but  identical  with  those  of  the  corresponding  parameters  of  benzene, 
the  third  parameter  being  increased  by  the  same  amount  beyond  the 
benzene  value  by  the  introduction  of  the  sulphonic  radicle.  Hence 
it  is  to  be  supposed  that  the  halogens  have  the  same  relative  valency 
volume  as  hydrogen  in  all  the  compounds  considered.  Numerous 
other  cases  are  quoted  in  support  of  the  conception  of  valency  introduced 
by  Barlow  and  Pope. 

In  the  second  communication  data  are  given  for  various  derivatives 
of  benzenesulphochloride  containing  but  one  atom  of  halogen.  It  is 
shown  that  these  fall  into  line  with  the  di-derivatives. 

In  the  third  attention  is  called  to  crystallographic  peculiarities 
presented  by  substituted  benzenesulphonates  of  dyad  metals  and  a  close 
relationship  to  corresponding  toluenemephonates  is  established.  The 
influence  of  water  of  crystallisation  is  considered. 

Attention  is  specially  directed  also  to  the  peculiar  behaviour  of 
certain  isomorphous  salts  of  iron,  cobalt  and  nickel  in  the  magnetic 
field.  When  suspended  similarly  in  either  of  two  axial  directions, 
corresponding  isomorphous  iron  and  cobalt  salts  always  act  along 
crystallographic  axes  at  right  angles  to  each  other.  Nickel  salts 
behave  like  cobalt  salts  when  suspended  in  the  one  axial  direction, 
like  iron  salts  when  suspended  in  the  other.  Apparently  the  difference 
in  the  behaviour  of  the  various  salts  is  to  be  referred  to  magnetic 
peculiarities  in  the  metallic  atoms. 


Stuchj  of  Soluhility  Phenomena. — Interim  Report  of  the  Com- 
mittee, consisting  of  Professor  H.  E.  Aemstbong  {Chairman) , 
Dr.  J.  Vargas  Eyre  (Secretary),  Dr.  E.  F.  Armstrong, 
Professor  A.  Findlay,  Dr.  T.  M,  Lowry,  and  Professor 
•W.  J.  Pope.  •      •  ... 

Much  of  the  time  since  the  appointment  of  this  Committee  has  been 
devoted  to  setting  up  the  required  apparatus  and  getting  it  into  working 
order  in  a  new  laboratory.  Materials  have  been  purified  and  work 
has  been  done  to  ascertain  within  what  limits  solubility  determinations 
were  trustworthy  u-nder  the  new  conditions. 


ON   THE   STUDY   OF   SOLUBILITY    PHENOMENA.  Ill 

Preliminary  trials  have  been  made  to  ascertain  the  influence  of 
isomeric  alcohols  on  the  solubility  of  salts  in  water  at  25°  C.  Small 
differences  have  been  observed  in  the  precipitating  effect  of  the  butylic 
alcohols,  and  work  is  now  in  progress  to  determine  the  variations  in 
solubility  of  the  chlorides  of  potassium,  sodium  and  ammonium  brought 
about  by  the  addition  of  small  quantities  of  the  isomeric  propylic, 
butylic  and  amylic  alcohols. 

It  is  desired  that  the  Committee  be  reappointed. 


Erratic  Blocks  of  the  British  Isles. — Report  of  the  Committee, 
consisting  of  Mr.  E.  H.  Tiddeman  (Chairman),  Dr.  A.  E. 
DwERRYHOUSE  {Secretary),  Dr.  T.  G.  Bonney,  Mr.  F.  W. 
Harmer,  Eev.  S.  N.  Harrison,  Dr.  J.  Hornb,  Mr.  W. 
Lower  Carter,  Professor  J.  W.  Sollas,  a)id  Messrs.  W. 
Hill,  J.  W.  Stather,  and  J.  H.  Milton. 

The  Committee   reports   that    owing,   probably,    to  the  early   date  of 
the  meeting  no  lists  of  erratics  have  been  'Contributed  during  the  year, 
and  in  consequence  no  part  of  the  grant  has  been  expended. 
The  Committee  seeks  reappointment  with  a  grant  of  5?. 


The  Preparation  of  a  List  of  Characteristic  Fossils. — Second 
Interim  Report  of  the  Committee,  consisting  of  Professor  P. 
F,  Kendall  (Chairman),  Mr.  W.  Lower  Carter  (Secretary), 
Mr.  H.  A.  Allen,  Professor  W.  S.  Boulton,  Professor  G. 
Cole,  Dr.  A.  E.  Dwerryhouse,  Professors  J.  W.  Gregory, 
Sir  T.  H.  Holland,  G.  A.  Lebour,  and  S.  H.  Eeynolds, 
Dr.  Marie  C.  Stopes,  Mr.  Cosmo  Johns,  Dr.  J.  E.  Marr, 
Dr.  A.  Vaughan,  Professor  W.  W.  Watts,  Mr.  H.  Woods, 
and  Dr.  A.  Smith  Woodward,  appointed  for  the  considera- 
tion thereof. 

No  meeting  of  the  Committee  was  held  during  the  year,  but  numerous 
suggestions  for  a  list  of  fossils  were  received.  From  these  a  provisional 
list  was  compiled  by  the  Secretary,  and  uncorrected  were  printed  and 
circulated.  This  provisional  list,  when  revised,  will,  it  is  hoped,  form 
the  basis  for  the  publication  of  an  amended  list  of  fossils  next  year. 
The  Committee  ask  for  reappointment  with  a  grant  of  £10. 


Geology  of  Ramsey  Island,  Pembrokeshire. — Final  Report  of  the 
Committee,  consisting  of  Dr.  A.  Strahan  (Chairman),  Dr. 
Herbert  H.  Thomas  (Secretanj) ,  Mr.  E.  E.  L.  Dixon,  Dr. 
J.  W.  Evans,  Mr.  J.  F.  N.  Green  and  Professor  0.  T.  Jones. 

The  Committee  have  to  report  that  the  grant  made  to  them  in  1913  to 
aid  Mr.  J.  Pringle  in  continuing  his  researches  in  the  west  of  Pembroke- 


112  REPORTS   ON   THE   STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

aliire  has  been  spent.  They  have  also  to  report  that  the  detailed 
mapping  of  the  island  has  been  completed.  The  examination  of  the 
rocks  and  fossils  which  have  been  collected  will  be  proceeded  with. 

For  the  purpose  of  description  the  island  can  be  divided  conveniently 
into  two  areas — a  northern  area  composed  of  Lingula  Flags,  Arenig 
mudstones  and  shales,  Lower  Llanvirn,  and  the  intrusive  mass  of  Carn 
Ysgubor;  and  a  southern  area  of  Lower  Llanvirn  shales  with  inter- 
bedded  tuffs  and  rhyolites,  and  a  thick  mass  of  intrusive  quartz- 
porphyry.  To  the  latter  area  belongs  the  mass  of  rhyolitic  and  brecciated 
tuffs  of  Carn  Llundain. 

Northern  Area. 

Lingula  Flags. — The  Lingula  Flags  consist  of  bluish-grey  flaggy, 
micaceous  shales  with  ribs  of  hard  grey  close-grained  sandstone,  some 
of  which  reach  a  thickness  of  two  feet.  They  occupy  the  headland 
of  Trwyn  Drain-du,  and  they  extend  eastwards  to  Bay  Ogof  Hen,  while 
on  the  eastern  side  of  the  island  they  form  the  cliffs  from  tlie  north- 
east corner  to  Road  Uchaf.  The  Flags  also  occur  in  the  headland  to 
the  south  of  Aberma\vi".  They  are  highly  fossiliferous,  and  yield  Lingu- 
lella  davisi  in  great  abundance. 

Arenig. — All  the  zones  of  the  Arenig  are  present.  The  lo\\est  beds 
are  bluish-grey  sandy  mudstones  and  shales  with  Ogygia  selivyvi,  Orthis 
proava,  and  0.  inenapice.  They  are  confined  to  the  north-east  corner 
of  the  island,  and  are  faulted  against  the  Lingula  Flags.  The  mud- 
stones  are  followed  by  bluish-black  shales  belonging  to  the  Extensus 
Zone,  and  are  well  displayed  in  the  cliffs  at  Eoad  Uchaf  and  Eoad  Isaf. 
Similar  shales  belonging  to  the  Hirundo  Zone  are  present  in  Abermawr. 

Lower  Llanvirn. — The  base  of  the  Lower  Llanvirn  is  seen  only  in 
the  cliffs  in  Abermawr,  where  the  shales  of  the  Hirundo  Zone  are 
succeeded  by  a  thick  series  of  hard  dark-  and  light-coloured  tuffs  of  fine 
texture,  which  yield  Didyinograptus  bifidus  in  their  highest  beds.  The 
tuffs  are  followed  by  fossiliferous  blue-black  shales,  but  their  full 
thickness  is  not  seen  in  the  northern  area. 

Intrusive  Rocks. — Carn  Ysgubor  is  formed  of  an  intrusive  mass  of 
quartz-albite-diabase,  which  has  invaded  the  sediments  of  Ix)wcr  Llan- 
virn, Arenig,  and  Lingula  Flags.  A  small  intrusion  occurs  south  of 
Abermawr,  where  Lingula  Flags  are  in  contact  with  a  quartz-kerato- 
phyre. 

Southern  Area. 

This  area  was  described  in  the  first  report,  in  which  it  ^^•as  shown  to 
be  composed  of  D.  bifidus  shales  whicli  had  been  invaded  by  a  thick 
mass  of  quartz-porphyry.  The  shales,  well  displayed  in  the  cliffs 
of  Forth  Llauog  and  Foel  Fawr,  are  highly  fossiliferous,  and  a  large 
collection  of  graptolites  has  been  made  from  them.  They  contain 
layers  of  coarse  agglomeratic  tuff,  and  at  Foel  Fawr  pass  upwards 
into  thick  beds  of  tiiii  which  are  conformably  overlain  by  grey  rhvolites. 
The  tuffs  and  conglomerate  on  Carn  Llundain  belong  to  the  same  period 
of  eruption. 


ON    GEOLOGY   Of    RAMSEY   ISLAND,    PEMBROKESHIRE.  il3 

The  two  points  of  interest,  therefore,  which  were  made  the  object 
of  mapping  the  island  have  been  successfully  solved.  It  has  been  found 
that  the  so-called  Tremadoc  beds  are  Ai'enig  sediments,  and  that  they 
do  not  pass  downwards  into  the  Lingula  Flags,  but  are  brought  against 
them  by  a  fault;  also  that  the  rocks  hitherto  regarded  as  pre-Canibrian 
belong  to  a  period  of  igneous  activity  that  occun-ed  in  Lower  Llanvirn, 
or  even  later,  times. 

It  is  hoped  that  the  full  description  of  the  district  will  be  completed 
this  year,  and  it  is  the  present  intention  of  Mr.  J.  Pringle  to  com- 
municate the  results  of  his  investigations  to  the  Geological  Society  of 
London. 


The  Old  Red  Sandstone  Rocks  of  Kiltorcan,  Ireland. — Interim 
Report  of  Committee,  consisting  of  Professor  Grenville  Cole 
(Chairman),  Professor  T.  Johnson  {Secretary),  Dr.  J.  W. 
Evans,  Dr.  K.  Kidston,  and  Dr.  A.  Smith  Woodward. 

Owing  to  the  early  date  at  which  this  year's  Eeport  is  required,  and 
the  absence  of  Professor  Johnson  at  the  Australian  Meeting,  it  is  im- 
possible to  utilise  the  funds  available  for  field-work,  which  normally 
is  carried  on  during  the  long  vacation. 

Your  Committee  asks  for  its  reappointment,  and  for  the  renewal  of 
the  grant  of  lOL  not  utilised  in  1913-14:,  together  with  the  unexpended 
balance  of  9L  odd. 

Two  papers  have  been  published  during  the  past  year : — T.  Johnson  : 
1.  Ginkgcphyllum  Kiltorkense  sp.  nov. ;  2.  Bothrodendron  Kiltorkense 
Haught.  sp.,  its  Stigmaria  and  Cone  ('  Sci.  Proc,  K.  Dublin  Society,' 
vol.  xiv.). 


Stratigrapliical  Names. — Interim  Report  of  the  Committee,  con- 
sisting of  Dr.  J.  E.  Mark  (Chairman) ,  Professor  Grenville 
Cole,  Mr.  Bernard  Hobson,  Dr.  J.  Horne,  Professor 
Lebour,  Dr.  A.  Strahan,  Professor  W.  W.  Watts,  and 
Dr.  F.  A.  Bather  (Secretary),  appointed  to  consider  the  pre- 
paration of  a  List  of  Stratigrapliical  Names  used  in  the  British 
Isles,  ill  connection  with  the  Lexicon  of  Stratigraphical 
Names  in  course  of  preparation  hy  the  International  Geological 
Congress. 

At  its  Meeting  in  Stockholm,  1910,  the  International  Geological  Con- 
gress appointed  a  Committee  to  produce  a  '  Lexique  international  de 
Stratigraphie. '  The  convener  of  this  International  Committee  is 
Dr.  Lukas  Waagen,  of  Vienna,  and  the  Secretary  of  the  present  Com- 
mittee had  the  honour  of  being  appointed  representative  of  Great 
Britain. 

Before  the   Meeting   of   the  International    Geological  Congress  in 
Toronto,   1913,  various  proposals  were  discussed   by  the  members  of 
1914.  I 


114  REPORTS   ON   THE   STATE   OP   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

the  International  Committee,  and  a  provisional  Eeport  was  laid  before 
the  International  Congress.  Unfortunately  neither  Dr.  Waagen  nor 
Dr.  Bather  were  able  to  attend  the  Congress  in  Toronto,  and  up  to  the 
date  of  writing  they  have  received  no  official  communication  from  the 
officers  of  the  Congress.  It  is,  however,  understood  that  the  Congress 
can  grant  no  subvention  to  aid  the  work. 

The  situation,  therefore,  may  be  thus  summarised: — The  Inter- 
national Congress  has  appointed  a  Committee  to  produce  a  laborious  and 
costly  woi'k  of  undoubted  value  to  all  interested  in  Geology  and  the 
allied  sciences.  There  are  no  funds  for  this  purpose.  The  details 
of  the  scheme,  even  if  decided  on  at  the  Congress,  are  not  yet  known 
to  the  present  Committee  of  the  Association. 

Consequently  your  Committee  has  been  unable  to  take  any  steps, 
although  some  of  its  members  have  made  note  of  stratigraphical  names 
observed  in  the  course  of  their  ordinary  work,  and  are  prepared  to 
continue  this  practice  and  eventually  to  place  such  material  at  the 
disposal  of  the  International  Committee.  Your  Committee  is,  however, 
well  aware  that  the  search  for  names  must  be  conducted  systematically, 
and  it  considers  that  funds  will  be  needed  to  pay  searchers  and  com- 
pilers. A  gi'ant  is  not  asked  for  at  present,  merely  because  it  is  not  yet 
possible  to  draw  up  a  plan  of  operations. 

The  fact  that  this  Eeport  will  be  presented  to  the  Association  when 
meeting  in  Australia  leads  your  Committee  to  point  out  that  it  has 
been  appointed  to  consider  names  used  in  the  British  Isles,  and  that 
no  provision  has  yet  been  made  for  the  other  constituents  of  the  British 
Empire.  As  regards  India,  indeed,  the  work  has  been  accomplished  by 
Sir  Thomas  Holland  and  Mr.  G.  H.  Tipper  in  their  '  Indian  Geological 
Terminology.'^  But  it  is  desirable  that  other  Committees  should  be 
formed,  and  the  ])resent  occasion  seems  appropriate  for  the  establish- 
ment of  one  to  deal  with  Australasia.  Any  such  Committees  would 
communicate  directly  with  Dr.  L.  Waagen  (K.k.  geolog.  Eeichsanstalt, 
Wien). 

Your  Counnittee  asks  for  its  reappointment,  for  the  present  without 
a  grant. 


Faiuia  cnid  Flora  of  the  Trias  of  the  Westciii  Midlands. —Report 
of  the  Committee,  consisting  of  Mr.  G.  Barrow  (Chairman), 
Mr.  Li/ J.  Wills  (Secretary),  Dr.  J.  Humphreys,  Mr.  W. 
Campbell  Smith,  Mr.  D.  M.  S.  Watson,  and  Prof.  W.  W. 
Watts. 

This  Committee  regrets  that  owing  to  the  early  date  at  which  the 
report  has  to  be  submitted  this  year,  very  slight  progress  has  been 
made  with  the  digging  operations  in  Warwickshire  and  Worcestershire. 
Some  hundred  and  more  specimens  have  been  obtained  from  the 
Arden  Sandstone   at    Shelfield,    near  Alcester,    and   Hunt  End,    near 

1  Mem.  Geol.  Surv.  India,  vol  xliii..  Part  1.  1913. 


FAUNA  AND  FLORA  OF  THE  TRIAS  OF  THE  WESTERN  MIDLANDwS.      115 

Redditch,  including  the  bones  and  teeth   of   Lahyrinthodon,   teeth   of 
Polyacrodus  and  Phcebodus  (?),  plant  remains,  &c. 

Permission  has  already  been  obtained  to  work  in  the  famous  Coton 
End  Quarry  at  Warwick,  and  arrangements  made  for  further  digging 
at  Shelfield  should  the  grant  be  renewed.  It  is  felt  that  the  chief 
difficulty  is  the  discovery  of  productive  fossiliferous  horizons,  and  then 
the  arrangement  for  labour  in  scattered  and  often  secluded  localities. 
The  larger  part  of  the  money  so  far  spent  has  been  in  travelling 
expenses  in  this  connection. 


The  Lower  Palceozoic  Rocks  of  England  and  Wales. — Report 
of  the  Committee,  consisting  of  Prof.  W.  W,  Watts  (Chair- 
man), Prof.  W.  Gr.  Fearnsides  (Secretary),  Prof.  W.  S. 
BouLTON,  Mr.  E.  S.  Cobbold,  Mr.  V.  C.  Illing,  Dr.  C.  Lap- 
worth,  a7id  Dr.  J.  E.  Mark,  appointed  to  excavate  Critical 
Sections  therein. 

Nuneaton  Area. — Mr.  V.  C.  Illing  reports  that  during  the  winter  of 
1913-14  and  the  ensuing  spring,  systematic  trenching  was  begun 
aci'oss  the  outcrop  of  the  Abbey  Shale  division  of  the  Stockingford 
Shales.  By  the  kind  permission  of  Mr.  Phillips,  of  Ansley  Hall,  the 
work  was  carried  out  in  the  Hartshill  Hayes.  A  trench,  thirty  yards 
long,  two  feet  wide,  and  three  feet  deep,  was  made  in  the  direction  of 
the  dip  of  the  shales,  and  cross  trenches  were  cut  along  the  strike 
of  nine  of  the  beds  richest  in  fossils.  In  some  cases  these  latter 
trenches  were  cut  to  a  depth  of  ten  feet.  About  thirty  yai'ds  away, 
in  the  direction  of  the  strike,  a  second  trench  was  cut  aci'oss  the  out- 
crop, and,  in  addition  to  the  discoveiy  of  further  types  of  fossils, 
evidence  was  obtained  of  lateral  changes  in  lithology.  Some  five 
thousand  specimens  were  obtained,  chiefly  of  trilobites,  ranging  over 
some  fifty  different  species.  These  indicate  a  fauna  corresponding  to 
that  of  the  Upper  Solva  Beds  and  the  Lower  and  Middle  Menevian 
Beds,  i.e.  the  zones  of  Conocoryphe  e.vsvlans,  Agnostus  farvijrons, 
Conocoryphe  csqualis  (?),  and  Paradoxides  davklis,  of  Sweden,  and  the 
zones  of  P.  aurora,  P.  Jiieksii,  and  P.  davidis,  of  South  Wales.  In 
addition  new  links  have  been  found  between  the  fauna  of  this  area 
and  that  of  the  corresponding  beds  in  Bohemia,  three  of  the  forms 
being  new  to  Britain.  The  fossils  are  being  described  and  photo- 
graphed, and  a  paper  on  the  subject  will  be  presented  to  the  Geological 
Society. 

Comley  Area,  ShropsJiire. — Mr.  E.  S.  Cobbold  reports  that  exca- 
vations have  been  begun  in  the  Cambrian  Rocks  of  the  Comley  area, 
but  no  report  of  the  results  is  yet  possible. 

The  Committee  asks  for  reappointment  with  a  grant  of  15?.,  which 
would  include  the  unspent  portion  of  this  year's  grant. 


i2 


116  REPORTS   ON   THE   STATE    OP   SCIENCE. — 1914. 


The  Upper  Old  Red  Sandstone  of  Dura  Den. — Report  of  the 
Committee,  consisting  of  Dr.  J.  Horne  (Chairm^an),  Dr. 
T.  J.  Jehu  (Secretary),  Mr.  H.  Bolton,  Mr.  A.  W.  E.  Don, 
Dr.  J.  S.  Flett,  Dr.  B.  N.  Peach,  and  Dr.  A.  Smith  Wood- 
ward, appointed  to  conduct  the  further  exploration  thereof ; 
with  a  separate  report  by  Dr.  Smith  Woodward  oyi  the 
Fish  Remains. 

Since  the  preliminary  report  was  presented  at  the  Birmingham 
Meeting  the  excavations  for  fossil  fishes  at  Dura  Den  have  been  com- 
pleted and  the  ground  has  been  levelled.  The  Committee  desire 
again  to  acknowledge  the  courtesy  of  Mr.  Bayne-Meldrum,  of 
Balmungo,  the  proprietor,  who  gave  great  facilities  for  carrying  out 
the  operations.  They  wish  also  to  express  their  obligations  to  Mr.  E. 
Dunlop,  from  Dunfermline,  who  superintended  the  work  on  the  spot 
and  who  took  a  series  of  excellent  photographs  of  the  best  specimens 
of  fossil  fishes. 

At  the  outset  brief  reference  may  be  made  to  the  geological  struc- 
ture of  the  ground  near  Dura  Den.  Strata  of  Upper  Old  Eed  Sand- 
stone age  underlie  the  long  depression  of  the  Howe  of  Fife,  which 
ranges  westwards  from  St.  Andrews  Bay,  between  the  slopes  of  the 
Ochil  Hills  on  the  north  and  the  heights  of  the  Carboniferous 
rocks  with  their  intrusive  masses  on  the  south.  The  actual  junction 
with  the  Lower  Old  Eed  Sandstone  volcanic  series  of  the  Ochils 
is  hidden  everywhere  by  drift,  but  the  line  of  contact  is  evidently  an 
unconformable  one.  For  the  sheets  of  andesite  dip  south-east 
at  angles  of  about  15°,  and  are  overlapped  at  different  horizons  by 
the  more  gently  inclined  members  of  the  Upper  Old  Eed  Sandstone. 

In  Central  Fife  there  is  a  conformable  passage  from  the  Upper  Old 
Eed  Sandstone  into  the  Lower  Carboniferous  strata.  But  in  Eastern 
Fife  the  top  of  the  Upper  Old  Eed  Sandstone  is  cut  off  by  a  fault 
which  crosses  Dura  Den  in  a  north-easterly  direction  and  brings  down 
the  Carboniferous  strata  on  the  south-east  side. 

The  ravine  of  Dura  Den  has  been  cut  by  the  Ceres  Burn  since  the 
Ice  Age.  This  rivulet  is  formed  by  the  union  of  a  number  of  smaller 
streams  which  rise  in  the  Carboniferous  area  of  Fife.  The  Den  has 
been  excavated  across  the  line  of  fracture  and  is  about  a  mile  and  a 
half  in  length  (see  Fig.   1). 

Below  the  mouth  of  the  Den  the  Ceres  Burn  enters  the  alluvial 
plain  of  the  Eden  and  joins  that  river  about  a  mile  above  the  village 
of  Dairsie.  Dura  Den  is  eroded  in  the  Lower  Carboniferous  and  Upper 
Old  Eed  Sandstone  fonnations.  For  a  distance  of  several  hundred 
yards  the  Upper  Old  Eed  Sandstone  strata  are  laid  bare  in  the  channel 
of  the  stream  and  in  a  range  of  picturesque  cliffs  on  either  side.  The 
section  runs  along  the  strike  of  nearly  horizontal  beds,  so  tliat  only  a 
comparatively  small  thickness  of  rocks  is  exposed.  These  belong 
to  the  upper  part  of  the   formation,   but  the  actual    top,   as  already 


ON   THE    UPPER    OLD    RED    SANDSTONE    OF    DURA    DEN.  117 


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Red  Sandstone 


Basalt  and  Dolerite. 


faults. 


Fig.  1.— Geological  Sketch-map  of  the  Distiict  surrounding  Dura  Den. 


118 


REPORTS    ON   THE    STATE    OF   SCIENCE.— 1914. 


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ON   THE    UPPER    OLD    RED    SANDSTONE    OF   DURA  DEN.  119 

indicated,  is  cut  off  by  the  fault,  near  which  the  Lower  Carboniferous 
strata  are  seen  dipping  at  angles  of  35°  to  40°  to  the  south-east.  The 
rocks  consist  of  yellow,  red,  and  greenish  sandstones,  with  bands  of 
clay  or  marl,  and  are  nearly  horizontal.  They  are  rather  fine-grained, 
somewhat  fissile,  and,  in  places,  extremely  false-bedded. 

Remains  of  fishes  in  the  Upper  Old  Eed  Sandstone  of  Fife  were 
first  observed  in  1831  at  Drumdryan,  near  Cupar,  by  the  Rev.  John 
Fleming.  The  scales  detected  by  him  were  found  to  occur  more 
abundantly  at  Dura  Den,  a  mile  farther  east,  and  entire  fishes  were 
obtained  there,  preserved  in  the  sandstone. 

For  years  the  Rev.  Dr.  Anderson  worked  at  these  beds  and  pub- 
lished numerous  papers  descriptive  of  the  region.  The  fish-remains 
obtained  from  time  to  time  at  this  famous  locality  were  examined  and 
described  by  Agassiz,  Huxley,  and  other  investigators.  The  excava- 
tions were  carried  on  partly  under  the  guidance  of  a  Committee  of 
the  British  Association,  which  gave  its  first  report  in  1860. 

The  remains  occur  as  carbonised  impressions  on  the  fine-grained 
pale-yellow  stone,  and  sometimes  are  to  be  found  crowded  together. 
Sir  A.  Geikie  has  remarked  that  '  the  Dura  Den  sandstone  does  not  so 
much  mark  a  definite  palfeontological  subdivision  as  an  exceptional 
area  where  the  organisms  were  rapidly  killed  and  buried  in  gi'eat 
numbers.'  ^ 

On  the  other  hand,  Dr.  Traquair  correlated  the  Dura  Den  fish  fauna 
with  that  of  the  highest  subdivision  of  the  Upper  Old  Red  Sandstone 
on  the  south  side  of  the  Moray  Firth.  Dr.  Traquair's  list  of  fishes 
found  at  Dura  Den  during  the  earlier  excavations  is  given  below :  - 

Bothriolepis  hydrophila,  Ag. 
Phyllolepis  concentrica,  Ag. 
Glyptopomus  minor,  Ag. 
Glyptopomus  hinnairdi,  Huxl. 
Gyroptychius  heddlei,  Traq. 
Holopiychius  fle7ningi,  Ag. 
Phaneropleuron  andersoni,  Huxl. 

In  the  spring  of  1912  the  Dundee  local  Committee  of  the  British 
Association  Isegan  excavations  with  the  view  of  re-exposing  the  fish-bed 
at  Dura  Den.  Tlie  work  was  carried  on  under  the  supei-vision  of 
Mr.  A.  W.  R.  Don.  The  exact  site  of  the  previous  diggings  was  un- 
known, hut,  according  to  local  tradition,  many  of  the  first  specimens 
had  been  obtained  from  the  sandstone  forming  the  bed  of  the  stream 
and  from  an  excavation  on  the  left  side  between  the  stream  and  the 
mill-lade.  After  some  trial  explorations  the  fish-bed  was  eventually 
struck,  and  part  of  the  old  workings  was  exposed.  The  latter  lay 
30  feet  to  the  west  of  the  stream,  just  opposite  the  north  end  of  the 
garden  belonging  to  the  house  known  as  '  The  Laurels, '  now  in  the  occu- 
pation of  Dr.  Graham  Campbell.  A  pit  was  opened  from  the  base  of 
the  old  workings  in  the  direction  of  the  mill-lade,  and  the  fish-bed 
was  found  to  lie  at  a  depth  of  nine  feet  from  the  surface.     Only  a  small 

'  'The  Geology  of  Eastern  Fife  '  {Mem.  Geol.  Surv.),  1902.  p    59. 
'  'The  Oeology  of  Eastern  Fife  '   IMrm.   denl.  I^iirv.],  1902,  p.   fjS. 


120 


REPORTS    ON    THE    STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 


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ON   THE    UPPER   OLD    RED    SANDSTONE    OP    DURA   DEN.  121 

part  of  the  fish-bed  was  then  worked.  A  few  good  specimens  were 
obtained,  and  \Aere  on  view  when  the  locahty  was  visited  during  one 
of  the  excursions  an-anged  in  connection  with  the  Geological  Section  of 
the  British  Association  Meeting  at  Dundee  in  1912. 

Work  was  resumed  by  our  Committee  on  May  5,  1913,  and  pro- 
ceeded more  or  less  continuously  to  the  end  of  August  1913.  The 
pit,  opened  in  1912,  having  been  partly  refilled,  had  to  be  cleared 
again.  As  stated  in  the  preliminary  report  issued  last  year,  a  definite 
plan  was  followed  in  the  excavations.  The  fish-bearing  zone  was  un- 
covered and  removed  in  successive  sections  (fig.  3). 

The  sandstone  layer,  rich  in  fish-remains,  is  restricted  to  a  zone 
about  two  inches  thick.  It  lies  at  an  average  depth  of  nine  feet  from 
the  surface,  and  is  overlain  by  about  four  feet  of  comparatively  barren 
sandstone,  capped  by  about  four  feet  of  loose  superficial  materials. 
It  was  decided  to  work  the  fish-bed  in  the  direction  in  which  the  fish- 
remains  appeared  to  be  most  abundant.  As  the  operations  extended 
towards  the  mill-lade  in  the  area  marked  A'  in  fig.  3,  the  sandstone  did 
not  yield  fishes,  as  if  the  limit  of  the  rich  fish-bearing  zone  had  been 
reached  in  that  direction.  The  aiTangement  was  then  made  to  carry 
on  the  excavations  towards  the  stream  and  just  north  of  the  face  of  the 
old  workings. 

The  finest  specimens  of  fossil  fishes  and  the  largest  number  were 
obtained  in  the  middle  section  (area  marked  B  in  fig.  3)  and  in  the 
immediately  adjoining  parts  of  the  other  two  sections  (A  and  C  in 
fig.  3).  The  greater  part  of  the  area  marked  0  in  fig.  3  proved  to  be 
somewhat  disappointing,  though  one  slab  containing  twenty  specimens 
was  found  there  and  a  fine  example  of  Phijllolepis  quite  close  to  the 
stream.  Good  specimens,  however,  were  scarce  in  section  C  outside 
the  limit  of  the  rich  fish-bearing  zone.  In  the  north-east  corner  of 
it  near  the  stream  a  sandstone  layer  with  fragmentary  fish-remains 
was  traced  for  a  short  distance. 

It  is  worthy  of  note  that  large  scales  of  Holoptychiiis  were  obtained 
m  the  sandstone  three  feet  above  the  fish-bed,  and  that  fish-scales  in  a 
fragmentary  condition  were  found  scattered  throughout  the  sandstones 
above  that  zone.  No  fish-scales  were  detected  below  that  horizon, 
although  the  excavations  were  continued  downwards  for  nearly  two 
feet  beneath  that  zone. 

Fine  examples  of  sun-cracks  were  seen  in  the  sandstone  at  depths 
varymg  from  two  to  four  inches  below  the  fish-bed,  and,  at  one 
locality,  one  mch  above  that  horizon.  This  feature  is  suggestive,  and 
probably  points  to  desiccation  as  a  cause  of  the  death  of '^  the  fishes 
m  a  shoal  at  this  locality. 

In  all  forty-two  slabs  of  stone  witli  well-preserved  fish-remains  were 
obtained.  These  were  photographed  bv  Mr.  Dunlop,  and  the  photo- 
graphs were  sent  to  Dr.  Smith  Woodward  for  determination.  About 
fifty  fragmentary  specimens  were  collected  which  were  not  photo- 
graphed. The  whole  collection  has  been  stored  in  an  adjoining  mill 
under  lock  and  key. 

The  expenses  connected  with  these  detailed  investigations  have 
exceeded  the  British  Association  grant  of  76/..  and  the  contribution  of 


122  BEPORTS   ON   THE    STATE    OP   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

121.  from  Mr.  Bolton  of  the  Bristol  Museum.  The  Curator  of  Ichthy- 
ology in  the  American  Museum  of  Natural  History,  New  York,  has 
offered  a  donation  towards  the  expenses  on  condition  that  some  of 
the  specimens  be  given  to  that  Museum.  The  Committee  have  accepted 
this  offer. 

On  June  19  the  Chairman,  the  Secretary,  Dr.  Smith  Woodward, 
and  Mr.  Dunlop  visited  Dura  Den.  Each  specimen  was  then  examined 
by  Dr.  Smith  Woodward,  and  a  scheme  of  distributing  the  fish-remains 
to  various  public  institutions  was  adopted  by  the  members  of  the 
Committee  who  were  then  present.  The  distribution  will  be  carried  out 
during  this  summer. 

The  report  of  Dr.  Smith  Woodward  is  appended : 

Preliminary  Report  on  the  Fossil  Fishes  from  Dura  Den. 
By  Dr.  A.  Smith  Woodward. 

The  very  large  majority  of  the  fishes  found  during  the  excavations 
at  Dura  Den  are  examples  of  Holoptychius  flem.ingi,  and  most  of 
the  slabs  exhibit  no  other  species.  Specimens  of  Glyptopomus 
kinnairdi,  Glyptopomus  minor,  Phancropleuron  andersoui,  and 
Bothriolepis  hydrophila  occur  but  rarely.  All  are  neai'ly  complete, 
as  usual,  having  teen  suddenly  buried ;  and  it  is  probable  that  when 
studied  in  detail  the  new  collection  will  make  some  small  additions  to 
our  knowledge  of  the  species  represented. 

The  only  important  novelty  is  a  nearly  complete  specimen  of 
Phyllolepis,  which  shows  for  the  first  time  the  arrangement  of  the 
dermal  plates  in  this  rare  fish;  and  apparently  determines  its  affinities. 
The  genus  has  already  been  recorded  from  Dura  Den,^  but  it  is  known 
only  by  detached  plates.  The  armoured  portion  of  the  fish  is  oval  in 
shape  and  depressed,  so  that  the  fossil  is  exposed  from  a:bove  or 
below.  The  surface  shown  is  covered  chiefly  with  two  large  plates, 
one  behind  the  other,  each  irregularly  hexagonal  in  shape  and  slightly 
broader  than  long.  The  anterior  plpte  is  somewhat  the  smaller  and 
narrower,  and  the  regularity  of  its  concentric  ridge-ornament  is  inter- 
rupted by  waviness  in  lines  apparently  of  slime-canals  which  radiate 
s}^mmetrically  from  the  centre  to  the  periphery.  The  posterior  plate 
is  ornamented  exactly  like  the  imperfect  typical  plate  of  Phyllolepis 
concentrica  from  Clashbennie.*  Eound  the  anterior  plate  are  arranged 
four  pairs  of  small  plates,  which  decrease  in  width  forwards.  Their 
ridge-ornament  is  peculiar  in  being  concentric  only  with  two  or  three 
of  the  margins  of  each  plate  and  running  out  at  right-angles  to  the 
inner  margin.  The  postero-lateral  plate  is  long  and  narrow  and  much 
the  largest,  extending  along  the  posterior  two-thirds  of  the  anterior 
median  plate.  The  next  plate  forwards,  also  long  and  narrow,  is 
much  less  than  half  as  large  as  the  postero-lateral  just  described,  -and 
the  two  pairs  o'  anterior  plates  are  comparatively  small.  This  series 
of  plates  on  each  side  is  continued  behind  by  another  still  larger  plate, 
which  flanks  somewhat  less  than  the  anterior  half  of  the  posterior 
median  plate  and  ends  postero-latorally  in  a  produced  angle  or  cornn. 

'  A,  S.  Woodward,  Catal.  Foss.  Fishes  Brit.  Mus..  Vi.  IT.  (1S91),  p.  ,^14.. 
4  L.  Agassiz,  Poiss.  Foss.   Vieiux  Or^s  Rouge  (1844),  p.  G7,  pi.  xxiv.  fig.  l. 


British  Association,  8ith  Report,  Australia,  1914.] 


[Plate  II. 


Fig.  4. — Phyllolepis  concentrica,  Ag. ;   ventral  or  dorsal  aspect  of  dermal  armour, 
showing  arrangement  of  plates,  two-thirds  natural  size. 


Illustrating  the  Report  on  the  Upper  Old  Red  Sandstone  of  Dura  Den. 

\_To  face itage  122. 


<j?;iHw^ 


'♦^ 


ON    THE    UPPER   OLD    RED    SANDSTONE    OF    DURA    DEN.  123 

The  ornamental  ridges  here  radiate  chiefly  from  the  posterior  cornu  and 
the  outer  margin  and  are  most  widely  spaced  on  the  postero-internal 
part  of  the  plate.  No  vacuities  are  observable  in  any  of  the  plates, 
but  all  of  the  anterior  pairs  are  crossed  by  slime-canals  in  continuation 
of  the  radiating  canals  on  the  anterior  median  plate.  The  total 
length  of  the  fossil  is  12.5  cm. 

The  ornamentation  of  the  posterior  median  plate  of  the  specimen 
just  described  seems  to  justify  its  I'eference  to  the  typical  species, 
Phyllolepis  concentrica,  already  known  by  imperfect  plates  from 
Clashbennie,  Perthshire.  It  is  also  interesting  to  add  that  some  of  the 
other  plates  agree  well  with  specimens  found  in  association  with 
P.  concentrica  in  the  Upper  Devonian  of  Belgium.*  The  ornament  of 
the  anterior  median  plate  corresponds  with  that  of  the  so-called 
P.  corneti,"'  while  both  the  ornament  and  shape  of  some  of  the  lateral 
plates  are  essentially  the  same  as  those  of  the  small  plates  named 
Pentagonolepis.^  The  plates  forming  the  lateral  cornua  do  not  appear 
to  have  been  previously  seen. 

The  whole  fossil  is  most  suggestive  of  the  ventral  aspect  of  the 
curious  Devonian  Ostracoderms  Drepanaspis  ^  and  Psammosteus.^  It 
agrees  with  Drepanaspis  in  showing  two  principal  median  plates  one 
behind  the  other,  though  in  Phyllolepis  they  are  more  nearly  equal 
m  size.  It  corresponds  with  Psammosteus  in  exhibiting  a  prominent 
pair  of  lateral  cornua  at  the  hinder  end  of  the  series  of  small  marginal 
plates,  opposite  the  middle  of  the  posterior  median  plate.  It  differs 
from  both  in  lacking  separate  small  tessellated  plates.  There  is,  there- 
fore, not  much  doubt  that  Phyllolepis  is  a  genus  of  Ostracoderms  most 
nearly  allied  to  the  Drepanaspidee  or  Psammosteidse. 


Antarctic  Whaling  Industry. — Report  of  the  Committee,  con- 
sisting of  Dr.  S.  F.  Haemer  (Chairman) ,  Dr.  W.  T.  Calman 
(Secretary),  Dr.  F.  A.  Bather,  Dr.  W.  S.  Bruce,  and  Dr.  P. 
Chalmers  Mitchell,  appointed  to  provide  assistance  jar 
Major  G.  E.  H.  Barrett-Hamilton's  Expedition  to  South 
Georgia  to  investigate  the  position  of  the  Antarctic  Whaling 
Industry. 

By  kind  permission  of  the  Trustees  of  the  British  Museum  the  Com- 
mittee arranged  for  Mr.  P.  Stammwitz,  a  taxidermist  employed  at  the 
Natural  History  Museum,  South  Kensington,  to  accompany  Major 
Barrett-Hamilton  to  South  Georgia;  and  the  greater  part  of  the  grant 

°  M.  Lohest,  '  Recherches  sur  les  Poissons  des  Terrains  Paleozoiques  de 
Belgique,'  Ann.  Soc.  Geol.  Belg.,  vol.  xv.   (1888),  Mem.,  pp.  155-167,  pis.  x.,  xi. 

°  M.  Lohest,  loc.  cit.,  p.  157,  pi.  x.  fig.  6. 

'  M.  Lohest,  loc.  cit.,  p.  161,  pi.  xi.  figs.  1-8. 

*  R.  H.  Traquair,  '  Additional  Note  on  Drepanaspis  Gemiindenensis . 
Schliiter,'  Geol.  Mag.  [4]  vol.  ix.  (1902),  pp.  289-291. 

°  A.  S.  Woodward,  'On  the  Upper  Devonian  Ostracoderm,  Psammosteus 
iaijiori,'  Ann.  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  [8j  vol.  viii.  (1911),  pp.  649-652,  pi.  ix. 


124  EEPORTS   ON   THE    STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

placed  at  the  disposal  of  the  Committee  has  been  expended  in  paying 
his  salary  and  in  making  certain  preliminary  payments.  He  sailed 
wllh  Major  Barrett-Hamilton  on  October  6,  1913,  and  work  was  com- 
n.enced  at  South  Georgia  immediately  after  their  arrival  on 
November  10. 

Early  in  the  new  year  news  was  received  that  Major  Barrett- 
Hamilton  had  died  suddenly  at  South  Georgia  on  January  17,  while 
his  inquiries  were  in  full  progress.  This  unlooked-for  event,  which 
the  Committee  record  with  profound  son-ow,  naturally  altered  the 
entire  prospects  of  the  expedition.  Mr.  Stammwitz  had  no  alternative 
but  to  return  at  once,  and  after  making  arrangements  for  the  despatch 
of  the  specimens  which  had  been  collected,  he  took  the  first  opportunity 
of  leaving  South  Georgia,  bringing  with  him  the  notebooks  containing 
Major  Ban'ett-Hamilton's  observations.  At  the  request  of  the 
Colonial  Of&ce,  and  with  the  approval  of  the  Trustees  of  the  British 
Museum,  these  notebooks  have  been  placed  in  the  hands  of  Mr.  Martin 
A.  C.  Hinton  for  examination.  It  is  hoped  that  the  results  of  the 
work  which  Major  Barrett-Hamilton  had  done  before  his  death  will 
thus  not  be  entirely  lost.  The  collections  brought  home  comprise  a 
very  valuable  series  of  specimens — in  particular,  flippers,  complete  sets 
of  baleen,  and  other  anatomical  material  from  the  blue  whale,  the 
common  rorqual,  and  the  humpback  whale.  These  specimens  have 
been  presented  to  the  Natural  History  Museum  by  Messrs.  Chr. 
Salvesen  &  Co.,  at  whose  whaling  station  they  were  obtained,  and  they 
should  be  of  service  in  helping  to  decide  the  much-debated  question 
whether  these  Antarctic  whales  are  specifically  identical  with  their 
northern  representatives. 

A  few  birds  were  obtained  at  South  Trinidad  on  the  outward  journey, 
and  a  certain  amount  of  dredging  and  shore-collecting  was  done  at 
South  Georgia.  The  collection  made  includes  marine  invertebrates  and 
fishes,  bird-skins,  plants,  and  a  few  insects  and  rock-specimens.  These 
have  been  handed  over  to  the  Natural  History  Museum,  where  arrange- 
ments are  being  made  to  have  them  determined,  and  if  necessary  report-ed 
on,  by  specialists. 

At  the  request  of  the  Meteorological  Office,  Mr.  Stammwitz  took  a 
series  of  observations  on  sea-temperatures  and  ice-drift  while  at  South 
Georgia,  and  these  are  now  being  utilised  by  the  Office. 

The  Committee  wish  to  record  their  appreciation  of  the  value  of  the 
assistance  which  was  given  to  the  expedition  by  Mr.  J.  Innes  Wilson, 
Stipendiary  Magistrate  of  South  Georgia,  Messrs.  Chr.  Salvesen  &  Co., 
and  Mr.  Henriksen,  the  manager  of  their  Leith  Harbour  Whaling 
Station,  Messrs.  Bryde  &  Dahl,  the  Tonsberg  Whaling  Company,  and 
other  individuals  and  whaling  companies  connected  with  South  Georgia. 

The  amount  actually  expended  is  less  by  151.  than  the  total  (901.) 
allotted  to  the  Committee,  and  it  is  not  proposed  to  apply  for  this 
balance. 


BELMULLET    WHALING    STATION.  125 


Belmullet  Whaling  Station. — Report  of  the  Committee,  consisting 
of  Dr.  A.  E.  Shipley  (Chairman),  Professor  J.  Stanley 
Gardiner  (Secretary),  Professor  W.  A.  Herdman,  Eev.  W. 
Spotswood  Green,  Mr.  E.  S.  Goodrich,  Professor  H.  W. 
Marett  Tims,  and  Mr.  R.  M.  Barrington,  appointed  to 
investigate  the  Biological  Problems  incidental  to  the  Belmullet 
Whaling  Station. 

The  Committee  acting  through  Professor  Herdman  arranged  with  Mr. 
J.  Erik  Hamilton  and  Mr.  E.  J.  Daniel,  two  post-graduate  research 
students  of  the  University  of  Liverpool,  for  the  prosecution  of  their 
researches  in  1913.  They  proceeded  to  Belmullet  on  June  25  and  Mr. 
Hamilton  remained  until  the  end  of  the  fishery.  Mr.  Daniel  retired 
from  the  investigations  on  August  26,  having  been  appointed  to  a  post 
under  the  Board  of  Agriculture  and  Fisheries.  Mr.  Hamilton's  Eeport 
is  appended. 

The  Committee  desire  to  express  their  thanks  to  Mr.  R.  M. 
Barrington  for  considerable  financial  assistance.  They  have  been 
enabled  owing  to  his  generosity  to  arrange  with  Mr.  Hamilton  for 
the  further  prosecution  of  the  work  in  1914.  They  have  now  experi- 
ence with  three  investigators — Mr.  Lillie,  Mr.  Burfield,  and  Mr. 
Hamilton — and  they  find  that  the  annual  expense  is  about  45Z.  They 
attach  great  importance,  both  from  the  scientific  and  economic  sides, 
to  the  further  continuation  of  these  investigations,  and  beg  to  apply 
for  reappointment  with  a  grant  of  45L  for  the  summer  of  1915. 

Eeport  to  the  Commiiiec  by  J.   Erik  H.\milton,  B.Sc. 

I. — Introduciion. 

In  June  1913  Mr.  R.  J.  Daniel  and  I  proceeded  to  the  Blacksod 
Bay  Whaling  Station  on  Ai-delly  Point,  Blacksod  Bay,  Co.  Mayo, 
Ireland,  to  continue  the  work  carried  on  by  Mr.  S.  T.  Burfield,  B.A. . 
in  1911.1 

The  flensing  plane  was  clearly  visible  by  telescope  from  the  hotel, 
and  the  whaling  steamers  are  compelled  to  pass  the  Point  whenever 
they  come  in.  In  consequence  no  whale  escaped  notice,  as  might 
otherwise  have  happened  on  account  of  the  distance  from  the  Station. 

Our  first  whale  was  examined  on  the  morning  after  our  arrival, 
i.e.,  on  June  26,  the  last  on  September  9.  As  Mr.  Daniel  was 
appointed  to  a  post  under  the  Board  of  Agriculture  and  Fisheries,  he 
liad  to  leave  Blacksod  on  August  26  for  his  new  duties.  Consequently 
the  working  up  of  the  collections  and  the  preparation  of  this  Report 
have  been  left  in  my  hands. 

I  desire  to  express  my  heartiest  thanks  to  Professor  W.  A.  Herdman, 

'  British  Association  Report,  1912,  p.   145. 


126  REPORTS   ON  THE   STATE   OF  SCIENCE. — 1914. 

F.R.S.,  who  has  given  advice  and  help  of  great  value  during  the  time 
which  was  spent  in  his  Laboratory  in  working  up  the  materials  obtained 
To  Captain  Lorens  Bruun  and  Mr.  D.  Bingham  sincere  thanks  are 
due  from  Mr.  Daniel  and  myself  for  the  way  in  which  they  assisted  us 
at  the  Station.  We  would  alsO'  wish  to  mention  that  on  many  occasions 
the  men  employed  at  the  Station  helped  us  in  the  most  obliging  manner. 
Two  steamers  continue  to  be  used,  both  fitted  with  wireless  tele- 
graphy, which  is  employed  solely  for  communication  between  the  boats. 
As  a  result  of  the  possession  of  this  apparatus,  if  one  boat  finds  whales 
in  numbers  too  great  to  be  dealt  with  unaided,  the  other  steamer  may  be 
called  up  to  assist  in  making  the  most  of  a  fortunate  find. 

Burfield^  has  stated  the  disadvantages  of  work  at  a  commercial 
factory,  and  I  wish  to  lay  particular  emphasis  on  the  rarity  with  which 
really  fresh  whales  are  brought  in.  It  is  exceptional  for  a  whale  to  be 
anything  other  than  decomposing.  Even  in  those  sufficiently  fresh  to 
be  fit  for  food  the  carcase  is  quite  hot  in  the  deeper  parts  owing  to 
decomposition,  while  in  the  other  cases  carcases  lying  on  the  flensing 
plane  fizzle  and  splutter  wherever  a  cut  in  the  blubber  permits  the 
internal  gases  to  blow  off. 

Sperm  Whales  are  particularly  obnoxious,  as  they  are  brought  from 
considerable  distances.  They  are  frequently  caught  at  Eockall,  240 
miles  away,  and  they  smell  strongly  of  cuttlefish.  In  two  Spemi 
Whales  which  we  saw  part  of  the  intestine  was  blown  out  through 
the  back  of  the  animal  by  pressure  of  gases  produced  by  decomposition, 
and  from  one  specimen  a  great  spout  of  blood  and  oil  was  projected 
with  considerable  force  over  one  of  the  investigators. 

About  thirty-eight  Irishmen  and  fifteen  Norwegians  are  employed 
when  work  is  in  full  swing.  Of  the  Irishmen  one  is  timekeeper  and 
another_  is  second  flenser,  but  all  the  other  skilled  workmen  are 
Norwegians. 

The  1913  season  was  the  best  which  the  Blacksod  Bay  Whaling 
Company  has  had  up  to  the  present.  Sixty-four  whales  were  brought 
in.  The  whalemen  state  from  their  experience  that  in  fine,  calm 
weather  the  whales  go  far  out  for  food,  and  it  is  the  case  that  during 
the  splendid  weather  of  August  very  few  were  taken.  But  the  largest 
number  of  whales  for  a  given  number  of  days  was  brought  in  between 
August  27  and  September  9,  when  the  weather  was  still  fairly  fine. 
Nearly  three  thousand  barrels  of  oil  were  shipped  to  Glasgow,  to  which 
port  all  the  produce  of  this  Station  is  sent.  There  were  also  manu- 
factured about  fifteen  hundred  bags  of  guano. 

All  whale  oils  at  present  average  201.  per  ton  (  =  5i  barrels), 
sperm  oil  and  spermaceti  having  fallen  considerably  since  1911.  The 
oil  is  used  for  the  manufacture  of  explosives,  soap,  &c.,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  the  two  sperm  products.  The  oil  of  the  Sperm  Whale  is  used 
for  lubrication  only,  while  spermaceti  is  largely  utilised  in  the  manu- 
facture of  church  candles. 

Whalebone  from  Balcenoptera  musculus  and  B.  xihhaJdii  is  now 
65/.   per  ton.     The  baleen   of  Megaptera  is  of  very  inferior  quality, 

'  Op.  clt.,  p.  146. 


BELMULLET  WHALING   STATION.  127 

while   B.    horeaiis    yields    whalebone    of    considerably    greater   value, 
although,   since  this  is  a  small  species,   the  plates  are  not  of  great 

length. 

The  flesh  of  B.  aibbaldii  has  an  excellent  flavour  even  when  taken 
from  a  large  specunen.  As  it  is  full  of  oil  it  must  be  soaked  in  salt 
water  and  vinegar  for  several  hours  before  being  used.  If  this  pre- 
caution is  observed,  it  is  almost  impossible  to  distinguish  whale-meat 
from  good  quality  of  beef-steak.  The  flesh  for  food  is  generally  cut 
from  the  lateral  post-anal  region.  On  the  Japanese  Stations  the 
entire  carcases  of  the  whales  taken  are,  or  used  to  be,  sold  on  the 
market  for  food,  it  being  more  profitable  to  dispose  of  the  animals  in 
this  manner  than  to  boil  them  down  for  oil  and  guano.  In  Norway 
also  a  considerable  amount  of  whale-meat  is  utilised  by  butchers.  It 
is  usually  salted  as  soon  as  the  whales  are  flensed,  and  is  seldom 
placed  on  the  market  in  the  fresh  condition.  On  account  of  the 
extreme  rapidity  with  which  whales  decompose  very  few  of  the 
Blacksod  Company's  whales  could  be  used  as  food. 

The  attempts  to  recover  the  glue  from  the  water  resulting  from 
the  various  cooking  processes  applied  to  blubber,  meat,  &c.,  have 
failed.  The  reason  for  the  failure  lies  in  the  amount  of  steam  which 
is  required  to  evaporate  down  the  solution.  This  steam  coasmnptiou 
necessitates  the  use  of  so  much  coal  that  the  expenditure  is  not 
covered  by  the  price  received  for  the  glue  which  results  from  the 
process  of  evaporation. 

In  whale-hunting  the  shot  which  is  generally  attempted  is  aimed  at 
a  point  behind  the  pectoral  fin,  as  the  animal  here  presents  a  large 
target,  and  the  cast-iron  harpoon  head,  with  its  charge  of  blasting- 
powder,  is  most  likely  to  prove  fatal  when  exploded  in  the  thoracic 
cavity.  The  shot,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  which  explodes  beside  the 
vertebral  column  in  an  anterior  position  is  the  most  fatal.  "When  this 
happens  the  uhale  dies  instantaneously.  On  the  other  hand,  the 
harpoon  may  fail  to  explode.  In  this  case  nothing  can  be  done  at  the 
moment  except  to  let  the  harpoon  line  run  out.  The  whale  may 
rush  along  the  surface  or  descend  almost  vertically.  If  a  surface  run 
is  made  the  engines  are  put  at  full  speed  -ahead  in  order  to  avoid 
straining  the  harpoon  rope,  which  is  three-inch  manilla  cable.  When 
the  whale  dives  down  there  is  serious  risk  of  the  rope  snapping. 
One  such  case  occurred  to  our  knowledge  during  the  1913  seasoai. 
Only  a  few  fathoms  of  cable  were  lost  on  this  occasion,  but  at  other 
times  whales  have  been  known  to  take  out  the  whole  of  the  three  or 
four  hundred  fathoms  attached  to  the  harpoon,  and  then  to  break 
the  line  at  the  bow  of  the  boat.  The  whale  is  very  much  exhausted 
after  a  deep  dive  such  as  this,  and  when  it  returns  to  the  surface 
another  harpoon  is  fired  into  it,  which  almost  invariably  proves  fatal. 
Even  if  the  rope  is  broken  the  animal  is  usually  so  fatigued  that 
it  is  readily  approached  and  secured.  We  were  informed  by  a  very 
experienced  Norwegian  whaler  that  it  has  happened  that  a  steamer, 
having  become  fast  to  a  wounded  whale,  has  '  played  '  it  for  as  much 
as  thirty  hours  before  the  coiip  dc  cjrcicc  could  be  delivered. 


128  REPORTS   ON   THE   STATE   OF  SCIENCE. — 1914. 

II. — Numbers  and  Species  taken  at  the  Blacksod  Bay  Station  in  1913. 
The  number  of  whales  taken  in  the  1913  season  was  sixty-four, 
as  has  been  stated.  Of  these  fifteen  were  brought  in  previous  to  our 
arrival;  we  therefore  examined  forty-nine.  Five  species  came  under 
our  notice,  in  the  following  numbers  :  — 

Fiiiners  {Balcenoptera  musculus,  L.) 37 

Blue  Whales  [B.  sibbaldii,  Gray) 4 

Sejhval  (£.  borealis,  Lesson) 1 

H\iinpha,ck  (Megaptera  longimana,  Knd.) 1 

Sperm  Whales  (Physeter  macrocephalus,  L. ) 6 

Of  the  fifteen  taken  before  June  26,  eleven  were  Finners  and 
four  Sperm  Whales. 

III. — Measurements  and  Proportions. 

(See  Tables  at  the  end  of  this  Eeport.) 

In  continuing  the  series  of  measurements  adopted  by  Burfield, 
who  followed  True,^  we  found  that  in  some  cases  it  was  not  easy  to 
determine  the  points  from  which  measurements  were  taken,  within 
six  inches  or  a  foot.  We  therefore  fixed  on  a  series  of  standards 
which  enabled  us  to  make  measurements  from  corresponding  points 
on  every  whale.     These  points  I  attempt  to  define  as  follows:  — 

(1)  Total  length.  Taken  between  a  position  opposite  the  end  of 
the  upper  jaw  to  a  point  opposite  the  notch  between  the  flukes,  in 
a  straight  line.  When,  as  in  the  case  of  our  first  two  whales,  and 
in  the  cases  of  those  taken  before  our  arrival,  we  obtained  the  Norwegian 
measurements,  two  points  had  to  be  observed :  (a)  that  Norwegian 
feet  are  equal  to  12^  English  inches;  (6)  that  the  Norwegians  measured 
to  the  tip  of  the  lower  jaw,  which  projects  beyond  the  rostrum,  and 
therefore  an  allowance  must  be  made  for  this  in  reducing  to  '  total 
length  '  according  to  our  standard.  Eighteen  inches  was  the  allow- 
ance made,  and  this  was  probably  erring  on  the  side  of  taking  off 
too  little  rather  than  too  much. 

(2)  Tip  of  snout  to  anterior  end  of  the  groove  between  the  spiracles. 
This  line  is  quite  sharply  marked. 

(3)  Tip  of  snout  to  posterior  insertion  of  pectoral  fin.  Th's 
measurement  and  the  next  were  taken  on  the  dorsal  side  of  the  animal. 

(4)  Tip  of  snuut  to  posterior  insertion  of  dorsal  fin.  This  fin 
slopes  away  behind  as  well  as  in  front.  The  '  posterior  insertion  ' 
was  therefore  found  in  the  following  manner — a  line  being  dropped 
from  the  apex  of  the  dorsal  fin,  at  right  angles  to  the  body,  the 
point  where  it  cut  the  outline  of  the  body  was  taken  as  the  posterior 
insertion  of  the  dorsal  fin.  Apart  from  this  method  I  do  not  think 
that  any  point  of  equal  value  in  every  specimen  could  have  been 
found. 

(5)  Tip  of  snout  to  centre  of  eye. 

(6)  Centre  of  eye  to  a'nterior  end  of  auditory  slit. 

(7)  Notch  of  flukes  to  posterior  end  of  anus. 

(8)  Notch  of  flukes  to  anterior  margin  of  umbilicus,  which  was 
the  most  definite  border  of  that  area. 

3  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Knowledge,  vol.  xxx. 


BELMULLET  WHALING   STATION. 


129 


Measurements  oj  the  Pectoral  Fin. 

(9)  Length  of  anterior  border.  There  is  an  eminence  at  the  anterior, 
proximal  end  of  the  pectoral  fin.  Immediately  anterior  to  this  is  a 
slight  depression.  The  eminence  marks  approximately  the  position 
of  the  head  of  the  humerus.  Our  measurement  was  taken  from  the 
tip  of  the  flipper,  along  the  anterior  margin,  to  the  centre  of  the 
eminence. 

(10)  The  posterior  length  was  taken  from  the  tip,  along  the 
margin,  to  the  axilla.  This  measurement  was  not  easy  to  take,  as 
the  flipper  was  almost  always  directed  backwards  and  the  axilla 
compressed.  When  this  was  the  case  the  exact  point  of  proximal 
measurement  had  to  be  found  by  judgment,  as  the  size  of  the  limb 
and  the  rigidity  of  the  muscles  attached  to  it  entirely  prevented  any 
attempt  at  altering  the  attitude  of  the  fin. 

(11)  The  median  length  was  taken  from  the  tip  in  a  straight  line, 
down  the  centre  of  the  flipper,  to  a  point  on  a  line  drawn  through 
the  axilla  in  such  a  manner  as  to  carry  on  the  outline  of  the  body. 
In  taking  this  measurement  the  idea  was  to  estimate  the  extent  to 
which  the  limb  projects  from  the  body. 

(12)  The  greatest  breadth  of  the  pectoral  fin  was  generally  found 
to  be  about  half-way  between  the  tip  and  the  insertion. 

(13)  The  length  of  the  dorsal  fin  was  taken  from  the  posterior 
insertion  as  defined  above,  and  the  anterior  insertion,  which  could 
usually  be  found  with  moderate  accuracy.  This  measurement  cannot 
be  regarded  as  more  than  approximate. 

The  flukes  had  been  cut  off  every  whale  before  it  was  towed  in,  but 
on  jB.  iHusculu-s  (No.  19)  the  right  fluke  had  not  been  completely 
severed.  Measurement  gave  7  ft.  5  in.  as  the  distance  between  tip 
of  fluke  and  caudal  notch.  The  spread  of  tlie  flukes  was  therefore 
M  ft.  10  in. 

Total  Length. 

'We  following  table  shows  the  averages  of  total  length  of  the  five 
sptcies  taken,  and  a  more  detailed  analysis  of  the  total  measurements 
of  the  Pinners  at  different  stages.  I  have  taken  as  the  minima  for 
adult  males  and  females  the  dimensions  adopted  by  Burfield,''  who 
followed  True :  — 

Finners  {B.    initscidun,  L.) 


(.37) 
(17) 

(20) 


Average  length  of  all  finners 
,,  ,,  „    females 

„     males 
,,  ,,  ,,    adult  females  (12 

Maximum  for  females 

Minimum  for  females 

Average  for  adult  males  (16)  . 

Maximum  for  males  .... 

Minimum  for  males  .... 


Ft. 

in. 

59 

9 

60 

7 

59 

0 

64 

0 

69 

8 

48 

7 

60 

8 

66 

0 

46 


1914. 


Ol).  cit.,  p.  160. 


130  REPORTS    ON   THE    STATE    OP   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

It  may  be  useful  to  compare  these  results  with  those  of  Burfield, 
who  gives  similar  statistics  for  the  year  1911:  — 


Average  for  all  specimens  (53) 

„  „      females  (21) 

,,  ,,      males  (25) 

„  ,,       mature  females  (20) 

„       males     (23) 

Maximum  females 

„  males    .... 

Minimum  females  .... 
,,         males      .... 


1911. 

1913. 

Ft. 

in. 

Ft. 

in. 

63 

0 

(37)  59 

9 

64 

3 

(17)  60 

7 

62 

5 

(20)  59 

0 

64 

8 

(12)  64 

0 

63 

2 

(16)  60 

8 

75 

0 

69 

8 

68 

9 

66 

0 

54 

3 

48 

7 

53 

3 

46 

7 

As  all  the  figures  for  1913  are  perceptibly  smaller  than  the  corre- 
sponding figures  of  Burfield  for  IQll,  it  suggests  the  probability  that 
the  larger  whales  are  being  killed  off,  although  it  would  be  useful 
to  have  the  figures  for  other  years  in  order  to  verify  the  diminution 
in  size  which  appears  to  be  taking  place. 

Blue  Whales  (B.   sibbaldii,  Gray). 

All  the  Blue  Whales  taken  in  the  1913  season  were  brought  in 
during  our  stay :  — 

Ft.  in. 

July  10,  female 78  2 

Aug.  18,      „ 70  7 

„    20,      „ 68  6 

Sept.    9,      , 68  0 

Comparing  these  also  with  Burfield 's  figures  ^  for  the  same  species 

we  have: — 

1911.  1913, 

Ft.    in.  Ft.    in. 

Average  for  all  females  (4) 75      4  (4)  71       3f 

Maximum  for  females 84       0  78       2 

Minimum  for  females 64       6  68       0 

True  gives  72  ft.  as  the  minimum  for  mature  females,  but  our 
second  specimen  (70  ft.  7  in.)  had  a  foetus  8  ft.  long,  and  was 
therefore  an  adult  animal.  (True's  figure  was  based  upon  two  speci- 
mens only.) 

Sperm  Whales  {Physeter  macrocephalus ,  L.). 

Ten  Sperm  Whales  were  taken  in  1913 ;  of  these  six  were  taken 
after  our  arrival,  and  all  the  specimens  were  males. 

Ft.    in. 

Average  of  all  Sperm  Whales  (10),  males 58      3 

Maximum,  Sperm  Whales 62      6 

Minimum        „  ,,  53      0 

Sejhval   (Balanoptera  horealis,  Lesson). 
One  specimen  only  taken  in  1913,  female    ....      46  ft.  7  in. 

Humpback  (Megaptera  longimava,  Eud.). 

Only  specimen  taken,  male 45  ft.  8  in. 

=  Op.  cit.,  Table  IV.,  p.   161. 


BEI.MULLET   WHALING    STATION.  131 

IV. — General  Observations  on  the  Varioiis  Species. 

1.  Finners  (B.  muscuhis,  Gray). 

(a)  Colouration. — None  of  the  specimens  of  the  Finner  examined 
by  us  presented  any  remarkable  colour  variations.  On  very  many 
animals  white  marks  occurred  in  the  pigmented  areas,  as  noted  by 
Burfield.''  Some  of  these  seemed  to  be  the  scars  left  after  Penella  has 
dropped  off.  In  many  cases  we  found  the  sores  which  had  been 
produced  by  the  parasite,  although  the  latter  was  not  present.  These 
sores  presented  the  same  appearance  as  the  wounds  in  which  the 
parasites  were  still  fixed. 

Notes  on  individual  specimens:  — 

No.  10. — There  were  a  few  white  patches  on  the  tongue,  which 
may  have  been  the  result  of  lesions,  or  due  to  mere  absence  of 
pigment. 

No.  11. — A  pale,  grey  line,  about  three-eighths  of  an  inch  broad, 
but  gradually  widening,  ran  from  the  ear  aperture  upwards  and 
backwards  to  a  point  level  with  the  anterior  margin  of  the  pectoral  fin, 
and  about  9  in.  above  the  level  of  the  ear- hole.  From  here  onwards 
it  broadened  out  and  swept  round  in  a  semicircle  to  the  anterior 
margin  of  the  pectoral.  On  the  top  of  the  head  there  was  a  triangular 
grey  patch,  having  as  apices  the  angle  of  the  jaw,  the  nape  at  the 
level  of  the  pectoral,  and  a  point  about  half-way  down  the  margin 
of  the  rostrum. 

No.  19. — The  fcetus  of  No.  19,  16  ft.  in  length,  displayed  the  same 
areas  of  colouration  on  the  head  as  an  adult.  The  dark  colour  of  the 
body  was  defined  in  front  by  the  same  line  sweeping  back  from  the  eye, 
through  the  ear,  and  down  to  the  pectoral,  while  dorsally  it  was 
limited  by  another  line  curving  backwards,  and  dorsally,  from  the 
eye. 

No  24. — The  black  colour  extended  in  flecks  from,  the  left  as  far 
as  the  mid-ventral  line,  in  the  region  of  the  ventral  furrows. 

No.  29. — The  belly  had  a  yellow  tinge,  but,  as  the  animal  was 
very  decomposed,  this  was  probably  not  the  case  during  life,  as,  when 
they  have  been  dead  for  some  time,  whales  become  very  discoloured. 
There  were  streaks  of  black  on  the  left  side  of  the  belly. 

There  is  always  a  certain  amount  of  pigment  in  the  more  lateral 
and  posterior  furrows.  In  Nos.  41  and  42  this  was  specially  well 
developed,  extending  almost  to  the  mid-ventral  line  from  the  left 
side.  The  furrow  region  of  No.  42  had  also  a  number  of  pale  purple 
stains  in  its  pure  white.  These  were  due  to  the  presence  of  blood 
in  the  cutaneous  vessels,  which  appeared  to  be  gorged.  They 
resembled  bruises,  but  the  epidermis  was  undamaged.  This  whale 
displayed  a  few  of  the  'galvanised-iron  '  markings  which  are  charac- 
teristic of  the  Blue  Whale.  These  were  in  the  post-anal  region. 
It  had  also  several  incised  wounds  in  the  belly,  about  8  in.  long, 
partlv  healed,  but  still  raw.  No.  45  had  a  large  island  of  black  pigment 
on  the  posterior  furrow  region  of  the  left  side. 

'  Op.  cAt.,  175. 

K  2 


132  REPORTS   ON   THE    STATE    OP   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

There  are  frequently  extensive  white  patches  on  the  dark  area, 
caused  by  the  chafing  of  the  whale  against  the  side  of  the  steamer 
as  it  is  being  towed  in.  These,  however,  are  easily  distinguished  from 
the  naturally  unpigmented  areas. 

(b)  Ventral  Furrows. — In  the  Finner  the  number  of  pectoral  furrows 
is  exceedingly  variable.  We  found  a  maximum  of  eighty-four,  and  a 
minimum  of  fifty-four.  In  nearly  half  of  the  cases  a  median  furrow 
could  be  distinguished,  the  presence  of  which  appears  to  have  escaped 
notice  up  to  the  present.  The  number  was  estimated  by  finding  the 
median  furrow,  and  counting  all  those  between  it  and  the  pectoral 
fin  of  the  side  which  happened  to  lie  uppermost.  As  the  fin  is 
approached  the  furrows  become  less  marked,  and  it  is  not  easy  to 
discern  the  furrow  nearest  the  fin.  The  skin  in  the  axillary  region 
is  much  folded  longitudinally,  which  further  complicates  matters. 
By  doubling  the  number  of  furrows  thus  counted  and  adding  the 
unpaired  median  an  estimate  of  the  total  number  was  made.  The 
furrows  in  the  smallest  foetus  (3  ft.  11  in.)  were  represented  by 
mere  lines,  and  could  not  be  counted  with  accuracy.  The  folds  of 
twenty-seven  specimens  were  counted,  of  which  twelve  had  no  dis- 
tinguishable median  furrow.  The  average  depth  of  these  furrows 
was  about  "68  in.  (deduced  from  eight  measurements),  and  the  average 
horizontal  distance  between  points  above  the  middle  lines  of  the  same 
number  of  furrows  was  1'85  in.,  varying  from  1'37  in.  to  1'96  in.  These 
measurements  were  taken  from  a.  portion  of  blubber  lying  on  the 
plane  and  not  stretched  in  any  way. 

It  is  essential  that  the  counting  should  always  be  made  in  the 
same  position,  as  some  of  the  folds  do  not  run  the  whole  length  of 
the  furrowed  area.  There  does,  however,  appear  to  be  a  certain 
amount  of  uniformity  in  the  folding,  the  shorter  folds  corresponding 
with  each  other  in  different  whales,  if  not  with  absolute  accuracy,  nt 
any  rate  nearly  so. 

(c)  Tongue. — The  coloiu'  of  the  tongue  as  a  whole  is  dark  grey, 
but  the  area  which  is  the  morphological  upper  sm-face,  which  is 
distinguishable  from  the  morphological  lower  surface,  shades  oft  into 
pink  towards  the  '  tip.' 

2.  Blue  Whales  (B.  sibbaldii,  Gray). 
Colo7iration. — The  only  point  to  which  I  wish  to  draw  attention  is 
that  there  are  some  curious  markings  on  the  skin,  especially  ven- 
trally,  but  not  confined  to  that  aspect.  These  markings  take  the  form 
of  curved,  darker  and  lighter  lines  radiating  from  a  common  centre. 
The  area  of  such  markings  is  about  8  in.  long  and  4  in.  wide.  Where 
there  is  a  number  of  markings  crowded  together,  the  appearance  of 
the  skin  forcibly  reminds  one  of  the  pattern  produced  on  the  surface 
of  '  galvanised  iron.'  These  markings  occur  in  considerable  abundance 
on  large  areas  O'f  the  skin. 

3.  Sejhval  (B.  borealis,  Lesson). 

E.rlprnal  Cliaraciers. — The  solitary  example  of  this  species  taken 
was   a  female.      Although  a   small  species    (this   specimen   was   only 


BELMULLET   WHALING   STATION.  133 

46  ft.  7  in.  long)  it  has  a  robust  figure,  and  the  dorsal  fin  is  of  great 
height  as  compared  with  that  of  the  Finner.  This  specimen  had  been 
lying  at  the  buoy  from  Thursday  afternoon  until  it  was  hauled  up 
on  Saturday  morning,  and  was  therefore  considerably  decomposed. 
The  dorsal  surface  was  dark  grey,  as  was  also  the  post-anal  area  of 
the  ventral  surface.  The  pre- anal  region  was  for  the  most  part  of 
white  colour,  asymmetrically  arranged.  There  was  a  considerable 
amount  of  black  blotching  towards  the  left  side  of  this  area,  and  on 
this  side  the  white  area  was  continued  backwards  in  a  large  patch. 
There  was  no  white  patch  coiTesponding  with  this  on  the  right  side. 
The  symphysis  was  pigmented,  and  here  there  was  a  whorled  design 
similar  to  that  on  the  skin  of  the  Blue  "Whale  as  described  above. 
The  upper  lips  and  the  lower  side  of  the  anterior  end  of  the  rostrum 
were  nearly  black,  and  were  finely  tuberculated.  The  inner  (palmar) 
surface  of  the  pectoral  fins  was  pale,  streaky,  greenish  grey,  with 
black  streaks  intermingling  with  the  less  dark  flecks.  The  right  side 
was  a  dark  grey,  nearly  black.  This  may  have  been  due  to  the  fact 
that  the  right  side  had  been  more  exposed  to  the  sun  than  the  left  side 
as  the  animal  lay  at  the  buoy. 

The  ear  aperture  was  small.  The  tongue  presented  an  area  which 
could  be  more  readily  recognised  as  the  dorsal  surface  than  in  the 
case  of  the  Finners. 

4.  Humpback  (Megaptera  longimana,  Eud.). 

External  Ch<iracters. — The  form  of  the  single  specimen  taken  was 
robust,  reminding  one  somewhat  of  the  figure  of  the  Sperm  Whale. 
The  dorsal  fin  was  placed  far  back  and  was  much  falcated,  and  of 
moderate  height.  The  colour  was  slate-chocolate,  but  very  dark, 
almost  black.  Pure  white,  splashed,  ring-like  marks  occurred  on  the 
lower  jaw  and  on  the  dorsal  side  of  the  pect.oral  fin.  The  outer  sides 
of  the  right  mandible  and  of  the  right  upper  jaw  were  white,  but 
on  the  left  only  the  inner  sides  were  unpigmented.  The  ventral 
surface  of  the  flukes  was  white.  The  ventral  folds  were  few  in 
number  (23),  and  wide;  running  up  the  centre  of  each  groove  was 
a  low  ridge  about  "375  in.  high,  of  triangular  section.  The  folds 
were  about  4  in.  wide  and  5  in.  apart.  The  median  fold,  with  the 
next  on  each  side,  also  the  fold  next  the  right  pectoral  fin,  were  mere 
narrow  grooves. 

There  was  a  deep  groove  running  from  the  angle  of  the  jaw 
downwards  and  backwards  to  a  point  about  one-third  of  the  width 
of  the  pectoral  fin  from  its  anterior  margin.  Another  groove  ran 
from  a  point  a  little  above  and  in  advance  of  the  termination  of  this 
groove  to  a  point  somewhat  behind  the  posterior  margin  of  the 
pectoral,  and  a  little  above  it.  Unlike  the  small  external  auditory 
aperture  of  the  Balsenopterids  the  opening  in  this  specimen  was 
S  in.  long.  The  upper  surface  of  the  snout  had  the  characteristic 
knobs  of  the  species.  In  the  mid-dorsal  line  there  were  five,  the 
first  being  n  in.  from  the  tip  of  the  snout,  and  tlie  last  l^  in.  from  the 
spiracle.  The  spaces  bet\\eeii  the  knobs,  running  from  the  snout,  were 
1<H,    .18,   J'2.l,   23^  in.   respectively.     There  were  also  two  series  of 


134  REPORTS   ON  THE  STATE   OF  SCIENCE. — 1914. 

lateral  knobs,  following  the  margins  of  the  rostrum,  nine  on  each  side 
in  a  consecutive  row.  Inside  these  rows,  at  tlieir  posterior  ends, 
was  a  second  series  of  four  knobs  on  each  side.  The  knobs  of  the 
inner,  short  row  were  set  beside  those  of  the  outer  row,  forming 
l^airs  with  them.  But  the  two  sides  were  not  symmetrical.  Thus, 
if  the  knobs  oi  the  outer  row  are  numbered  1  to  9  from  before  back- 
wards, on  the  left  side  7,  8,  and  9  were  paired,  and  there  was  a 
single  knob  of  the  inner  row  behind  the  termination  of  the  outer 
series.  On  the  right  side  6,  7,  8,  and  9  were  paired,  and 
there  was  no  unpaired  knob  posteriorly.  Several  of  the  left-side 
knobs  had  a  hair  on  the  summit,  which  suggests  that  the  knobs  may 
be  overgrown  hair-papillae,  and  their  arrangement  does  correspond 
fairly  closely  with  the  arrangement  of  the  hairs  of  BalcBiioptera.  On 
the  symphysis  there  were  four  knobs  on  the  right  side  and  five  on 
the  left.  In  each  case  there  was  a  vertical  row  of  tliree.  The  knobs 
varied  in  size,  a  large  one  being  2  in.  high  and  4  in.  across  the  base. 

The  eye  appears  to  be  rather  more  movable  than  in  Balcenoptera. 
The  pectoral  fin  has  an  exceedingly  irregular  posterior  margin.  There 
were  seven  conspicuous  elevations  on  it,  varying  in  length  from 
10  to  27  in. 

5.  Sperm  Whale  (P.  m-acrocephalus,  L.). 

(a)  External  Characters. — Six  specimens  were  examined.  The 
general  body-colour  is  pale  greyish  chocolate,  rather  more  lead-like 
ventrally.  Between  the  genital  aperture  and  the  umbilicus  there  is 
a  splashed  chevron-shaped  mark  of  a  pal§  grey  colour.  The  apex 
is  on  tlie  umbilicus,  and  directed  forwards,  the  '  arms  '  being  about 
4  ft.  apart  at  the  tips.  There  are  also  irregular  grey  flecks  all 
over  the  ventral  surface.  In  some  specimens  the  front  of  the  head 
is  barred  horizontally  with  streaks  which  are  almost  white  in  colour. 
They  are  broadest  in  the  middle  and  taper  towards  the  ends.  The 
whole  of  the  head,  and  in  particular  the  anterior,  ventral,  and  lateral 
areas,  have  numerous  weals  and  sucker  marks  which  have  been  pro- 
duced by  the  arms  and  suckers  of  the  cuttlefish,  which  are  the  main 
food  of  this  species.  As  might  be  expected  from  the  fact  that  the 
suckers  of  many  of  the  molluscs  are  armed  with  chitinous  teeth,  the 
sucker  marks  take  the  form  of  rings  of  minute  pricks.  One  such 
mark  was  3|  in.  across.  The  fifth  Sperm  "Whale  had  a  large  patch 
of  pure  white  on  the  umbilicus,  and  an  extensive  array  of  grey 
streaks  on  the  left  side,  in  addition  to  the  grey  chevron. 

(b)  Spiracle. — In  every  case  the  left  spiracle  alone  was  functional. 
On  the  right  side,  however,  afterthe  blubber  has  been  removed,  there  is 
a  compressed  cavity,  approximately  oval  in  shape,  about  18  in.  long 
and  10  in.  wide,  in  the  position  corresponding  with  that  of  the  obliterated 
right  spiracle.  The  lining  of  this  cavity  is  heavily  pigmented  with 
the  same  colour  as  the  outer  surface  of  the  animal.  There  can  be 
no  doubt  that  this  is  the  vestige  of  the  right  spiracle,  although  no 
passage  was  observed  running  backwards  from  it  in  the  direction  of 
the  pharynx. 

(c)  Mouth. — The  palate  and  floor  of  the  mouth  have  a  general 
pale   grey  colour  and  have  a  large  number  of  small  grooves,    about 


BELMULLET  WHALING  STATION.  135 

an  inch  in  length,  running  longitudinally.  On  the  palate  of  the  fii'st 
Sperm  Whale  there  were  two  large  dark  blotches.  That  on  the  left 
was  about  8  in.  long,  that  on  the  right  11  in. 

{d)  Tongue. — The  tongue  of  Physeter  affords  a  striking  contrast 
to  that  of  a  Mystacocete.  It  is  an  exceedingly  hard,  strong  structure 
of  comparatively  small  size,  and  very  nearly  occludes  the  throat  as  the 
animal  lies  on  the  plane  with  the  jaw  gaping  open.  The  tongue 
stands  up  from  the  jaw  to  a  height  of  about  2  ft.,  and,  as  viewed 
from  the  front,  presents  a  smooth,  round  wall,  like  the  side  of  a 
section  of  wide  tubing.  The  upper  surface  is  wrinkled,  and  in  front  is 
produced  into  a  small  projection,  which  appears  to  correspond  with  the 
tip  of  the  normal  mammahan  tongue.  From  its  structure  the  tongue 
would  appear  to  be  of  use  in  preventing  the  ingress  of  water  during 
respiration,  but  in  the  dead  animal,  at  any  rate,  this  very  fact  of  its 
nearly  closing  the  throat  gives  the  impression  that  the  organ  would  be  a 
hindrance  to  the  swallowing  of  large  prey.  That  this  cannot  be  the 
case,  however,  is  apparent  from  the  size  of  the  cuttlefish  which  we 
found  in  the  stomach  of  one  specimen,  as  described  in  Section  V. 

(p)  Teeth. — Teeth  occur  in  both  jaws.  Only  those  of  the  lower 
jaw  can,  however,  be  of  much  practical  value  in  the  capture  of  food, 
as  the  upper-jaw  teeth  are  of  small  size,  and  often  nearly  covered 
with  soft  tissue.  The  lower-jaw  teeth  are  about  twenty  in  number 
on  each  side,  and  are  arranged  in  pairs,  but  the  two  teelh  of  eadi 
pair  are  not  exactly  opposite  to  one  another. 

Actual  numbers  of  teeth  in  the  different  Sperm  Whales  examined  :  — 

right  side      23 
19 
20  plus  2  „  21  plus  1 

23 

21 

The  two  most  anterior  teeth  of  each  side  project  somewhat  for- 
ward, but  the  majority  of  the  teeth  are  nearly  vertical,  being  some- 
what recurved  in  most  cases  and  having  a  slight  inclination  outward. 
The  acuteness  O'f  the  point  is  very  variable,  but  this  may  be  merely  due 
to  differences  in  age  of  the  animals.  One  tooth  was  seen  which 
had  been  broken  off,  but  the  stump  did  not  appear  to  be  at  all  decayed. 
In  the  palate  there  is  a  hollow  coiTesponding  with  each  tooth  of  the 
lower  jaw,  into  which  the  latter  fits  when  the  mouth  is  shut. 

The  upper-jaw  teeth  are  small,  inclining  backwards,  and  deeply 
embedded  in  soft  tissue,  but  they  do  have  some  little  use,  as  is 
demonstrated  by  the  fact  that  in  many  cases  they  are  much  worn 
down  by  contact  with  the  lower-jaw  teeth.  The  most  posterior  of 
the  latter  are  also  very  small,  and  of  little  use,  occurring  very  far 
•back.     There  were  no  teeth  in  Ihe  upper  jaw  of  Nos.  16  and  26. 

Number  15  . 

16  ...  . 

21  ...  . 

22  ...  . 

25  ...       . 

26  ...       . 


Number  15 

.     left  side 

21 

16       . 

»> 

19 

21       . 

.           >> 

20 

22       . 

tt 

— 

25       . 

?j 

24 

26       . 

., 

20 

Teeth  in 

upper  jaw — 

left  side  5 

right  side 

7 

0 

0 

8 

7 

?'      — 

— 

7 

7 

0 

0 

136  REPORTS   ON   THE   STATE   OP  SCIENCE. — 1914. 

(/)  Dorsal  Fin. — The  dorsal  fin  of  the  Sperm  Whale  consists  of 
a  prominent  elevation,  which  rises  to  a  height  of  from  14  to  18  in. 
above  the  line  of  the  back.  The  fin  is  succeeded  by  a  series  of  about 
six  much  smaller  prominences  which  decrease  in  size  towards  the 
tail.  None  of  these  at  all  approaches  the  altitude  of  the  dorsal  fin. 
They  are,  nevertheless,  quite  obvious.  On  the  ventral  surface  the 
keel  of  the  caudal  region  is  continued  forwards  towards  the  anus  as 
a  much  more  definite  ridge  than  in  the  Baleenopterids. 

[g)  Flipper. — The  shape  of  the  flipper  is  somewhat  variable.  In 
No.  21  the  left  pectoral  appeared  to  have  been  damaged  at  some 
period,  as  there  was  a  large  notch  on  the  preaxial  side  of  the  tip. 

(h)  Spermaceti. — In  every  specimen  the  quantity  of  this  substance 
was  large,  usually  constituting  about  one-third  of  the  total  oil  yield 
of  a  whale  of  this  species.  It  occurs  all  over  the  body  as  well  as  in 
the  head,  but  no  attention  is  paid  to  it  except  in  the  head,  the  rest 
merely  contributing  to  the  general  production  of  '  sperm  oil.'  In 
the  head  there  are  three  extensive  cavities,  an  anterior  single  cavity 
and  two  lateral  cavities.  They  all  occur  in  the  interior  of  a  huge 
mass  of  exceedingly  dense,  fibrous  connective  tissue,  which,  when 
drained  of  spermaceti,  is  of  a  snowy  whiteness.  This  mass  con- 
stitutes the  great  bulk  of  the  head,  and  rests  upon  the  large  cup- 
like structure  formed  by  the  bones  of  the  rostrum.  The  cavities 
do  not  appear  to  possess  definite  linings,  and  when  the  oil  runs  out, 
masses  of  light,  spongy  tissue  filled  with  the  liquid  fat  run  out  also, 
ns  if  they  had  been  loosely  attached  to  the  walls  of  the  cavity.  They 
are  probably  liberated  by  the  instruments  introduced  through  the  wall 
o<f  the  cavity  in  the  process  o^f  tapping  the  spermaceti. 

The  following  is  the  method  of  tapping.  After  the  whale  Is  flensed, 
the  body  is  cut  off  from  the  head,  which  is  left  lying  on  its  side. 
The  whole  head  is  covered  by  a  thick  coat  of  mixed  muscle  and 
tendon  running  longitudinally.  The  tendons  are  conspicuous,  and 
may  be  removed  in  considerable  lengths  with  little  difficulty.  The 
cutting  of  the  hole  in  this  capsule  is  an  arduous  work,  and  may 
occupy  nearly  an  hour.  A  mid-dorsal  and  an  anterior  aperture  are 
made,  and  when  the  cavities  have  been  penetrated,  the  spermaceti 
runs  out  as  if  from  a  pipe.  A  movable  wooden  gutter  is  placed  beneath 
the  hole,  by  means  of  which  the  oil  is  run  into  the  two  open  boilers, 
in  which  it  is  cooked. 

Spermaceti  is  an  almost  colourless,  transparent  liquid,  having  a 
pale  yellow  tinge.  It  has  not  any  noticeable  odour,  and  the  flavoui- 
is  very  faintly  fishy,  resembling  that  of  a  fresh  duck  egg.  After 
boiling,  the  oil  has  a  dark  yellow  colour  while  liquid.  When  cold, 
both  before  and  after  boihng,  it  sets  stiff,  but  is  not  hard,  the  con- 
sistency being  about  that  of  lard.  The  uses  of  this  oil  have  been 
indicated  in  the  Introduction. 

From  the  position  of  the  spermaceti,  and  also  of  the  blow-hole  in 
Physeter,  the  following  function  of  the  former  may  be  suggested :  The 
food  of  the  Sperm  Whale  is,  in  the  main,  composed  of  cuttlefish 
such  as  Architeuthis.  As  these  forms  are  bathypelagic,  it  follows 
that  the   whales  must  descend   to   considerable   deptbs  to    feed,    and 


BELMULLET   WHALING   STATION.  137 

remain  submerged  while  feeding.^  A  very  rapid  ascent  would  be 
exceedingly  advantageous  after  a  prolonged  immersion,  and  the  more 
rapid  the  ascent  which  could  be  made  the  longer  the  immersion  could 
be  continued.  In  order  to  be  able  to  ascend  as  speedily  as  possible, 
it  would  be  of  the  greatest  advantage  to  possess  a  large  mass  of  some 
material,  having  a  lower  specific  gravity  than  that  of  water,  which 
would  act  as  a  float,  and  such  a  material  spermaceti  is.  Moreover, 
as  the  mass  of  the  spermaceti  is  placed  in  the  head,  and  as  it  is  of 
enormous  size,  even  compared  with  the  great  mass  of  a  Sperm  Whale, 
the  animal  will  always  ascend  head  first,  and  probably  nearly  verti- 
cally, with  the  result  that  the  first  portion  of  the  body  to  come 
above  the  surface  will  be  the  upper  edge  of  the  snout,  the  precise 
situation  of  the  spiracle.  It  would  appear,  if  this  suggestion  be 
correct,  that  in  order  to  descend  and  to  maintain  a  submerged  con- 
dition, muscular  exertion  is  necessary,  whereas  ascent  is  automatic, 
and  is  merely  accelerated  by  swimming  movements.  These  two 
points  are  in  keeping  with  the  habits  of  the  whale  as  indicated  above. 
It  is  possible  that  the  astounding  feat  which  has  been  credited  to 
Physefer,  that  of  Hurling  itself  bodily  out  of  the  water,  is  really  the 
result  of  a  hurried  ascent  from  a  considerable  depth,  which  has  been 
so  rapid  that  the  animal  has  shot  out  of  the  water  on  reaching  the 
surface. 

V. — Food  of  Different  Species  of  Whale. 

The  stomachs  of  all  the  species  of  Mystacocetes  examined  con- 
tained the  remains  of  Meganyctiphanes  norvegica  (M.  Sars),  some- 
times in  immense  quantities.  Nothing  else  was  ever  seen,  except 
some  fragments  of  flesh  on  one  occasion,  but  there  can  be  little  doubt 
that  these  had  been  driven  into  the  stomach  by  the  explosion  of  the 
harpoon.  No  fish  of  any  sort  wei'e  seen  in  the  stomachs  of  any  of 
these  whales.^ 

The  stomachs  of  the  Sperm  Whales  invariably  contained  large 
quantities  of  cuttlefish  beaks,  which  might  be  readily  divided  into 
large  and  small  sizes,  but,  apart  from  size,  there  was  nothing  to 
differentiate  the  two  sei'ies  of  beaks  (fig.  1).  A  practically  complete 
specimen  of  one  of  the  molluscs  was  found  in  the  stomach  of  No.  22 
fthe  fourth  Sperm  Whale).  The  following  measurements  were  taken 
on  this  animal :  — 

Ft.  in. 

Length  of  the  mantle fi  0 

Circumference  of  mantle 4  0 

Length  of  the  eight  short  arms 6  0 

,,  ,,      tentacles 21  0 

Length  of  tail 17 

Width  of  caudal  fin 1  9t 

Diameter  of  largest  sucker 0  1 " 

In  addition  to  this  specimen,  we  saw  fragments  of  others  of 
approximately  the  same  size.  The  following  specimens  were  pre- 
served: tip  of  tentacle,  beak  and  radula  in  liquid,  and  a  quantity  of 
beaks  and  part  of  an  internal  shell  in  the  dry  state.     An  examination 

'  Vide  Burfield,  op.  cit.,  p.  155  '  Vidt  Burfield,  op.  cit.,  p.  178. 


138  REPORTS   ON  THE   STATE   OP  SCIENCE. — 1914. 

of  these  remains  leaves  little  doubt  that  the  species  is  Architeuthis 
harveyi,  Verrill  ® — the  caudal  fin  was  too  much  digested  to  indicate 
whether  it  had  been  sagittate  or  not.  The  distal  series  of  small,  smooth 
suckers  are  not  now  on  the  tentacle  tip,  but  these  again  may  have  been 


Fig.  1. — Architeuthis  harveyi.     Beak. 


lost  owing  to  the  same  cause.     No  soft  parts  of  any  of  the  smaller 
cuttlefish  were  found. 

The  molluscs  appear  to  be  quite  lively  when  swallowed,  as  there 
are  scars  on  the  heads  of  the  whales  right  up  to  the  angle  of  the  mouth. 
These  have  been  produced  by  the  vain  efforts  of  the  molluscs  to  save 
themselves.  Sucker-marks  were  seen  on  the  inside  of  one  of  the  whales' 
stomachs.  Two  or  three  jawbones  of  some  species  of  predaceous  fish 
were  found  in  the  stomach  of  one  Sperm  Whale,  but,  except  for  these, 
nothing  but  cuttlefish  remains  were  ever  noticed. 

VI. — Notes  on  a  Feio  Miscellaneo'us  Sfecimens  Preserved. 

(a)  One  of  the  Norwegians  gave  us  an  object,  taken  from  whale 
No.    5   (Finner),    which  was   stated  to  have  been   '  inside  the  ribs. ' 
This  appears  to  be  a  pathological  structure.     It  is  a  flattened,  oblong 
object  about  2J  in.   long,  and  2  in.  wide,  and  about  f  in.  thick.     At 
one  point  there  seems  to  have  been  a  peduncle.     The  entire  specimen 
has  a  very  hard  capsule  of  fibrous  connective  tissue,  and  is  filled  with 
a  more  or  less  reticulate  mass,  containing  what  may  have  been  a  coagul- 
able  fluid.    There  is  a  certain  amount  of  calcification  in  the  outer  layers 
just  beneath  the  capsule,   and  a  little  fat  is  visible  on  treatment  with 
Sudan  III.     The  conclusion  to  which  the  structures  observed  point  is 
that  this  is  a  region  of  connective  tissue,  which  has  become  infiltrated 
with  some  pathological  product,  and  has  acquired  the  thick  capsule  in 
consequence  of  its  abnormal  condition.    The  infiltrating  material  is  verv 
varied,   in  some  parts  it  takes  magenta  brilliantly,  while  in  others  it 
stains  in  a  very  faint  manner.       The  more  brilliantly  coloured  tissue 
appears  more  homogeneous  than  that  which  refuses  to  take  the  stain. 
The  colour  of  the  capsule  is  dark  brownish-grey,  that  of  the  contents 
a  deep  cream  (fig.  2,  No.  1). 

(b)  There  are  numerous  roundish  glandular  objects  embedded  in 
the  fat  which  lies  in  the  mid-dorsal  region  of  the  body  cavity  of  the 
Finner  and  surrounds  the  great  vessels.  These  are  lymphatic  glands. 
One  such  specimen  preserved  is  of  very  in-egular  shape.  It  is  H  in. 
in  greatest  length  and  1^  in.  in  greatest  breadth  (fig.  2,  No.  2). 

»  Trans.  Coun.  Acad,  of  Arts  and  Sciences,  Vol.  5,  Pt.  1,  p.  197  (1880). 


BELMULLET   WHALING   STATION. 


139 


(c)  A  number  of  greenish  bodies  were  taken  from  a  similar  position 
in  the  Sperm  Whale.  The  specimens  are  about  2i  in.  long,  about 
2  in.  wide,  and  f  in.  thick,  at  the  thickest  part.  The  histological 
condition  is  exceedingly  bad,  as  was  to  be  expected  from  the  general 
state  of  all  the  Sperm  Whales  which  we  saw.  There  is  a  connective- 
tissue  capsule,  and  a  great  mass  of  the  body  is  composed  of  the 
same  tissue.  There  are  two  or  three  objects  which  may  be  sections 
of  medullated  nerves,  and  a  number  of  rather  thick-walled  blood- 
vessels.    No  other  structures  can  be  recognised. 

(d)  The  rectum  of  Physeter  has  an  exceedingly  well-develojied 
cuticular  lining  for  the  last  four  or  six  feet  of  its  length.       In  the 


o- 


Fig.  2.— 1.  Calcified  Body,  from  Finner  No.  5.     2.  Lymphatic  Gland,  Firmer. 
3.  Cysticercus,  from  P%se<er.     (All  natural  size.) 

first  specimen  in  which  it  was  observed  the  lining  was  detached  owing 
to  decomposition,  but  in  a  later  example  it  was  found  to  he  attached 
to  the  remainder  of  the  intestinal  wall.  This  lining  is  about  -J  in. 
thick.  It  has  a  pale  yellow  colour,  and  is  of  a  consistency  somewhat 
resembling  that  of  a  very  hard-boiled  egg.  It  is  laminated,  and  can 
be  readily  split  into  layers.  At  irregular  distances  on  the  surface 
are  hollows,  penetrating  partly  or  completely  through  the  lining.  The 
edges  of  these  hollows  have  a  puckered  appearance.  The  line  of 
junction  of  this  lining  with  the  mucosa  of  the  intestine  is  perfectly 
sharp.  The  lining  thins  out  very  much  just  prior  to  its  cessation, 
and  the  edges  of  successive  laminae  are  readily  observed.  The  actual 
thickness  of  the  lining  where  it  comes  to  an  end  is  tV  in.  The  colour 
of  the  mucous  membrane,  which  is  fairly  tough,  is  a  dull  pink,  very 
much  stained  with  sepia.  Longitudinal  sections  of  this  region  at 
the  point  of  junction  clearly  show  that  this  is  a  cuticle  derived  from 
the  stratified  epithelium  of  the  rectum.  The  cuticle  comes  to  a 
very    abrupt   termination,    where    it    joins    the    mucosa,    the    line   of 


140  REPORTS   ON   THE   STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

junction  being  very   obvious   in  the  slides.        The  epitheUal  layer   is 
about  half  as  thick  as  the  cuticular. 

VII. — Parasites. 

1.  External. 

(a)  Balceuophilus  uniselus  (Aurivillius).  We  have  nothing  to  add 
to  Burfield's  remarks  on  this  species.^" 

(b)  PencUa  (Kov.  and  Dan.).  This  parasite  was  observed  on  few 
of  the  whales  examined,  and  only  on  the  Finner.  Three  specimens 
were  preserved,  which  vary  in  length  from  5f  in.  to  10  in.  No 
males  were  found  as  a  result  of  the  examination  of  these  females. 
We  frequently  found  white  scars  upon  the  skin  of  B.  musculus,  which 
were  apparently  healed  wounds  caused  by  Penella.  The  scars  took  the 
form  of  small  oval  marks  about  ^^  in.  long  and  ^  in.  wide.  Beneath 
the  white  area  the  epidermis  is  more  firmly  adherent  than  in  other 
parts  of  a  preserved  specimen,  which  supports  the  view  that  these 
are  healed  wounds.  We  often  found  open  wounds  on  the  whales, 
which  had  evidently  been  produced  by  this  parasite. 

All  the  Penella  which  we  saw  occurred  at  the  beginning  of  the 
season,  and  in  the  latter  part  of  it  only  wounds  from  which  the 
Copepods  had  fallen  were  observed.  It  may  therefore  be  suggested 
that  the  period  of  attachment  of  the  parasite  to  the  whale  is  less 
than  a  year. 

(c)  Coromda  diadevia  (L.),  &c.  On  the  Humpback  there  were 
large  quantities  of  this  species  on  the  tips  and  especially  on  the 
posterior  margins  of  the  flippers.  They  were  also  found  on  tlie 
ventral  furrows,  and  some  small  specimens  were  adhering  behind 
the  penis. 

A  number  of  specimens  O'f  Conclwderma  aurita  (L.)  occurred  among 
the  Coronula,  as  well  as  a  good  number  of  small  specimens  of  Cyavuis, 
which  last  parasite  was  also  generally  scattered  over  the  head  region. 
On  Pliyseter  No.  15  four  specimens  of  Cyamus  were  also  found  on 
the  throat  region,  where  there  are  a  few  short  wrnikles.  On  the  tip 
of  the  lower  jaw  of  Sperm  Whale  No.  16  there  \\as  a  small  colony 
of  Conclwderma  aurita,  while  another  specimen  of  the  same  species 
was  taken  from  the  second  tooth  of  the  left  side  of  the  lower  jaw  of 
Sperm  Whale  No.  25. 

2.  Internal. 

(a)  Trematodes. — Monostomum  plicatum  (Creplin)  was  found  in  the 
intestines  of  the  following  Finners :   1,  3,  19,  23,  24,  27,  30. 

(b)  Nematodes  .—We  found  nematodes,  which  appear  to  be  of  the 
genus  Ascaris,  in  the  stomachs  of  every  Sperm  Whale  examined. 
They  are  generally  very  abundant.  In  the  renal  vein  of  the  Megaptera 
the  mass  of  nematodes  described  later  was  found,  and  in  the  posterior 
vena  cava  of  B.  sibbaldii,  No.  33,  a  solitary,  incomplete  specimen  of 
another  nematode  was  taken.  These  worms  all  appear  to  belong  to 
the  StrongylidcB.  As  mentioned  later,  in  the  digitate  structure  observed 
in  the  veins  of  B.   musculus  nematode  eggs  were  found,  as  was  also 

'"'  Oil.  cit.,  p.  179. 


British  Association,  8ith  Beport,  Australia,  1914.] 


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Ilhistrating  the  Report  on  Belmullet  Whaling  Station. 

[To /ace  page  141. 


BELMULLET   WHALING   STATION.  141 

the  case  in  the  neighbourliood  of  the  mnss  of  the  worms  found  in  tlie 
Humpback. 

(c)  AcanthocephaliJ^  Representatives  of  this  group  were  found 
in  every  species  except  B.  borealia. 

B.  musciilus,     Echinorhynchus  porrigens  (RudolpLi),  new  host, 

B.  sibbaldii  „  pomg^en*  in  small  intestine,  new  host. 

„  ,,  brevicolUs  (Malm). 

M.  longimana  „  porrigens,  large  intestine. 

P.  macrocephalus  „  capitatus  (von  Linstow),  new  host. 

,,  ,,  brevicolUs  (Malm). 

(d)  Cestodes. — One  of  the  Norwegians  drew  our  attention  to  a 
large  number  of  soft  white  bodies  embedded  in  the  blubber  of  one 
of  the  Sperm  Whales.  They  occurred  in  a  more  or  less  irregular 
manner  at  a  depth  of  from  1|  to  6  in.  from  the  outer  surface.  Each 
body  is  enclosed  in  a  cyst  with  fibrous  walls  from  which  it  is  readily 
detached.  The  accompanying  figure  (fig.  2,  No.  3)  is  taken  from  a 
specimen  in  good  condition  and  undistorted.  Sections  of  these  bodies 
clearly  demonstrate  that  they  are  the  cysticercus  stage  of  some  Cestode. 
The  pi'oscolex  occurs  at  one  of  the  poles  of  the  long  axis.  The 
Prince  of  Monaco's  account  of  the  capture  of  a  Sperm  Whale  off  the 
Azores  in  1895  mentions  numerous  cysticerci  in  the  blubber  of  that 
animal,  which  are  probably  identical  with  those  here  described." 

(e)  Stnicture  found  in  the  renal  veins  and  posterior  vena-  cava 
(see  figs.  3  and  4). 

In  whale  No.  8  <?,  while  searching  for  the  suprarenal,  we  came 
across  a  series  of  short,  digitate  processes,  hanging  into  the  lumen 
of  the  vena  cava  at  the  point  of  entrance  of  the  renal  vein.  A  similar 
structure  occurred  in  whales  Nos.  12  3,  13  <S,  27  <S,  30  ?,  32  2,  all 
Finners.  In  two  of  the  Blue  Whales,  Nos.  17  ?  and  33  ?,  it  was 
also  present,  as  well  as  in  Megaptera,  No.  28  3,  but  in  the  last  in 
a  somewhat  different  form.  In  some  specimens,  owing  to  the  manner 
in  which  the  kidney  was  cut  away  from  the  body  in  removing  the 
entrails,  it  was  impossible  to  say  whether  the  structure  had  been 
present  or  not.  No  trace  of  it  was  found  in  any  of  the  Sperm  Whales 
examined. 

The  specimens  preserved  are  four  in  number,  all  differing  from 
one  another.  The  accompanying  figures  show  the  two  larger  speci- 
mens. Fig.  3  is  an  example  of  the  most  digitate  fonn.  This 
specimen  is  not  actually  in  the  renal  vein,  but  projects  from  the  wall 
of  the  vena  cava  close  to  the  point  of  entrance  of  the  renal  vein. 
The  digitate  processes  are  not  actually  tubular,  but  contain  cavities. 
which  in  the  free  ends  are  nearly  continuous,  so  that  the  whole 
process  is  here  practically  a  blind  sac.  The  diameter  of  the  processes 
increases  from  the  free  end  towards  the  wall  of  the  vena  cava.  The 
digitations  unite  at  the  point  of  attachment,  and  the  structure  thus 
formed  is  continued  beyond  the  wall  of  the  vein  towards  the  kidney. 
It  is  most  unfortunate  that  we  were  unable  to  preserve  a  specimen 

"  Vide  A.  E.  Shipley,  Archives  de  Pnrasitologte.  IT.,  No.  2,  p.  262,  1899, 
'-  BuU.  Mux.  Xnt.  Hist.,  Paris,  t.  1,  p.  ,308,  1895. 


142  REPORTS    OK   THE    STATE    OP   SCIENCE, — 1914. 

sufficiently  large  to  show  whether  there  is  an  actual  connection  with 
the  kidney  itself.  But  from  notes  taken  at  the  Station,  I  find  that 
in  one  of  the  Blue  Whales  this  structure  was  followed  up,  and  that 
branches  of  the  renal  vein  were  found  blocked  by  it  in  the  proximal 
region  of  the  kidney.  This  was  also  the  case  in  the  Humpback, 
No.  28. 

The  interior  of  the  digitations  shows  the  cavities  above  mentioned, 
separated  from  each  other  by  walls  of  connective  tissue  continuous 
with  the  tissue  of  the  walls  of  the  tube.  In  section  the  wall  is  seen 
to  be  composed  of  fibrous  connective  tissue  very  dense  externally, 
but  more  open  in  the  inner  layers,  where  there  are  also  some  nodules 
of  lymphoid  tissue.  The  partitions  between  adjacent  cavities  come 
ofT  from  the  inner  layers  of  the  outer  wall.  There  are  a  few  blood- 
vessels in  these  structures.  The  cavities  are  filled  with  material  which 
varies  in  consistency  from  that  of  a  rather  stiff  pulp  to  a  stony  hard- 
ness. In  the  latter  case  the  material  contains  a  varying  amount  of 
inorganic  salts,  chiefly  calcium  phosphate,  of  which  there  may  be  as 
much  as  80  per  cent,  present.  These  concretions  are  very  hard  in 
the  fully  calcified  condition,  and  are  rounded  in  form  in  the  Finners, 
but  more  rod-like  in  specimens  taken  from  a  Blue  Whale  and  the 
Humpback.  The  soft  material  varies  in  its  composition.  In  its 
softest  state  it  is  easily  teased  out  in  water,  and  is  then  seen  to  be 
composed  of  a  mass  of  nematode  eggs.  Although  the  shells  are 
very  thick,  and  resist  the  action  of  pure  nitric  acid  and  of  strong 
alkali,  they  are  very  transparent,  and  embryos  may  be  seen  in  their 
interiors  in  stages  of  development  varying  from  morula-like  masses 
to  small  coiled  worms.  In  the  partially  calcified  material  it  is  still 
possible  to  separate  by  teasing  numbers  of  these  ova,  which  are 
here  covered  with  the  calcium  deposit.  On  the  application  of  mineral 
acid  the  inorganic  material  dissolves  away,  leaving  the  ova  distinctly 
recognisable  as  such. 

Fig.  4  shows  a  specimen  which  is  confined  to  the  renal  vein,  and 
has  no  digitations  hanging  intO'  the  vena  cava.  There  is  a  single 
cylindrical  body  about  6  in.  long  attached  to  the  wall  of  the 
renal  vein  by  strap-like  bands  of  varying  breadth  tapering  somewhat 
towards  their  junctions  with  the  body.  Sections  of  this  body  show 
the  thick  wall,  partitions,  and  congregations  of  ova,  as  described  above. 
The  ova  appear  to  be  embedded  in  a  matrix  nearly  homogeneous,  but 
containing  numerous  small  rounded  bodies,  which  stain  daskly  with 
Ehrlich's  hfematoxylin.  They  may  be  nuclei,  and  in  that  case  indicate 
that  the  matrix  is  probably  cellular.  In  the  renal  vein  of  Megaptera  a 
mass  of  tissue  was  found  of  an  elongated  form,  and  containing  hard 
calcareous  material  together  with  a  number  of  tangled  nematode  worms, 
which  appear  to  belong  to  the  family  Strongylidas.  The  worms  were 
mostly  enveloped  in  sheathing  tissue  attached  to  the  wall  of  the  vein,  but 
the  sheath  was  not  always  complete. 

There  can  be  little  doubt  that  the  presence  of  these  worms  affords 
the  key  to  the  formation  of  the  growths  described  above.  It  is  known 
that  the  presence  in  a  vein  of  any  object  the  surface  of  which  is 
not  smooth,   or  of  lesions  of  the   intima  of   a  blood-vessel,    produces 


British  Association,  S4th  Eeijort,  Australia,  1914.] 


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Illustrating  the  Report  on  Behnullet  Whaling  Station. 


{To  face  page  142. 


MM 


BELMULLET   WHALING  STATION.  143 

a  thrombus,  which  may  in  the  course  of  time  become  organised." 
The  organisation  takes  the  form  of  a  prohieration  of  tlie  fibrous  tissue 
of  the  blood-vessel  wall,  which  in  the  course  of  time  entirely  replaces 
the  thrombus.  This  tissue  may  be  supplied  with  blood-vessels. 
Thrombi  may  become  calcified,  and  the  deposition  of  calcium  salts 
is  one  of  the  striking  features  of  the  structures  under  consideration. 
Again,  metazoan  parasites  have  been  known  to  cause  thrombi,^*  and 
in  the  cases  before  us  it  is  highly  probable  that  the  nematodes  have 
produced  vascular  lesion,  or  the  mere  presence  of  the  eggs  may  have 
been  sufficient  to  excite  coagulation  of  the  blood.  From  either  of 
these  causes  the  thrombi  may  have  been  formed,  becoming  subse- 
(jueutly  organised.  It  is  interesting  to  note  in  this  connection  that 
pedunculated,  if  not  digitated,  thrombi  have  occurred  in  the  human 
subject.  The  thrombus  in  Megaptera  appears  to  have  actually  enclosed 
the  worms  which  caused  it,  and  they  have  been  retained  by  the 
subsequent  organisation. 

VIII. — Foeiuses. 

B.  musculus. — None  of  the  foetuses  examined  by  us  were  suffi- 
ciently small  to  be  of  use  for  embryological  purposes.  They  were  all 
perfectly  formed,  and  even  in  the  smallest  (3  ft.  11  in.)  the  ventral 
furrows  of  the  adult  were  represented  by  mere  lines. 

Table  VI.  contains  a  list  of  the  foetuses,  and  a  detailed  list  of 
measurements  will  be  found  in  Table  XII.  It  may  be  noted  that 
the  8  ft.  foetus  of  No.  30  was  mutilated  by  some  of  the  workers 
before  we  arrived  on  the  scene,  while  that  of  No.  31  was  destroyed 
before  the  female  was  opened,  apparently  by  the  harpoon  explosion. 
The  sizes  of  both  of  these  are  therefore  estimates  only.  The  fcetus 
of  No.  47  (9  ft.  4  in.)  was  in  a  hopeless  state  of  decomposition,  and 
very  few  measurements  could  be  taken  upon  it. 

(a)  Body  form. — In  all  the  foetuses  which  we  saw  the  form  was 
the  same  as  in  the  adult,  but  in  the  smallest  it  was  noticeably  more 
robust. 

(b)  Colouration. — This  character  does  not  differ  from  that  of  the 
adult  animals.  The  dark  tint  is  found  in  the  same  situations.  The 
smaller  foetuses  are  very  much  less  pigmented.  In  the  3  ft.  11  in. 
fcetus  the  whole  skin  was  gorged  with  blood,  and  the  black  colour 
was  confined  to  the  following  localities :  back,  tip  of  dorsal  fin,  tip 
of  flippers,  tips  of  flukes,  tip  of  rostrum,  and  symphysis. 

B.  sibhaldii. — One  specimen,  7  ft.  7  in.  in  length,  was  seen.  The 
upper  surface  was  pale  grey,  the  distal  part  of  the  dorsal  fin  and 
the  external  mouth  parts  were  stained  with  black. 

IX. — Breeding  Season  of  the  Balanopterids . 
A  factor  which  may  be  used  in  attempting  to  ascertain  the  probable 
breeding  season  of  the  large  whales  is  the  sizes  of  the  foetuses  observed 
at  different  times.     Leaving  for  this  purpose  the  Blue  Whale  out  of 

"  Macfarlane,  Text  Book  of  Pathology,  1904  ed.,  pp.  107-8.     Green,  Manual 
of  Pathology,  11th  ed.,  p.  66. 
"  Green,' oy.  cit.,  p.  389. 


144 


REPORTS   ON  THE   STATE   OF  SCIENCE. — 1914, 


account,  because  very  few  of  this  species  have  been  seen  in  the  pregnant 
condition,  the  six  foetuses  which  we  saw  have  the  following  dimensions : 

Ft.    in. 
July  15 15      0 


Aug.  7 
„  7 
„     27 

Sept.  4 
„      9 


8 

0 

4 

0 

7 

10 

3 

11 

9 

4 

^t. 

in. 

8 

11 

4 

11 

8 

5 

6 

0 

5 

0 

9 

0 

9 

0 

9 

a 

Burfield's  table  of  foetuses  observed  in  1911  is  as  follows  : — 

July  12 

,,16 

„    20 

„    24 

Aug.     7 

„     11 

Sept.  10 9 

,.18 

The  j'oung  whale  appears  to  be  about  20  ft.  long  \\hen  born. 
If  the  size  of  the  foetus  is  proportional  to  the  length  of  gestation 
wliicli  has  elapsed  since  pairing  until  the  time  when  the  Icetus  is 
measured,  and  if  the  period  of  gestation  is  ten  months,''^  then  the 
fcetuses  found  must  have  been  the  result  of  pairings  at  approximately 
the  times  given   opposite  each  in  the  table  which   follows:  — 

Ft.  in. 

July   15  .  15       0  age  7i  mouths,  pairing  took  place  l)eLember-.Jaiiuary. 

Aug.     7  .  8       0  „  4  „  „  „  April  (bcgiuuing). 

„       7  .  4       0  „  2  ,,  ,,  „  June. 

„     27  .  7  10  „  4  „  „  „  April  (end). 

Sept.    4  .  .■>  11  „  2  „  „  „  July  (beginning). 

„      9  .  9      4  „  5  „  „  „  May. 

Pursuing  the  same  idea  with  the  1911  fcrtuscs,  we  have:  — 


July  12 
„  10 
„  20 
„     24 

7 
11 

Sept.  10 
„     18 


Aug. 


Ft. 
8 
4 
8 
6 
5 
9 
9 
9 


m. 
11 
11 
5 
0 
G 
0 
0 
3 


age  41  montlis,  pairing  took  jjlace  Marcli  (beginning). 

May  (beginning). 
March  (begiiuiing). 


2,1- 

41 

3' 

3 

5 

5 

5 


April  (end). 
May. 
March-April. 
May  (beginning). 
May. 


These  tunes  can  only  be  regarded  as  approximate,  even  if  the 
premises  upon  which  they  are  based  be  correct.  It  is,  however, 
suggested  by  this  table  that  pairing  may  take  j^lace  at  any  time 
between  the  end  of  December  (the  first  in  the  1913  series)  and  the 
beginning  of  July  [Mth  in  the  1913  table),  at  intervals  of  roughly 
two  months.  This  would  indicate  that  the  Balsenopterids  are,  at  any 
rate,  polyoestrous,  and  in  season  in  December  (February?),  April,  and 
June.  All  females  would  not  be  fit  for  breeding  actually  simultane- 
ously, but  the  precise  time  would  vary  for  different  individuals,  and 

''  Burfield,  op.   cit.,  p.  155. 


BELMULLET  WHALING   STATION.  145 

this  would  account  for  some  pairings  occurring  at  such  times  as  the 
beginning  of  July  or  the  beginning  of  May. 

Such  cases  would  belong  to  the  June  and  April  cEstra  respectively. 
It  is  probable  that  such  an  an-angement  would  be  advantageous. 
As  the  whale  is  a  pelagic  animal  and  individuals  are  widely  separated, 
a  fi-equently  recurring  breeding  condition  would  be  of  great  advantage  to 
an  animal  in  which  pairing  is  to  a  greater  or  less  extent  casual.  The 
above  suggestion,  which  was  originated  by  Mr.  Daniel,  appears  to  afford 
a  possible  explanation  of  the  extraordinary  variability  in  the  sizes  of  the 
foetuses,  apparently  without  regard  to  the  season,  a  circumstance  which 
the  idea  of  a  definite  monoestrous  condition  does  not  elucidate.  (It  is 
interesting  to  note  that  oai  June  13,  1913,  at  the  Inishkea  Station  a 
foetus  only  5  in.  long  was  found,  which  must  have  been  but  a  v/efek  or 
two  old,  i.e.,  of  the  June  pairing,  according  to  the  preceding  method 
of  reckoning  the  pairing  times.  It  was,  most  unfortunately,  not  possible 
to  preserve  it.) 

X. — Additional  Notes. 

(a)  Extinction. — The  whalemen  state  that  of  the  whales  which 
they  see  they  are  able  to  take  only  about  one  in  ten.  The  animals 
are  therefore  perhaps  not  in  immediate  danger  of  being  actually  killed 
out.  The  most  serious  risk  lies  in  the  fact  that  the  largest,  and  ■ 
therefore  the  adult,  whales  are  being  exterminated.  True  gives  as  the 
minimum  length  of  adult  animals  55  ft.  7  in.,  as  no  pregnant  females  ot 
less  dimensions  have  been  recorded.  Now  the  whalers  will  take  any- 
thing over  40  ft.,  with  the  result  that  the  animals  which  have  attained 
sexual  maturity  are  in  the  gravest  danger  of  being  killed  out.  That  the 
largest  whales  are  being  exterminated,  the  fall  in  general  size  at  Blacksod 
between  1911  and  1913  may  indicate.  This  means  that  the  whales 
which  are  capable  of  reproduction  are  being  destroyed.  By  the  time 
that  it  is  no  longer  profitable  to  hunt  whales,"  it  appears  likely  that  the 
adults  will  have  been  so  thinned  out  that  they  will  no  longer  be  able  to 
reproduce  with  sufficient  profusion  to  compensate  for  natural  casualties. 
When  this  occurs  the  whales  will  be  well  within  sight  of  extinction. 

(b)  Capticr&  of  Blue  Whales. — Of  all  the  species  which  it  is  profit- 
able to  pursue  the  whalers  state  that  the  Blue  Whale  is  the  wildest, 
and  they  will  not  hunt  this  species  if  other  game  is  to  be  had.  A 
Blue  Whale  on  perceiving  the  pulsations  of  the  propeller  of  the 
approaching  steamer  is  usually  startled,  and,  if  alarmed,  at  once 
rushes  off  at  full  speed.  Since  this  represents  something  like  twenty 
miles  per  hour,  it  is  quite  useless  for  the  boat  to  pursue  the  fleeing 
animal,  the  speed  of  the  steamer  being  only  ten  or  twelve  miles  per 
hour.  When  the  whalers  are  bent  on  catching  a  Blue  Whale,  it  is 
sometimes  necessary  to  accompany  the  animal  for  three  or  four  days, 
until  it  becomes  accustomed  to  the  presence  of  the  steamer,  which  can 
then  approach  within  range,  and  the  whale  is  speedily  disillusioned  as 
to  the  hannlessness  of  the  now  familiar  object. 

(c)  Migration  Movements. — During  the  earlier  part  of  the  season 
the  Mystacocetes   are   stated  to   travel   in   a   north-easterly  direction, 

"  Burfield,  op.  cit.,  p.   153. 
1914. 


146 


REPORTS   ON   THE   STATE   OF  SCIENCE. — 1914. 


during  the  later  part  iii  a  south-westerly.  If  this  be  so,  it  may  be 
concluded  that  the  latter  is  the  return  journey  of  those  whales  which 
have  passed  north  in  the  beginning  of  the  season. 

The  solitary  Humpback,  taken  on  July  25,  was  moving  in  a  dhec- 
tion  the  reverse  of  that  which  the  Finners  and  Blue  "Whales  v/ere 
pm'suing  at  the  same  time. 

The  only  Sejhval  which  was  captured  was  brought  in  on  Septem- 
ber 6,  a  fact  which  is  to  be  noted  in  connection  with  the  whalers' 
statement  to  Burfield,^'  that  the  Sejhval  disappears  by  the  end  of  June. 

The  following  is  the  explanation  which  the  whalers  give  of 
the  occurrence  of  Sperm  Whales  in  these  Nortliern  waters.  In  the 
Southern  seas  each  adult  male  is  the  leader  of  a  herd  of  females,  and 
as  the  young  bulls  approach  maturity  they  are  driven  off  by  the  old 
leader.  These  young  bulls  do  not  become  leaders  of  herds,  as  they  are 
inferior  in  strength  and  size  to  the  fully  adult  males.  But  when  fully 
grown  they  seek  out  herds,  and  contend  with  the  leaders  for  the 
possession  of  the  females.  If  the  old  males  are  then  driven  off,  they 
become  solitary  wanderers,  and  frequently  travel  up  into  the  North 
Atlantic.  In  connection  with  this  theory  it  may  be  mentioned  that 
the  Sperm  Whales  taken  at  Blacksod  and  Inishkea  are  all  males,  and 
of  great  size  for  Sperm  Whales,  which  iseldom  exceed  60  ft.,  the 
average  for  the  ten  Blacksod  specimens  being  57  ft.  Si  in.,  while 
the  smallest  was  63  ft. 


Table  I. — B.  munculus.     Table  of  Specimens  Taken. 


Number 
of  Whale 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 


Date  when 
Measured 


Blay  16 

„  28 

„  31 

June  14 

„  19 

„  20 

„  21 

„  22 

„  22 

„  22 

„  23 

„  26 

„  26 

„  28 

„  28 

„  30 

„  30 
2 


July 


2 
3 
3 
3 

4 
4 


Sex 


Total 
Length 


Ft.     in, 
59      6 


62 
59 
61 
61 
53 
68 
61 
64 


Number 
of  Whale 


6 
6 
6 
0 
0 
6 
6 
6 


— 

64 

6 

— 

64 

6 

? 

69 

4 

? 

50 

7 

c? 

64 

1 

c? 

63 

1 

c? 

64 

0 

? 

66 

9 

(? 

61 

0 

c? 

62 

0 

c? 

60 

0 

c? 

55 

2 

<J 

58 

1 

3 

55 

0 

6 

46 

'  i 

14 

18 

19 

20 

23 

24 

27 

29 

30 

31 

32 

35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 

47 

48 


Date  when 
Measured 


Aug. 


July  5 
„  11 
„  15 
„  15 
„  20 
„  20 
„  25 
5 
7 

„  7 
„  10 
»  27 
„  28 
„  29 
„  29 
„  30 
„  30 
Sept.  1 
„  2 
„  4 
„  5 
„  5 
„  8 
„   8 


Sex 


? 

? 
? 

? 
? 

9 


? 
? 

? 

? 
s 
<? 
$ 

6 


Total 
Length 


Ft.     in. 


54 

7 

59 

4 

67 

3 

59 

3 

48 

7 

53 

7 

66 

0 

57 

5 

69 

8 

65 

0 

57 

7 

63 

3 

58 

5 

62 

3 

55 

2 

58 

3 

60 

8 

56 

2 

61 

6 

58 
62 
63 


59     10 

52     10 


Op.  cit.,  p.  154. 


BELMULLET  WHALING   STATION. 
Table  II. — B.  sibbaldii.     List  of  Specimens. 


U7 


Number 
of  Whale 

Date  when 
Measured 

Sex 

Total 
Length 

Number    Date  when 
of  Whale     Measured 

Sex 

Total 
Length 

17 
33 

July  10 
Aug.  18 

? 
? 

Ft.     in. 
78      2 
70      7 

34 
49 

Aug.  20 
Sept.   9 

? 

Ft.    in. 
68       6 
68      0 

Number  of 
Whale 
46 


Table  III. — B.  borealis.     One  Specimen. 

Date  when  Measured  Sex 

Sept.  6  ? 


Total  Length 
Ft.     in. 
46       7 


Number  of 

Whale 

28 


Table  IV. — M.  longimana.     One  Specimen. 

Date  when  Measured  Sex 

July  25  (J 


Total  Length 
Ft.     in. 
45       8 


Table  V. — Physeier  macrocephalus.     List  of  Specimens  Taken. 


Number 

Date  when 

Sex 

Total     ' 

Number 

Date  when 

Sex 

Total 

of  Whale 

Measured 

Length 

of  Whale 

Measured 

Length 

Ft.    in. 

Ft.      in. 

— 

May  26 

(? 

57      9 

16 

July    9 

c? 

66       3 

— 

„    26 

3 

61       4 

21 

„     16 

o 

60       6 

— 

„    31 

<S 

62      6 

22 

„     18 

c? 

57       3 

— 

.June  14 

3 

60      5 

25 

„     23 

<? 

53      0 

15 

July     8 

S 

57       5 

1 

26 

„    25 

(? 

56       2 

Table  VI. — Foetuses.     B.  musculus. 

No.  of 

Date  when 

Sex 

Total 

Parent 

Measured 

Length 

Ft.      in. 

19 

July  15 

<? 

15      0 

30 

Aug.    7 

?? 

8       0  (circ.) 

31 

„       7 

— 

4       0  (circ.) 

35 

„     27 

? 

7     10 

43 

Sept.   4 

<s 

3     11 

47 

„       8 

6 

9      4 

Table  VII.— B.  sibbaldii. 

One  foetus. 

No.  of  Parent 

Date  when  Measured 

Sex 

Total  Length 
Ft.     in. 

33 

Aug.  18 

S 

8       0 

L   2 


148 


REPORTS    ON   THE    STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 


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162  KEPORTS   ON  THE   STATE   OP  SCIENCE. —1914. 


Occupation  of  a  Table  at  the  Zooloyical  Station  at  Naples.— 
Report  of  the  Committee,  consisting  of  Mr.  E.  S.  Goodrich 
{Chairman),  Dr.  J.  H.  Ashworth  {Secretary),  Sir  E.  Eay 
Laxkester,  Professor  W.  C.  McIntosh,  Dr.  S.  F.  Harmer, 
Professor  S.  J.  Hickson,  Mr.  G.  P.  Bidder,  Dr.  W.  B. 
Hardy,  and  Dr.  A.  D.  Waller. 

The  British  Association  table  at  Naples  lias  been  occupied  since  the 
beginning  of  Octpber  1913  by  the  Hon.  Mary  E.  Palk,  and  from 
March  17  to  April  15,  1914,  by  Mrs.  H.  L.  M.  Pixell-Goodrich.  An 
application  for  the  use  of  the  table  in  September  and  October  has  been 
received  from  Mr.  J.  Mangan,  M.A.,  Government  School  of  Medicine, 
Cairo. 

The  following  reports  have  been  received:  — 

The  Hon.  Mary  E.  Palk  reports  :  '  I  have  occupied  the  Naples  table 
of  the  British  Association  since  October  last.  I  have  been  engaged  on 
a  revision  of  Professor  Anton  Dohrn's  monograph  of  the  Pycnogonida 
of  the  Bay  of  Naples.  The  work  is  slow  because  of  the  difficulty  of 
preparing  these  animals,  and  the  modifications  I  have  made  to  Dr. 
Dohrn's  work  are  chiefly  liistological.  I  have  been  unsuccessful  in 
my  attempts  to  study  the  habits  of  the  living  animal.  I  do  not  yet  feel 
justified  in  publishing  the  results  of  my  researches,  as  most  of  my 
conjectures  require  further  proof,  which  it  is  not  always  easy  to  obtain.' 
Mrs.  H.  L.  M.  Pixell-Goodrich  reports  :  From  March  17  to  April  15, 
1914,  I  occupied  the  British  Association  table  at  the  Stazione  Zoologica, 
Naples.  During  tThis  time  I  searched  for  parasitic  Protozoa  in  various 
marine  invertebrates,  and  investigated  chiefly  stages  in  the  development 
and  sporogony  of  Lithocystis  and  Urospora  of  Echinocardiwm  cordatum 
and  Gonospora  of  Glycera  siphonostoma.  The  results  of  these  researches 
I  hope  shortly  to  publish. ' 

The  Committee  being  wishful  to  encourage  zoologists  and  physi- 
ologists to  apply  for  the  use  of  the  table,  and  believing  they  are  often 
deterred  from  applying  by  an  exaggerated  idea  of  the  expense  involved, 
prepared  a  statement  giving  an  estimate  of  the  cost  of  going  to  and 
living  in  Naples.  A  copy  of  this  statement  was  sent  to  every  zoological 
laboratory  and  most  of  the  physiological  laboratories  in  the  United 
Kingdom.  It  is  hoped  that  increased  use  will  be  made  of  the  excellent 
facilities  which  the  table  offers  for  the  prosecution  of  researches  in 
Zoology  and  in  the  Physiology  (including  the  chemistry)  of  marine 
organisms. 

In  the  report  for  last  year  attention  was  drawn  to  the  sum  of  501. 
remaining  in  the  hands  of  the  Committee.  Professor  Hickson,  on 
retiring  from  the  Chairmanship  of  the  Committee,  transferred  this  sum 
to  the  present  Chairman.  The  Committee  have  therefore  requhed  only 
50L  from  the  Association  this  year  to  complete  the  sum  due  for  the 
upkeep  of  the  table. 

The  Committee  ask  to  be  reappointed  with  a  grant  of  1001. 


MARINE    LABORATORY,    PLYMOUTH.  163 


Marine  Laboratory ,  Plymouth. — Report  of  the  Committee,  con- 
sisting of  Professor  A.  Dendy  (Chairinan  and  Secretary),  Sir 
E.  Eay  Lankester,  Professor  Sydney  H.  Vines,  Mr.  E.  S. 
Goodrich,  and  Professor  J.  P.  Hill,  appointed  to  nominate 
competent  Naturalists  to  perform  definite  pieces  of  work  at 
the  Marine  Laboratory ,  Plymouth. 

Since  the  date  of  the  last  report  the  use  of  the  table  has  been  granted 
to  Mr.  J.  S.  Dunkerly  for  one  month  for  the  purpose  of  investigating 
Protozoa,  especially  those  parasitic  in  fish- 


Experiments  in  Inheritance. — Final  Report  of  the  Committee, 
consisting  of  Professor  W.  A.  Herdman  (Chairman) ,  Mr.  K. 
Douglas  Laurie  {Secretary),  Professor  E.  G.  Punnett,  and 
Dr.  H.  W.  Marett  Tims,  appointed  to  enable  Mr.  Laurie 
to  conduct  such  Experiments.     (Drairn  up  by  the  Secretary.) 

The  experiments  were  commenced  in  December  1907  with  the  object 
set  forth  in  the  first  interim  report  presented  to  the  Dublin  Meeting  of 
the  Association  in  1908.  They  were  brought  to  an  end  in  1911,  and 
some  of  the  results  summarised  in  the  report  to  the  Portsmouth 
Meeting  that  year.  A  more  detailed  account  is  now  given  in  this 
final  report. 

The  data  concern  in  the  main  two  matters :  (A)  the  inlieiitance  of 
yellow  coat  colour  in  mice,  and  (B)  the  inheritance  of  dense  and 
dilute  colourations  in  mice. 

The  following  dense  colours  have  come  under  my  notice  during 
the  experiments:  yellow,  golden-agouti,  cinnamon-agouti,  black,  and 
chocolate.     On  the  presence  and  absence  hypothesis, 

homozygous  golden-agouti  may  be  represented  by  zygotic  formula  yy  GG  BB  Ch  Ch. 

„  cinnamon-agouti  „  ,,  ,,        yy  GG  bb  Ch  Ch. 

black  „  „  „        yy  gg  BB  Ch  Ch. 

„  chocolate  „  „  „        yy  gg  bb  Ch  Ch. 

where  Y    =  factor  for  yellow  colour  (not  barred). 

G    =       ,,        ,,  barred  arrangement  of  yellow  colour   found  in    hairs  of 

agouti  (grey)  mice. 
B    =       ,,        ,,  black  colour. 
Ch  =       ,,        „  chocolate  colour. 

Yellow  appears  to  be  always  heterozygous,  and  zygotic  formulfe  representing 
various  kinds  of  yellow  mice  may  be  arrived  at  by  replacing  yy  of  the  above  series 
byYy. 

Each  of  the  above  colours  may  occur  in  a  dense  form,  in  which  the 
pigment  is  densely  deposited,   or  in  a  dilute  form;   these  dense   and 

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166  REPORTS   ON  THE   STATE   OP  SCIENCE. — 1914. 

dilute    conditions    are    allelomorphic,     and    may    be    represented    by 
presence  or  absence  of  the  factor  D. 

Further,  any  of  the  above  conditions  may  be  present  potentially, 
but  remain  undeveloped  in  absence  of  some  colour-activating  material 
which  may  be  represented  by  factor  C ;  in  the  absence  of  this  factor 
the  animal  is  an  albino. 


A.   The  InherUance  of  Yellow  Coat  Colour  in  Mice. 

In  the  first  place,  all  my  yellow  mice  appear  to  be  heterozygous  in 
respect  of  their  yellow  coat  colour;  none  which  have  been  fairly  tested 
breeding  true  to  yellowness,  but  on  the  other  hand  giving  offspring 
which  include,  in  addition  to  yellows,  a  proportion  of  individuals 
whose  colour  is  other  than  yellow.  Yellow  is  incompletely  epistatic 
to  black  and  chocolate.  1  find  that,  as  Durham  points  out,  black 
pigment  may  be  present  in  the  hairs  of  yellows  throwing  blacks,  and 
chocolate  pigment  in  the  hairs  of  yellows  throwing  chocolates. 
Moreover,  the  degi-ee  of  development  of  these  other  pigments  in  the 
hairs  varies  a  good  deal  during  the  life  of  the  animal. 

The  tendency  to  abnormal  fattening  of  yellow  mice  pointed  out  by 
Durham  was  also  evident  in  the  mice  used  by  me. 

I  ai'range  the  matings  which  concern  yellow  mice  in  two  tables : 
yellow  X  yellow,  and  yellow  x  other  colour.  The  aibbreviations  in 
brackets  indicate  the  immediate  parentage  of  the  mice  concerned. 
Whei-e  the  heterozygous  nature  of  a  yellow  mouse  is  not  shown  in 
the  table  by  its  offspring  a  note  is  added  of  some  additional  mating 
showing  it  to  be  heterozygous  (see  tables  on  pp.  164,  165,  and  168, 
169). 

I.  In  regard  to  the  matings  yellow  x  yellow  given  in  the  table 
on  pp.  164  and  165  certain  points  may  be  noted: 

(a)  Twenty-six  of  the  mice  used  were  derived  from  the  cross 
yellow  X  yellow,  and  expectation  was  that  at  least  one-third  of 
these  would  prove  to  be  trae-breeding  yellows.  There  are  only  two, 
liowever  (marked  with  asterisk),  which  could  possibly  answer  to  this 
condition,  and  there  is  no  evidence  about  them  beyond  that  given  in  the 
table.  It  will  be  seen  that  they  iproduced  only  two  and  three  young 
respectively.  Matings  with  other  mice  designed  to  test  them 
gametically  proved  sterile.  It  would  evidently  be  inappropriate  to 
quote  these  as  examples  of  mice  homozygous  in  yellow. 

(b)  The  total  number  of  offspring  is  72  yellow  and  41  other 
colour.  On  the  theory  that  yellov.'-bearing  gametes  do  not  conjugate, 
one  would  expect  the  ratio  3:1,  from  which  the  calculated  result  of 
the  above  matings  would  be  8475: 28-25,  a  very  poor  approximation 
indeed.  On  the  alternative  theory  that  the  yellow-bearing  gametes  do 
actually  conjugate  but  that  the  zygotes  so  produced  perisli  before 
birth,  one  would  expect  the  ratio  2:1,  from  which  the  calculated 
result  would  be  75'3:37'6,  a  very  close  approximation  to  the  experi- 
mental figures.     The  latter  suggestion,  moreover,  harmonises  with  the 


EXPERIMENTS  IN  INHERITANCE.  167 

combined  results  of  Cu6not,   Castle,  and  Durham.       Adding  my  own 
results  to  those  of  the  other  observers  named,  we  find:  — 

Yellow.  Other  colour. 

Cuenot 263  100 

Castle  (1910) 800  435 

Durham  (1911) 448  232 

Laurie 72  41 

Erperimental 1583  808 

Calculated  2:1 1594  797 

It  is  of  interest  to  find  this  anomalous  result  confirmed  from 
experiments  with  an  additional  independent  strain  of  mice. 

(c)  The  number  of  young  in  a  litter  from  yellow  x  yellow  which 
survive  to  an  age  at  which  their  colour  is  determinable  is  small, 
averaging  only  3'64,  as  against  4"58  among  mice  of  other  colours.  Tt 
is  possible  that  this  is  associated  with  the  hypothetical  abortion  of 
zygotes  homozygous  in  yellow.  Cuenot  and  Castle  find  a  similar 
though  smaller  difference  in  size  of  family;  but,  on  the  other  hand, 
Durham  does  not.     (See  Appendix  A.). 

II.  Tlie  table  on  pp.  168  and  169  shows  a  list  of  matings  of  yellow 
X  other  colour.     One  notes  : 

(a)  The  54  matings  of  yellow  x  other  colour  give  131  yellow : 
125  other  coloured  young,  expectation  being,  on  the  supposition  that 
all  the  yellows  were  heterozygous,  128 :  128. 

(b)  There  were  36  yellow  mice  involved  in  the  matings,  of  which 
11  were  known  from  their  parentage  to  be  heterozygous.  The 
remaining  25  were  derived  from  yellow  x  yellow,  and  one-third  at  least 
of  these  should  have  been  gametically  pure  to  yellow  and  have  given 
only  yellow  j'oung  when  mated  to  mice  of  any  other  colour.  But  all 
save  one,  and  this  had  a  couple  of  youngsters  only,  tlii'ew  some  other 
colour  in  addition  to  yellow. 

(c)  Of  the  25  yellow  mice  ex  yellow  x  yellow  14  are  recorded  also 
in  the  list  of  matings  of  yellow  X  yellow,  so  that  11  remain  to  be  added 
to  the  26  of  the  other  list,  making  37  yellow  mice  of  which  both 
parents  were  yellow,  and  of  which  none,  on  being  tested  adequately, 
proved  to  be  homozygous,  thougli  about  a  dozen  should  liave  been  so, 
even  assuming  both  the  yellow  jiarents  to  liave  been  in  each  case 
heterozygous 

(J)  The  number  of  3'oung  in  a  litter  from  yellow  x  <-)tlier  colour 
which  survived  to  an  age  at  which  tlieir  colour  was  determinable 
averages  4"74,  much  the  same  as  in  the  case  of  matings  in  which  botli 
pai'enls  are  some  colour  otlier  than  yellow,  where  the  avei'age  is  4"58. 
Tliere  is  no'  reason  associated  with  the  theory  of  abortion  of  zygotes 
Y  Y  wliy  this  should  be  otherwise.  There  is,  of  course,  no  oi)portunity 
for  the  formation  of  such  zygotes  in  the  mating  of  yellow  x  other 
colour. 


168 


REPORTS    ON   THE    STATE    OF    SCIENCE. — 1914. 


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EXPERIMENTS    IN    INHERITANCE. 


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170 


REPORTS  ON  THE   STATE   OF  SCIENCE. — 1914. 


Some  of  the  yellow  mice  were  mated  with  albinos,  as  I  wished  to 
discover  and  eliminate  strains  carrying  albinism.  These  matings  were 
thus  incidental,  but  may  nevertheless  be  put  on  record  as  follows:  — 


Yellow  X  Albino 


Yellow 


? 
? 


(? 
(? 
3 

3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
9 
? 
? 
? 
? 


X  ? 

X  $ 

X  ? 

X  ? 

X  3 

X  3 


X  ? 

X  ? 

X  ? 

X  ? 

X  ? 

X  ? 

X  ? 

X  ? 

X  ? 

X  ? 

X  ? 

X  ? 

X  ? 

X  ? 

X  3 

X  3 

X  3 

X  3 

X  3 


Black, 

?'.«., dense 

black 


3 
2 

4 

1 
3 
1 
1 
4 
2 
2 
4 
2 

5 

2 

4 
3 
2 


2 
1 
2 
2 
1 
2 

10 
2 

2 

1 
2 
1 
4 
1 


Blue,  i.e., 
dilute 
black 


Choco- 
late, i.e., 

dense 
chocolate 


Silver- 
fawn, !.c., 

dilute 
chocolate 


Albino 


Total 


4 
2 

7 
7 
2 
6 


14 


Observed 


Calculated 


45 


.50-5 


33 


1 



3 

• — . 

1 

— 

2 

1 

— 

— 

19 

1 

56 

1 

28 
6 
6 
2 
5 
7 
3 
5 
5 
4 
3 
5 
5 
1 
5 
6 
4 
7 
5 
3 


14 


115 


50'i 


to    discuss     the     above 


matings 


It    does   not   appear   necessary 
individually,  but  one  notes  :  — 

(a)  In  thoise  litters  where  albinos  are  present  the  proportions  of 
coloured  and  albino  young  agree  with  expectation.  Equality  is  ex- 
pected, the  numbers  are  14:14. 

(b)  Among  the  coloured  offsp)'ing  45  are  yellow  and  <jG  other  colour, 
expectation  being  equality  since  all  the  yellow  parents  are  known  to  be 
heterozygous  either  fi-om  their  parentage  or  from  some  other  mating. 

Cioucral  JlrxiilL^;  of  Ike  Preaeul  Experiments  on  the  lieredily  of  Yellow 

Coat  Colour  in  Mice. 

Firstly,  to  confirm  in  a  different  strain  of  mice  the  evidence  that 
yellow  mice  occur  only  in  the  heterozygous  condition ;  and  secondly, 
to  support  the  view  that  in  the  mating  yellow  X  yellow,  zygotes  of  the 
formula  Y  Y  are  actually  formed,  but  are  abortive. 


EXPERIMENTS    IN   INHERITANCE.  171 

B.  Dense  and  Dilute  Colourations. 

Each  coloui-  in  the  epistatic  series  has  its  dense  and  dilute  form, 
density  and  dilution  forming  an  allelomorphic  pair.  Density  may  be 
thought  of  as  due  to  the  presence  of  a  factor  D  and  dilution  as  due  to 
the  absence  of  this  factor.  My  investigations  concern  the  dense  and 
dilute  forms  of  black  and  chocolate. 

I  was  led  to  investigate  this  matter  through  the  appearance, 
recorded  in  my  1908  report,  of  black,  blue,  and  chocolate  young  in  a 
litter  from  the  mating  of  two  blacks,  and  the  fact  that  a  particular 
yellow  mouse  threw  blacks  when  mated  with  chocolate,  and  blues 
when  mated  with  blue.  While  working  the  matter  out.  Miss  Durham's 
account  (1908)  of  similar  experiments  appeared.  The  details  I  now 
publish  confirm  her  work,  while  showing  that  Cuenot's  suggestion  that 
chocolate  is  the  dilute  fomi  of  black  is  untenable.  I  am  able  to  add 
some  further  types  of  crosses  to  those  recorded  by  Durham,  which  give 
the  expected  results. 

Evidence  against  Cuinot's  suggestion  that  chocolate  is  the  dilute 
form  of  hlach  and  in  favour  of  the  view : — 

a.  That  chocolate  carries  the  factor  for  dense  deposition  of  pigment, 
and  that  silver-fawn  is  the  condition  of  chocolate  in  which  this  factor 
is  absent; 

b.  Thai  hlach  carries  the  factor  for  dense  deposition  of  pigment, 
and  that  blue  is  the  condition  of  black  in  which  this  factor  is  absent. 

Black  and  chocolate  are  the  two  lowest  terms  in  the  epistatic 
colour  sei'ies. 

Chocolate  Iwmozygous  (DD  66)  x  blue  homozygous  (dd  BB). 

Fi  black  (Dd  Bb). 

Fj  15  black  :  4  blue  :  3  choc.  :   1  sil.-fawn 

1110  ex   pair  blacks   of  unknown 

parentage. 


16  5  4  1 

44  17  17  8  Durham. 

60  22  21  9  observed. 

63  21  21  7  calculated   9.3.3.1  ratio. 

Black  homozygous  {DD  BB)  x  silver-fawn  {dd  bb). 

Fi  black  (Dd  Bb). 

F.2    5  black  :  2  blue  :  3  choc.  :    1  sil.-fawn 

67  21  20  5  Durham. 

72  23  23  6  observed. 

69-75         23-25       2325         775  calculated  9.3.3.1  ratio. 

The  above  two  types  of  di-hybrid  matings  substantiate  the  view  above 
stated.     Further  matings,  all  in  harmony  with  this  view,  are: 

Black  carrying  silver-fawn  (Dd  Bb)  X  silver-fawn  (dd  bb). 

Fj  2  black  :  1  blue  :  0  choc.  :  2  sil.-fawn      observed. 

1-25  1-25         1-25  1-25  calculated  1.1.1.1  ratio 


172  REPORTS   ON   THE   STATE    OP   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

Black  carrying  blue  (Dd  BB)  x  silver-favm  {dd  bb). 

Fj  1  black  :  4  blue        observed. 

2-5  2-5  calculated  1  .  1  ratio. 

Black  carrying  chocolate  (DD  Bb)  x  silver-fawn  (dd  bb). 

Fj  14  black  :  10  chocolate       observed. 

12  12  calculated  1  .  1  ratio. 

Black  carrying  blue  (Dd  BB)  x  black  carrying  silver-fawn  (Dd  Bb). 

Fx  2  black  :  1  blue  observed. 

2-25  0-75  calculated  3  .  1  ratio. 

Black  carrying  blue  (Dd  BB)  x  black  carrying  chocolate  (DD  Bb). 

Fj  4  blacks  observed. 

4  calculated. 

Black   X   chocolate. 

Black  homozygous  (DDBB)  x  chocolate  homozygous  (DD  bb). 

Fi  black  (DD  Bb). 

F2  16  black  :  7  chocolate 

42  17  Durham. 


58  24  observed. 

61-5  20-5  calculated  31  ratio. 

Black  homozygous  (DD  BB)  x  black  carrying  chocolate  (DD  Bb). 
Fi  black.     Four  matings  gave  16  black  young. 

Black  carrying  chocolate  (DD  Bb)   x  chocolate  homozygous  (DD  bb). 
Fi     4  black  :  4  chocolate         observed. 

4  4  calculated  1  .  1  ratio. 

Black   X   blue. 

No  matings  DD  BB  x  dd  BB,  but  Fi  from  black  (DD  BB)  x  black  carrj-ing 
blue  (Dd  BB)  gave  16  black  young  as  the  result  of  three  matings. 

Fj.  None  of  the  Fj  generation  were  mated,  but  the  following  results  of  matings 
between  blacks  unconnected  with  the  above  are  such  as  would  be  expected  if  both 
blacks  carried  blue  (Dd  BB). 


Dd  BB     Dd  BB 

33  <J      X   35  ?  gave  5  black 
33  (J     X   35  ?       „    3 
33  c?     X   36  ?       „    7 

26  <J     X   23  ?       „     1 

16 
50 

:  2  blue. 
1 
2 
1 

6 
13 

Durham,  F2  from  bla 

66 
63-75 

19 
21-25 

observed, 
calculated  3  .  1  ratio, 

Chocolate   x   silver-fawn. 

Chocolate  homozygous  (DD  bb)  x  silver-fawn  (dd  bb). 

Fi  chocolate  (Dd  bb). 

F2  14  chocolate  :    7  silver -fawn. 

31  ex  pair  chocs,  of  unknown  parentage. 


17  8  observed. 

18-75  6-25  calculated  3  .  1  ratio. 


EXPERIMENTS   IN   INHERITANCE.  173 

Durham  did  not  carry  any  mating  of  the  above  type  into  the  Fg  generation. 

Chocolate  carrying  silver-fawn  (Dd  bb)   x  silver-fawn  (dd  bb). 
Fi  7  chocolate  :    10  silver-fawn  observed. 

8-5  8-5  calculated  1  .  1  ratio. 

Blue    X    silver-fawn. 

No  matings  dd  BB  x  dd  bb.     But,  as  above  recorded,  a  black  carrying  blue 
(Dd  BB)  X  silver-fawn  (dd  bb)  gave  black  and  blue  in  Fj. 
Fj  from  these  F^  blues  (dd  Bb) : 

2  blues  ;  2  silver-fawns. 

4  1  ex  pair  blues  of  unknown  parentage. 


6 
46 

3 
17 

.')2 
54 

20 
18 

Durham. 

observed, 
calculated  3  .  1  ratio. 


Silver-fawn   x   silver-fawn. 


Silver-fawns  should  breed  true,  since  they  represent  the  lowest  term  of  the  epistatic 
colour  series  associated  with  absence  of  factor  for  dense  deposition  of  pigment. 
Zygotic  formula  dd  bb. 

Five  matings  between  silver-fawns  gave  28  silver-fawn  young. 

APPENDIX    A. 

Average  Number  of  Young  in  Litter. 

Durham's  data  are  included  for  comparison;  each  of  her  averages 
is  based  on  at  least  75  litters. 

Average  per  litter 
Laurie        Durham 

Yellow  X   yellow 3-64  (31   litters)      3-90 

Yellow  x    other  colour 4-74  (.54       „  )     3-97 

Agouti  X   agouti 3.47 

Agouti  x    other  colour  (not  yellow)   ....  3-32 

Black  X   black 4-83  (23       „  )     4-60 

Black  X   other  colour  (not  yellow)   ....  4-29  (14       ,,  )     3 '99 

Blue  X   blue 4-24  (21       „  ) 

Blue  X    other  colour  (not  yellow)   ....  5-12  (26      „  ) 

Chocolate       x   chocolate 4-32  (25       „  )     3-96 

Chocolate       x   other  colour  (not  yellow)  .        .        .        .  4-71  (34      „  )     3-93 

Silver-fawn    x   silver-fawn ,5-60  (5       „  ) 

Silver-fawn    x   other  colour  (not  yellow)  ....  4-79  (14      „  ) 

Albino  X    albino 5-18  (17       „  ) 

Albino  X   yellow 4-60  (25       „  ) 

Albino  X   colour  (not  yellow) 4-19  (41       „  )     4-27 

In  the  above  records,  both  Miss  Durham's  and  my  own,  only 
those  mice  are  counted  which  lived  long  enough  for  their  colours  to 
be  determined. 

The  strikingly  smaller  size  in  my  experiments  of  the  average  litter 
ex  yellow  x  yellow,  as  compared  with  the  other  matings,  is  commented 
on  above.  A  lesser  difference  was  observed  by  Cu^not  also  (yellow  x 
yellow  3'38;  yellow  x  other  colour  3-74)  and  Castle  (yellow  x  yellow 
4-71;  yellow  x  other  colour  5'57).  On  the  other  hand,  Durham's 
figures  warn  one  to  be  cautious  as  to  one's  inferences. 


174  REPORTS   ON  THE   STATE   OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

The  data    from   which    the   above   averages   are  calculated   are   as 
follows :  — 

Yellow  X  yellow.     See  list. 

Yellow  X  other  colour.     See  list. 

Black  X  black  gave  7,  5,  3,  6,  7,  9,  4,  2,  8,  4,  2,  5,  4,  4,  4,  3,  2,  6,  5,  7,  7,  3,  4. 

Black  X  blue  gave  3. 

Black  X  chocolate  gave  2,  2,  4,  2. 

Black  X  silver-fawn  gave  5,  6,  6,  8,  4,  6,  2,  5,  5. 

Blue  X  blue  gave  7,  4,  4,  7,  2,  4,  3,  6,  3,  2,  3,  5,  4,  6,  5,  4,  3,  8,  2,  2,  5, 

Blue  X  chocolate  gave  5,  7,  5,  2,  7,  5,  6,  5,  4,  4,  7,  8,  7,  4,  3,  5,  2,  4,  «,  7,  4,  7, 
3,  6,  7. 

Blue   X  black.     See  black  x  blue. 

Chocolate  x  chocolate  7,  4,  5,  3,  5,  3,  1,  2,  2,  2,  5,  6,  6,  5,  6,  2,  2,  5,  6,  6,  4,  6,  7, 
3,  5. 

Chocolate  x  silver -fawn  gave  5,  3,  1,  7,  4. 

Chocolate  x  blue.     See  blue  x  chocolate. 

Chocolate  x  black.     See  black  x  chocolate. 

Silver-fawn  x  silver-fawn  gave  7,  3,  6,  6,  6. 

Silver -fawn  x  black.     See  black  x  silver-fawn. 

Silver-fawn  x  chocolate.     See  chocolate  x  silver-fawn. 

Albino  X  albino  gave  5,  2,  4,  6,  6,  5,  6,  4,  5,  6,  5,  4,  6,  7,  6,  5,  6. 

Albino  X  yellow  gave  6, 1, 4,  5,  6,  6, 4, 5,  7,  6,  7,  5,  5,  3, 3, 5, 5,  5, 4,  2,  7,  3,  7,  2,  2. 

Albino  X  colour  other  than  yellow  gave  4,  3,  4,  1,  7,  2,  4,  7,  5,  8,  6,  5,  6,  4,  4,  7,  5, 
6,  3,  3,  2,  4, 1,  2,  2,  2,  4,  8,  4,  2,  5,  6,  3,  4,  5,  5,  6,  2,  5,  4,  2. 


APPENDIX     B. 

Alhiiiii  Mice. 

I  crossed  many  of  my  mice  with  albinos  in  the  process  of  testing 
their  genetic  behaviour.  There  appears  to  be  no  need  to  set  out  the 
results  in  detail,  but  the  following  points  may  be  noted:  — 

The  size  of  litter  in  the  three  types  of  mating — albino  x  albino, 
albino  X  yellow,  and  albino  x  colour  other  than  yellow — is  given  in 
Appendix  A. 

The  colour  composition  of  the  litters  from  albino  x  colour  con- 
formed to  the  rules  now  well  established  for  the  heredity  of  albinism 
in  mice. 

Fourteen  of  the  matings  albino  x  colour  yielded  some  albino  young ; 
the  total  young  from  these  matings  numbered  37  albino:  30  coloured, 
expectation  being  equality. 

APPENDIX    C. 
Piebald  Mice. 

A  piebald  chocolate-and-white  mouse  appeared  in  a  litter  born  to  a 
chocolate  mouse  bought  in  kindle  from  a  dealer.  I  bred  from  it  to  the 
Eg  generation  in  order  to  assure  myself  that  it  acted  as  a  recessive  to 
self-colour. 

Rejerences. 

Bateson         .     1903  .     '  Proc.   Zool.   Soc.,'   London. 

.     1909  .     'Mendel's  Principles  of  Heredity'      (coloured   illus- 
trations of  mice). 
Battr       .        .     1907  .     'Ber.  Deutsch.  Bot.  Ges.,'  vol.  xxv. 


EXPERIMENTS    IN   INHERITANCE. 


175 


Castle    . 

CUENOT    . 

Dabbishibe 
Durham 


Hagedoorn 


Laitkie 


Morgan 

Wilson 


1906  .  '  Science,'  N.S.,    vol.  xxiv. 

1910  .  '  Science,'  N.S.,  vol.  xxxii. 

.  'Arch.  Zool.  Exp.  Gen.,'  vols,  i.,  n.,  ill.,  vx. 

1903  .  '  Biometrika,'  vol.  ii. 

1908  .  '  Rept.  IV.  Evolution  Com.,  Royal  Society.' 

1911  •.  '  Jour.  Genetics,' vol.  I. 

1909  (1)     .  'Arch.  Entwickelungsmechanik,'  vol.  xxvui. 
1909  (2)     .  'Univ.  California  Pub.  Physiol.,'  vol.  ui. 

1909  .  '  Rept.  Com.  Brit.  Ass.'  in  '  Rept.  Brit.  Ass.,'  Dublin 

1908. 

1912  .  '  Rept.  Com.  Brit.  Ass.'  in  '  Rept.  Brit.  Ass.,'  Plymouth 

1911. 

1905  .  '  Science,'  N.S.,  vol.  xxn. 

1906  .  '  Science,'  N.S.,  vol.  xxni. 


The  Question  of  Fatigue  frovi  the  Economic  Standpoint. — 
Interim  Report  of  the  Committee,  consisting  of  Professor 
J.  H.  MuiRHBAD  {Chairman),  Miss  B.  L.  Hutchins  (Secre- 
tanj).  Miss  A.  M.  Anderson,  Professor  Bainbridgb, 
Mr.  E.  Cadbury,  Mr.  P.  Sargant  Florence,  Professor 
Stanley  Kent,  Mr.  W.  T.  Layton,  Dr.  T.  G.  Maitland, 
Miss  M.  C.  Matheson,  Dr.  C.  S.  Myers,  Mr.  J.  W.  Eams- 
bottom,  and  Dr.  J.  Jenkins  Kobe.  In  addition,  help  has 
hccii  kindly  afforded  hy  the  following :  Miss  Mabel  Atkin- 
son, Dr.  Wm.  Brown,  Mr.  Arthur  Greenwood,  and  Dr. 
Udney  Yule. 

The  Committee  has  met  four  times,  and  has  made  a  preUminary 
survey  of  the  subject  of  investigation,  and  has  discussed  tlie  matter 
at  some  length. 

An  extensive  Bibhography  of  Fatigue  has  been  prepared  for  the 
use  of  the  Committee  by  Miss  B.  L.  Hutchins. 

A  short  report  has  been  drawn  up  on  industrial  experiments  in 
shortening  hours,  also  by  Miss  Hutchins. 

Some  notes  have  been  kindly  contributed  by  Dr.  William  Brown 
on  the  existing  state  of  psychological  knowledge  in  regard  to  fatigue. 

A  Memorandum  on  the  provisional  aims  and  methods  of  the  inquiry 
has  been  drawn  up  by  Mr.  Eamsbottom,  and  adopted  by  the  Com- 
mittee as  a  basis  of  its  future  work. 

As  a  result  of  our  prehminary  survey,  we  have  become  aware  that 
a  considerable  amount  of  work  on  the  subject  has  been  done  in  America 
and  on  the  Continent  of  Europe,  and,  so  far,  comparatively  little  in 
this  country. 

We  consider,  however,  that  but  little  definite  information  exists, 
and  detailed  scientific  investigation  is  badly  needed,  especially  in 
view  of  the  rapid  development  of  the  factory  industry  and  the  pro- 
gressive urbanisation  of  the  working  class  in  this  country. 

We  propose,  if  reappointed,  to  adopt  the  following  method  of 
investigation :  — 

Mr.  Eamsbottom  has  defined  the  object  of  inquiry   as  being  '  to 


176  REPORTS   ON   THE   STATE   OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

ascertain  the  effect  on  physique,  accident  occurrence,  production  and 
general  social  well-being  of  present  conditions  relating  to  fatigue 
occuiTence  in  industrial  work,  and  to  discuss  possible  improvements 
therein,  and  the  best  methods  of  obtaining  them.'  We  concur  with 
this  definition. 

We  hope  that  Dr.  Maitland,  being  a  member  of  our  Committee, 
will  prepare  a  short  resume  of  existing  knowledge  on  the  effects  of 
muscular  and  mental  fatigue  respectively.  We  shall  also  endeavoiu" 
to  ascertain  what  are  the  main  subjective  and  objective  determinants 
of  fatigue;  e.g.,  what  is  the  relative  importance  of  muscular  woi'k, 
mental  strain,  monotony,  atmospheric  wet-bulb  temperature  (kata- 
thermometric  condition),  noise,  light,  etc.  ;  and  to  discover  some 
reliable  physiological  quantitative  index  of  fatigue,  and  the  chief 
physiological  effects  of  over-fatigue. 

We  shall  consider  the  questions  what  increase,  if  any,  has  occurred 
in  general  morbidity  in  recent  years,  and  to  what  extent  this  can  be 
ascribed  to  industrial  fatigue ;  and  what  difference  can  be  traced  between 
the  morbidity  cases  of  workers  in  various  age  groups  from  fifteen 
upwards  engaged  in  occupations  involving  long  hours  of  work  or 
specially  fatiguing  conditions,  and  those  for  all  workers  or  workers  in 
fairly  easy  occupations. 

We  shall  also  consider  the  incidence  of  industrial  accidents  in 
relation  to  hours  of  work ;  and  the  variation  in  the  output  of  work 
per  hour  during  the  day,  and  the  output  per  day  with  various  lengths 
of  working-day. 

We  propose  to  give  special  attention  to  the  speeding-up  of 
machinery,  and  to  inquire  how  far  this  has  been  accompanied  by  a 
reduction  of  hours. 

We  shall  also  consider  the  probable  social  reactions  of  over- 
fatigue, and  what  general  remedies,  if  any,  may  seem  most  j^romising 
and  hopeful. 

The  Committee  has  made  a  preliminary  division  of  the  v\'ork,  as 
so  sketched,  among  the  following  sub-committees:  — 

Physiological  and  Psychological.  Industrial.  Statistical. 

Dr.  Maitland  {Convener).  Miss  Anderson.  Mr.  Layton  (Convener). 

Prof.  Muirhead.  Mr.  Cadbury.  Miss  Hutcliins. 

Dr.  Myers.  Mr.  Florence  (Con.re»er).        Mr.  Ramsbottom. 

Dr.  Bainbridge.  Miss  Hutchins.  Dr.  Yule. 

Dr.  Legge.  Miss  Matheson. 

Mr.  Ramsbottom. 

And  we  have  appointed  Mr.  Eamsbottom  as  hon.  organising  secretary. 

For  purposes  of  the  foregoing  inquiries  we  think  it  will  be  essential 
to  obtain  the  services  of  exjDert  and  paid  assistants. 

The  Committee  ask  to  be  reappointed,  with  the  addition  of  the 
words  '  social  and  '  before  '  economic,'  in  their  terms  of  reference,  and 
to  be  allotted  a  grant. 


ON  GASEOUS   EXPLOSIONS.  l77 


Gaseous  Explosions. — Seccnth  Report  of  the  Committee,  con- 
sisting of  Dr.  DuGALD  Clerk  (Chairman) ,  Professor  Dalby 
(Secretary),  and  Professors  W.  A.  Bone,  P.  W.  Burstall, 
H.  L.  Callendar,  E.  Gr.  Cokbr,  H.  B.  Dixon,  Drs.  E.  T. 
G-LAZEBROOK  and  J.  A.  Harker,  Colonel  H.  C.  L.  Holden, 
Professors  B.  Hopkinson  and  J.  E.  Petavel,  Captain  H. 
EiALL  Sankey,  Professors  A.  Smithells  and  W.  Watson, 
Mr.  D.  L.  Chapman  and  Mr.  H.  E.  Wimperis. 

The  decease  of  the  CHairmau,  Sir  William  Preece,  was  reported  to  the 
Committee  in  December  last,  when  a  letter  of  condolence  was  sent  to 
the  family. 

Sir  WiUiani  Preece  had  associated  himself  intimately  with  the 
investigations  carried  out  by  the  Committee,  and  contributed  an  interest- 
ing Note  on  the  Kinetic  Theory  of  Gases.  As  Chairman  he  did  much 
to  help  forward  the  important  work  on  which  the  Committee  is 
engaged  both  by  his  valuable  suggestions  and  by  his  tactfulness  and 
resource.  His  loss  is  not  only  deeply  deplored,  but  felt  to  be  a 
personal  one  by  every  member  of  the  Committee. 

The  Vice-Chairman,  Dr.  Dugald  Cleek,  was  unanimously  elected 
Chairman. 

The  Committee  met  three  times  during  the  session  1913-14  at  the 
City  and  Guilds  (Engineering)  College,  Exhibition  Eoad,  London,  S.W. 
The  following  Notes  were  presented  and  discussed :  — 

Note  32  by  Professor  Dalby  on  Suction  Temperatures  directly 
measured  and  deductions  therefrom,  together  with  a  summary  of  a 
series  of  seventeen  experiments  made  at  the  City  and  Guilds  (Engineer- 
ing) College  on  a  Crossley  gas-engine  with  a  cylinder  seven  inches  in 
diameter,  stroke  fourteen  inches,  and  with  a  compi-ession  ratio  at  4'8. 

Note  33  by  Mr.  H.  E.  Wimperis  on  Thermal  Efficiency. 

Note  34  by  Professor  E.  G.  Coker  and  Mr.  W.  A.  Scoble  on 
Temperature  Distribution  in  the  Cylinder  of  a  GaiS-engine. 

Note  35  by  Professor  W.  Watson  on  the  Spectroscopic  Study  of 
the  Combustion  of  Air-petrol  Mixtures. 

The  object  of  Note  32  was  to  show  how  the  suction  temperature 
varied  with  the  speed,  with  the  jacket  temperature,  and  with  the 
mixture.  The  records  given  in  the  Note  relate  to  trials  Nos.  72  to  90. 
The  data  were  obtained  by  a  research  student  of  the  City  and  Guilds 
(Engineering)  College,  Mr.  Limbourne,  working  under  the  supervision 
of  Professor  Dalby.  A  table  included  in  the  Note  shows  the  variation 
in  the  suction  temperatures,  and  a  set  of  curves,  also  included,  gives 
the  temperatures  of  the  working  mixture ;  these  indicate  how  the  direct 
knowledge  of  the  suction  temperature  can  be  applied  tO'  determine  the 
temperatures  at  other  parts  of  the  cycle. 

In  Note  33  Mr.  Wimperis  discusses  the  thermal  efficiency  of  an 
engine  using  as  the  working  agent  a  standard  gas  referred  to  in  the  first 

1914.  M 


178  KEPORTS   ON   THE   STATE   OF  SCIENCE. — 1914. 

report  of  the  Committee,  and  using  in  his  calculations  the  values  of 
the  internal  energy  defined  by  the  curve  in  fig.  6  of  that  report. 

In  Note  34  Professor  Coker  describes  the  method  of  measuring 
the  cyclical  temperature  in  a  gas-engine  cylinder  used  by  him  at  the 
Technical  College,  Finsbury,  and  gives  the  results  of  some  recent 
experiments.  Curves  are  included  showing  the  temperature  of  the 
explosive  charge,  together  with  tables  of  the  actual  temperatures  at 
various  points  in  the  cycle.  A  full  description  of  the  thermo-couple 
used  in  these  experiments  is  given  in  the  Note. 

In  connexion  with  Note  35  Professor  Watson  showed  a  series  of 
photographs  of  the  spectrum  of  the  hght  given  by  the  burning  charge 
in  the  cylinder  of  a  petrol  engine.  The  results  show  that  the  gases 
in  the  cylinder  continue  to  emit  light  giving  a  line  spectrum  for  a 
considerable  time  after  the  chemical  changes  are  generally  assumed  to 
have  been  completed. 

Before  proceeding  to  consider  the  work  carried  out  during  the 
current  session  it  has  been  thought  advisable  to  give  a  brief  summary 
of  the  previous  reports  of  the  -Committee. 

Summary  of  Previous  Reports. 

The  first  report  is  devoted  mainly  to  the  subject  of  the  specific 
heats  of  gases  at  high  temperatures.  The  constant-pressure  experi- 
ments of  Wiedemann,  Eegnault,  Holborn,  and  Henning  are  analysed 
and  discussed,  and  a  cm-ve  is  given  showing  the  energy  of  CO,,  steam, 
and  air  in  terms  of  the  temperature  Centigrade.  The  experiments  of 
Dr.  Dugald  Clerk  are  described,  and  the  results  obtained  compared 
with  the  constant-pressure  experiments  mentioned  above.  The  closed 
vessel  experiments  of  Mallard,  Le  Chatelier,  and  Langen  are  analysed 
and  the  results  plotted  and  discussed. 

The  report  ends  with  the  discussion  of  thermal  equilibrium,  chemical 
equilibrium,  the  motion  of  a  gas,  and  the  measm'ement  of  temperature. 
A  curve  is  given  showing  the  internal  energy  of  a  gas-engine  mixture 
in  terms  of  the  temperature. 

There  is  an  appendix  by  Professor  Callendar  on  '  The  Deviation  of 
Actual  Gases  from  the  Ideal  State,'  and  on  '  Experimental  Errors  in 
the  Determination  of  their  Specific  Heats.' 

The  second  report  is  mainly  devoted  to  the  subject  of  the  specific 
heat  of  gases  at  high  temperatures.  Eegnault 's  results  at  low  tem- 
peratm-es  are  discussed  in  the  light  of  Mr.  Swann's  experiments, 
which  were  communicated  to  the  Committee  by  Professor  Callendar. 
The  Committee  definitely  adopted  Mr.  Swann's  values  for  air  and  for 
CO2  as  given  below. 

Volumetric  heat  of  air  at  100°  C.  is  19-8  lbs.  per  cubic  foot, 

„  „  C0.>  at  20°  C.  is  27-4  lbs.  per  cubic  foot,  and 

at  100°  C.  is  30'7  lbs.  per  cubic  foot. 

The  results  of  the  experiments  made  by  Dr.  Dugald  Clerk  with  the 
object  of  determining  the  volumetric  heat  of  air  at  high  temperature 
are   given    in   the   report,    togefher    with    a   description   of   Professor 


ON   GASEOUS   EXPLOSIONS.  179 

Hopkinson's  experiments  on  the  compression  of  air  in  a  gas-engine 
cylinder. 

Dr.  Watson's  researches  on  the  efficiency  of  a  petrol  motor  are 
included  in  the  report.  Dr.  Watson  made  a  simultaneous  measure- 
ment of  the  quantities  of  air  and  petrol  taken  into  the  engine  and  of 
the  chemical  composition  of  the  exhaust  gas.  The  point  brought  out 
was  that  the  ratio  of  hydrogen  to  carbon  in  the  exhaust  gas  was  greater 
than  the  ratio  of  hydrogen  to  carbon  in  the  petrol  used.  Additional 
evidence  of  this  discrepancy  is  furnished  by  some  experiments  of 
Professor  Hopkinson,  and  the  experiments  of  Hopkinson  and  Watson 
are  in  agreement. 

The  report  concludes  with  an  account  of  the  experiments  on  radia- 
tion carried  out  by  Professor  Hopkinson. 

There  are  two  appendices  :  one  relating  to  Regnault's  coiTections  in 
connection  with  the  determination  of  the  specific  heat  of  air,  and  the 
other  relating  to  Deville's  experiments  on  the  dissociation  of  gases  by 
Dr.  Harker. 

The  third  report  is  devoted  mainly  to  the  consideration  of  the 
subject  of  radiation  from  gases.  A  brief  general  history  of  the  subject 
is  given,  together  with  a  record  of  the  experiments  of  Professor 
Hopkinson  and  of  Professor  Callendar.  The  report  discusses  the  direct 
effect  of  radiation  on  the  efficiency  of  internal-combustion  motors,  the 
amount  of  radiation  from  flames,  and  the  molecular  theory  of  radiation 
from  gases  as  well  as  the  question  of  the  transparency  of  flames  to 
their  own  radiation.  There  is  an  appendix  on  the  radiation  of  flames 
by  Professor  Callendar,  giving  some  account  of  experiments  made  with 
a  Meker  burner;  a  second  appendix  on  the  radiation  in  a  gaseous 
explosion  by  Professor  Hopkinson;  and  a  third  appendix  which 
contains  abstracts  from  various  papers  relating  to  the  application  of 
heat  radiation  from  luminous  liames  to  Siemens'  Eegenerating 
Furnaces, 

The  fourth  report  merely  notes  the  number  of  meetings  held  during 
the  year,  and  states  that,  partly  owing  to  the  breakdown  of  apparatus 
and  partly  to  the  demands  made  upon  the  time  of  the  various  investi- 
gators, only  two  notes  were  read;  consequently  it  was  decided  that 
the  work  then  on  hand  should  be  included  in  the  report  for  the 
following  year. 

The  fifth  report  continues  the  discussion  of  the  effect  of  radiation, 
and  is  devoted  mainly  to  the  consideration  of  the  factors  which  deter- 
mine the  heat  flow  from  the  gas  to  the  walls  of  the  cylinder.  The 
remarkable  effect  of  turbulence  on  the  rate  of  combustion  is  first 
mentioned  in  this  report.  Particulars  of  Dr.  Dugald  Clerk's  experi- 
ments are  given,  and  these  experiments  definitely  establish  the  fact 
that  but  for  turbulence  the  speed  at  which  modern  internal-combustion 
engines  are  run  would  be  impossible.  Professor  Hopkinson's  experi- 
ments, in  which  a  fan  was  placed  inside  a  closed  vessel  and  the  rates 
of  combustion  observed  v,ith  the  fan  at  rest  and  in  motion,  are  recorded 
in  the  report,  and  confirm  Dr.  Clerk's  results. 

In  the  sixth  report  the  resignation  of  Dr.  Dugald  Clerk  and 
Professor  Hopkinson  from  the  Joint  Secretaryship  of  the  Committee  is 

N  2 


180 


REPORTS    ON   THE    STATE    OP   SCIENCE. — 1914. 


reported.  Dr.  Clerk  consented,  however,  to  act  as  Vice-Chairman, 
and  Professor  Dalby  was  appointed  Secretary. 

The  Committee  allocated  the  whole  of  the  grant  to  the  Secretary 
for  the  purpose  of  providing  him  with  a  permanent  research  assistant 
to  carry  on  the  work.  It  was  stated  that  Professor  Dalby  and  Dr. 
Clerk  were  engaged  on  the  design  of  an  experimental  plant  to  be 
placed  in  the  new  laboratory  of  the  City  and  Guilds  (Engineering) 
College. 

Six  notes,  relating  chiefly  to  heat  flow,  temperature,  and  leakage, 
are  briefly  summarised. 

Object  of  Present  Report. 

The  following  report  is  devoted  partly  to  the  special  consideration 
of  temperature  measurements  and  subjects  arising  therefrom,  and  partly 
to  the  illustration  of  the  use  which  can  be  made  of  the  data  obtained  by 
the  Committee. 

Methods   of  Measuring    Temperature  of   the    Charge  in  a  Gas-engine 
Cylinder  binder  working  conditions. 

One  of  the  problems  requiring  solution  was  the  direct  measurement 
of  the  temperature  of  the  working  agent  in  the  cylinder  while  the 
engine  was  running  under  ordinary  working  conditions.  The  difficulty 
of    making  this  measurement    arises    from   the    fact   that    during  the 


Fig.  1. 


explosion  of  the  charge  in  the  engine  cylinder  the  temperature  is 
sometimes  higher  than  that  of  the  melting-point  of  platinum  or  of  the 
couples  which  can  be  put  in  the  cylinder  to  make  the  measurement. 

In  Note  32  is  described  a  method  devised  by  Professors  Callendar 
and  Dalby,  1  which  for  the  first  time  enabled  direct  observation  of  the 

'  Proc.  Roy.  Soc,  A.,  vol.  80,  1907. 


ON  GASEOUS    EXPLOSIONS. 


181 


suction  temperature  to  be  made  while  the  engine  was  working  not 
only  under  normal  conditions  but  under  special  conditions,  during 
which  the  richest  possible  mixture  was  used  and  the  temperature 
reached  at  explosion  was  considerably  liigher  than  that  occurring  in 
practice.  The  thermometer  itself  consisted  of  a  piece  of  platinum 
wire  about  0"7  inch  long  and  yo^o  of  an  inch  in  diameter,  arranged 
with  compensating  leads.  It  is  placed  in  a  thermometer-valve,  which 
is  inserted  through  the  spindle  of  the  admission-valve  in  the  manner 
shown  in  fig.  1,  in  which  P  is  the  platinum  thermometer,  and  T  is 
the  head  of  the  thermometer-valve,  which  is  inserted  centrally  in  the 


LAY  ZMAFT   OF 
G^S    ENGINE. 


'Tf/npiuniif'fn/ 


Fig.  2. 

admission-valve  A.  The  spring  S  serves  to  close  the  admission- 
valve,  and  the  spring  U  serves  to  close  the  thermometer-valve.  The 
main  casting,  C,  carrying  these  valves  is  bolted  to  the  engine  in  the 
ordinary  way.  A  separate  cam  is  mounted  on  the  half-time  shaft  to 
operate  the  central  thermometer-valve,  and  the  complete  arrangement 
is  shown  in  fig.  2,  where  E  is  the  cam;  I  and  L  are  levers  keyed  to  the 
supplementary  shaft  Q,  which  is  carried  on  the  casting  F;  the  spring 
S  maintains  contact  between  the  end  of  the  lever  I  and  the  cam.  The 
end  of  the  thermometer  with  the  leads  projecting  is  shown  at  B. 
The  lever  L  is  in  contact  with  the  nut  N  on  the  thermometer -valve. 
The  cam  is  so  designed  that  during  the  explosion  period  the  valve 


182 


REPORTS   ON   THE   STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 


is  closed,  and  the  thermometer  therefore  screened  from  the  action 
of  the  gas.  In  this  way  the  thermometer  is  withdrawn  just  before 
the  end  of  compression,  so  that  at  this  critical  period  of  the  cycle 
there  is  nothing  in  the  shape  of  a  protuberance  to  cause  preignition. 
When  the  platinum  thermometer  is  exposed  in  the  cylinder  and 
connected  to  the  Wheatstone  bridge  and  galvanometer  on  which  the 
indications  are  received,  the  circuit  is  made  by  a  contact-maker  on  the 
crank-shaft  when  the  crank  passes  through  an  assigned  crank-angle,  and 
is  broken  by  the  contact-maker  when  the  crank  passes  through  a  second 
assigned  crank-angle  a  little  greater  than  the  first,  so  that  the  electrical 


IftSULfiriON" 


FiQ.  3. 

measuring  device  is  in  operation  during  6°,  10°,  or  15°  as  the  case 
may  be. 

This  contact-maker  is  a  very  important  part  of  the  electrical  equip- 
ment used  in  connexion  with  these  temperature  measurenients,  as  it 
enables  a  definite  make  and  a  definite  break  to  be  made  in  the  electrical 
circuit,  and,  in  addition,  enables  the  time  between  the  make  and  break 
to  be  adjusted  with  accuracy. 

The  contact-maker  (fig.  3)  consists  of  a  brass  bush  B,  keyed  to  a 
lay  shaft  of  the  engine,  and  carrying  two^  fibre  washers  or  cams  Wj  and 
W:,  which  can  be  clamped  in  any  relative  angular  position  against  the 
flange  of  the  bush  by  the  nut  N.  A  radial  step,  as  -Wi,  is  made  in 
each  washer,  and  the  surface  gradually  rises  from  the  bottom  of  the 
step  to  the  normal  circular  surface  of  the  washer.     The  reflexed  ends 


aN   GASEOUS   EXPLOSIONS. 


183 


of  the  stiff  springs  S[  and  Ss  rest  on  the  fibre  cams.  A  projection  Z 
carrying  a  platinum-pointed  screw  p  is  riveted  to  one  of  the  springs, 
and  the  screw  p  is  adjusted  so  that  its  point  is  just  clear  of  the  platinum 
rivet  in  the  other  spring  when  both  springs  are  riding  on  the  circular 
surfaces  of  their  respective  cams.  Contact  is  made  when  the  rotation 
of  the  lay  shaft  in  the  direction  of  the  arrow  brings  the  radial  step 
Wi  of  the  cam  Wi  under  the  spring  Si,  thereby  allowing  it  to  fall  down 
the  step,  thus  bringing  p  and  r  together.  Contact  is  broken  when  the 
radial  step  iv.  of  the  cam  W.  reaches  the  spring  S,,  thereby  allowing 
the  second  spring  to  fall  down  the  step  w^.  The  epoch  and  duration 
of  contact  are  readily  adjusted  by  adjusting  the  angular  positions  of 
the  cams  relatively  to  the  bush  and  also  with  regard  to  one  another. 
The  distances  between  the  springs  and  the  platinum  contacts  and  the 
steps  w  are  exaggerated  in  the  diagram  in  order  to  make  the  principle 
of  the  apparatus  clear.  The  percussion  form  of  contact  with  platinum 
points  is  found  to  give  definite  and  certain  results.     The  contacts  keep 


Shaft 


W€NCIN£ 


CuiMPiNs  scifen 


_\  f/iro  Pt/irc 


clean,  and  no  trouble  of  any  kind  is  experienced  with  them.  The  general 
arrangement  of  the  electrical  connections  are  shown  m  fig.  4.  In  this 
figure  PS,  QS  are  the  equal  ratio  arms  of  the  Wheatstone  bridge. 
The  galvanometer  G  is  connected  to  the  point  S  and  to  the  sliding 
contact  on  the  bridge-wire  BW.  The  thermometer  and  its  leads  P 
are  connected  on  one  side  of  the  bridge-wire,  and  the  compensator  C 
and  the  balancing  resistance  E  on  the  other.  The  battery  circuit 
includes  a  mercury  reversing  key  K,  an  adjustable  resistance  r,  and 
a  storage  cell  V;  and  the  battery  is  connected  to  the  bridge  at  the 
points  P  and  Q,  and  to  the  brushes  of  the  periodic  contact-maker  at  E. 
The  brushes  E  are  carried  by  an  insulated  arm  A  bolted  to  a  divided 
disc  O  riding  loosely  on  the  lay  shaft  of  the  engine,  and  capable  of 
being  clamped  in  any  position  by  the  screw  L.  The  index  I  shows 
the  crank-angle  corresponding  to  the  middle  point  of  the  contact  when 
the  insulated  copper  strip  D  carried  in  the  fihre  bush  F  passes  under 
the  brushes. 


184  REPORTS   ON   THE   STATE   OP  SCIENCE. — 1914| 

The  temperature  is  measured,  therefore,  during  a  particular  crank- 
angle  determined  hy  the  setting  of  the  contact-maker.  This  can 
be  set,  while  the  engine  is  running,  to  determine  the  make  and 
break  at  any  assigned  crank-angle  in  the  revolution.  Tt  was  usually 
set  so  that  the  interval  between  the  make  and  break  was  5°  or  10°. 
In  this  manner  the  mean  temperature  over  a  small  crank-angle  can 
be  measured  at  any  point  in  the  cycle,  except  only  during  the  period 
of  the  explosions  when  the  thermometer  is  withdrawn  from  the  cylinder. 
But  although  there  is  this  possibility  with  the  method  it  is  desirable 
to  measure  the  temperature  at  a  point  on  the  cycle  where  the  rate 
of  change  of  temperature  is  at  a  minimum.  This  point  occurs  just 
after  the  closing  of  the  suction-valve.  The  great  advantage  of  making 
the  measurement  at  this  point  is  that  the  thermometer  is  exposed  to 
the  incoming  charge  during  the  whole  of  the  suction-stroke  and 
therefore  the  thermometer-valve  tends  to  assume  the  temperature  of 
the  charge;  consequently  the  temperature  which  the  small  wire  is  set 
to  measure  does  not  differ  greatly  from  the  temperature  of  the  metal 
in  which  it  is  mounted.  This  condition  tends  to  minimise  the  errors 
of  measurement.  At  any  other  point  in  the  cycle  the  rate  of  change 
of  temperature  is  greater;  and  the  error  of  the  measurements,  there- 
fore, is  likely  to  be  gi'eater  owing  to  the  lag  of  the  thermometer. 
On  the  expansion-stroke,  for  example,  the  temperature  may  vary  as 
much  as  150°  during  the  movement  of  the  piston  through  jL  of  the 
stroke.  Just  after  the  closing  of  the  suction-valve  the  variation  of 
temperature  during  the  movement  of  the  piston  through  yV;  of  the 
stroke  is  only  about  20°. 

Having  found  the  temperature  at  one  point  in  the  cycle,  the  tem- 
perature at  any  other  point  can  be  calculated  by  using  the  charge  itself 
as  the  thermometric  agent.     The  characteristic  equation  of  the  charge  is 

PV 

-jp-=a  constant.        If,  therefore,  from  the  indicator  diagram  taken  at 

the  time  the  temperature  was  measui'ed,  the  corresponding  pressure 
and  volume  are  measured,  then  the  temperature  at  any  other  point  of 
the  cycle  can  be  calculated  by  the  aid  of  this  constant  and  the  pressure 
and  volume  scaled  from  tlie  indicator  diagram,  allowance  being  made 
for  chemical  contraction  of  the  charge  after  explosion.  It  is  necessary 
to  have  accurate  indicator  diagrams  from  which  to  measure  the 
pressure  and  volume  for  this  purpose,  and  this  has  led  to  the  develop- 
ment of  an  optical  indicator. 

Example  of  the  Application  of  the  Method  to  an  Engine  Trial 
(72)  at  the  City  and  Guilds  (Engineering)  College. 

The  general  procedure  in  making  temperature  measurements  by 
this  method,  and  with  an  improved  optical  indicator  devised  by  Pro- 
fessor Dalby  and  Dr.  Watson,  may  be  illustrated  by  data  obtained 
during  a  trial  made  at  the  City  and  Guilds  (Engineering)  College  by 
Professor  Dalby  last  year,  a  full  report  of  which  will  be  found  in 
Note  32  communicated  to  the  Committee. 


ON  OASEOTJS   EXPLOSIONS. 


185 


Indicator  Diagrams. 

In  each  trial  two  indicator  diagi'ams  were  taken — namely,  a  com- 
plete diagram  showing  the  pressure  and  volume  during  the  whole 
cycle,  and  a  diagram  taken  with  a  thin  disc  stopped  down  so  as  to 
give  on  a  large  scale  the  portion  of  the  diagram  during  the  pumping- 
stroke.     The  diagrams  are  in  general  calibrated  in  situ. 


Fia.  5. 


A  +  2*9   75  lbs  a" 

50 

A   +   199-75 

50 

A   <-    149-75 

50 

A    -f     99   75 

50 

A    +    4-9 -75 

4975 

AtS 

Fig.  6. 


In  carrying  out  a  series  of  experiments,  however,  it  was  found  that 
the  scale  was  so  constant  that  it  was  unnecessary  to  calibrate  each 
diagram  separately.  The  scale  was  therefore  made  for  the  two  discs 
used,  and  was  checked  from  time  to  time.     A  pair  of  typical  diagrams 


186 


REPORTS   ON  THE   STATE   OF  SCIENCE. — 1914. 


taken  during  trial  No.  72,  together  with  the  scales,  are  shown  in 
figs.  5,  6,  7,  8.    The  following  data  relate  to  trial  No.  72  :  — 

Mixture  6'88  air  to  1  gas  by  volume. 

Jacket  temperature  29"5. 

Temperature  measured  at  crank-angle  200°;  77°  C. 

Pressure  measured  from  the  diagram  at  200°  crank-angle;  14'7 
per  square  inch. 

Volume  measured  at  this  point,  0"3872  cubic  feet. 


Fia.  7. 


■    A  +  39  75  lbs  D" 

10 

A  1-  29  75 

10 

A   <-   19   75      , 

10 

A   1-   9   75 

5 

A    +    t    75 

*  vs 

AtS 

PV 


Fig.  8. 

Speed  106  revolutions  per  minute. 

The  gas  constant  for  the  charge  is  therefore  -,^  =  0"01616. 

This  constant  may  now  be  used  to  calculate  the  temperature  at  any 
point  along  the  compression-curve,  since  at  a  point  where  the  pressure 
is  P  and  the  volume  V,  the  temperature  is : 

PV 


T  =  - 


01616" 


ON   GASEOUS   EXPLOSIONS. 


187 


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Temperature  during  Suction 
AND   Compression  Strokes 

trials     72  AND  73 

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188  REPORTS  ON  THE   STATE  OP  SCIENCE. — 1914. 

Fig.  9  shows  temperature-curves  for  the  compression  stroke  calcu- 
lated in  this  way,  both  for  trials  72  and  73.  Trial  73  was  run  at  about 
200  r.p.m. 

The  constant,  however,  cannot  be  applied  during  the  whole  cycle, 
because,  although  the  weight  of  the  charge  remains  the  same,  assum- 
ing that  there  is  no  leak,  yet  the  volume  corresponding  to  this  weight 
is  slightly  different  after  the  explosion  has  taken  place  owing  to  the 
contraction  due  to  the  chemical  rearrangement  of  the  constituents. 
The  chemical  contraction  is  calculated  from  the  analyses  of  the  gases. 
In  the  gas  used  in  the  experiments  referred  to  the  contraction 
amounted  to  3 '14  per  cent.  The  effect  of  this  is  to  change  the  gas 
constant  for  all  points  along  the  expansion-cm've  ivom  001616  to 
0-01565. 

The  curve,  fig.  10,  shows  the  temperatures  calculated  along  the 
expansion-curves  for  trials  72  and  73. 

When  applying  this  method  of  taking  the  temperatures  the  governor 
should  be  put  out  of  action,  so  that  there  shall  be  no  change  in  the 
rate  of  the  supply  of  gas  which  will  produce  a  distui'bance  of  the 
temperature  in  the  cycle.  Any  disturbance  pi'oduced  in  a  particular 
cycle  causes  a  temperature  wave  through  a  long  series  of  succeeding 
cycles.  In  practice  the  gas-engine  can  be  run  without  any  difficulty 
without  the  governor  if  the  engine  is  coupled  to  a  generator,  because 
the  generator  automatically  settles  down  to  the  speed  corresponding 
to  the  power  applied  to  it,  and  by  regulating  the  resistance  of  the 
ai-mature  or  the  fields,  or  both,  the  desired  speed  can  be  maintained 
for  long  periods.  A  special  switch-board  and  a  resistance-board  have 
been  designed  for  the  engine  at  the  City  and  Guilds  (Engineering) 
College  for  the  purpose  of  controlling  the  generator. 

Method  of  Measuring  the  Temperature  of  the  Charge  by  means  of  a 

Thermo-couple. 

The  second  method  of  measuring  the  temperature  of  the  charge 
in  the  cylinder  is  by  means  of  a  couple.  This  method  has  been 
developed  by  Dr.  Coker  and  Mr.  Scoble  at  the  Technical  College,  Fins- 
bury.  It  was  found  that  alloys  of  platinum  with  rhodium  and  iridium 
respectively  were  able  to  withstand  the  temperature  of  explosion 
near  the  walls  of  the  cylinder  for  some  hours  or  even  days  when 
made  into  thermo-couples  jo^^u  to  t^§o0  ^^  ^^  i^ich  thick,  provided 
the  engine  was  not  overloaded.  The  actual  temperature  measurement 
is  made  by  observing  the  change  in  the  electromotive  force  produced 
in  this  couple  by  a  change  in  temperature.  The  small  changes  in 
the  electromotive  force  produced  by  a  couple  of  this  kind  can  be 
measured  with  great  accuracy  on  the  bridge  described  below. 

The  general  relation  between  electromotive  force  and  temperature 
found  for  one  of  the  couples  used  is 

E  (microvolts)  =  -174  +  7.6075T-0.001673T^ 

The  general  arrangement  of  the  apparatus  is  shown  in  fig.  11. 
The  battery  B   and  resistances  Ej  and  R,  ^^^  arranged  in  circuit 
so  that  the  fall  of  potential  between  the  extreme  points  of  a  bridge- 


ON   CASEOUS   EXPLOSIONS. 


189 


1 

/ 

1 

TEMPERATURES  on    EXPANSION 
TRIALS  72  AND  73 

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190 


REPORTS  ON  THE  STATE   OF  SCIENCE. — 1914. 


wire,  BW,  can  be  adjusted  to  1  millivolt.  This  is  tested  by  the 
electromotive  force  of  a  cadmium  cell,  C,  which  can  be  opposed  to  the 
battery  electromotive  force  by  means  of  the  upper  key,  K^,  an  allowance 
for  the  known  temperature  variation  of  the  electromotive  force  of  the 
standard  cell  used  being  made  by  an  adjustable  contact-maker,  D. 
The  thermo-electric  couple,  H,  has  one  lead  connected  to  the  lower 
key,  K2,  and  the  other  set  to  a  set  of  resistances,  S,  in  the  main  circuit, 
each  of  which  gives  a  difference  of  potential  of  1  millivolt  when  the 


Fig.  11. — ^Thermo-Electric  Bridge. 

adjustments  are  correct.  During  an  observation,  therefore,  the  battery 
electromotive  force  opposes  that  of  the  couple  and  the  readings  of 
the  bridge-wire  and  step  resistance  taken  together  measure  the  electro- 
motive force  of  the  couple  when  the  galvanometer,  G,  shows  a 
balance.  The  scale  of  the  bridge-wire  is  graduated  to  read  to  10  micro- 
volts, and  single  microvolts  may  be  read  by  estimation.  The  majority 
of  the  observations  were  taken  when  using  a  D'Arsonval  galvanometer, 
giving,  on  a  scale  distant  110  centimetres,  a  deflection  of  560  milli- 


ON  GASEOUS  EXPLOSIONS. 


191 


•0,  ayni  vaad  W3JL 


192  REPORTS   ON   THE  STATE   OP  SCIENCE. — 1914. 

metres  for  1  microvolt.  The  contact-maker  used  with  this  apparatus 
is  one  devised  by  Professors  Callendar  and  Dalby,  which  has  already 
been  described  and  illustrated  in  fig.  3. 

Suction  Temperature. 

Direct  measurements  of  the  suction  temperature  were  made  at  the 
City  and  Guilds  (Engineering)  College  during  the  session  19]  2-13  on 
a  Crossley  gas-engine  with  a  cylinder  7  inches  in  diameter,  stroke 
14  inches,  and  with  a  compression  ratio  of  4"8.  The  object  of  the 
experiment  was  to  show  how  the  suction  temperature  varied  with  the 
speed,  with  the  jacket  temperature,  and  with  the  mixture. 

The  apparatus  with  which  the  measurement  was  made  has  been 
already  described  (see  pages  180,  181,  182,  and  183).  The  results  of  the 
experiments  are  shown  by  the  curves  fig.  12.  It  is  proposed  to  repeat 
these  experiments  on  engines  of  more  modern  type  and  with  higher 
compression  ratios  as  soon  as  the  development  of  the  new  laboratories 
at  the  College  render  it  possible  to  do  so. 

The  Cyclical  Variation  of  the  Temperature  of  the  Charge  in  a 
Gas-engine  Cylinder. 

An  example  has  already  been  given  of  the  method  of  determining 
the  cyclical  variation  of  the  temperature  of  the  charge  in  a  par- 
ticular experiment,  deducing  it  from  the  temperature  measured  at  a 
point  on  the  compression  curve  in  combination  with  accurate  indicator 
diagrams.  The  experiment  was  made  at  the  City  and  Guilds  (Engineer- 
ing) College  on  the  gas-engine  already  referred  to.  The  engine 
is  not  of  recent  construction  and  therefore  the  compression  ratio,  viz. 
4'8,  is  low  compared  with  the  ratios  of  gas-engines  of  more  modern 
construction.  Dr.  Coker  and  Mr.  Scoble  have  measured  the  cyclical 
variation  of  temperature  on  a  more  modern  engine  constructed  by 
the  National  Gas-Engine  Company  in  1907.  This  engine  has  a 
cylinder  7  inches  in  diameter  and  a  stroke  of  15  inches.  The  maxi- 
mum volume  occupied  by  the  charge  is  5'8  times  the  minimum  volume. 
The  method  adopted  was  to  measure  directly  by  means  of  a  platinum 
couple  the  temperature  at  various  points  along  the  compression-curve 
and  along  part  of  the  expansion-curve,  but  the  highest  temperature 
had  still  to  be  measured  by  using  the  charge  itself  as  a  gas-thermometer. 

PV    . 

A  value  of    f^c    is  selected  fi'om  a,  point  on  the  expansion-stroke,  and 

the  constant  so  found  is  used  to  calculate  the  higher  temperatures.  In 
this  method  it  is  unnecessary  to  make  any  calculation  regarding  the 
chemical  contraction  before  and  after  explosion  because  the  temperature 
is  measured  after  the  explosion,  but  the  rate  of  change  of  temperature  at 
the  point  where  the  temperature  is  measured  is  very  great,  and  there- 
fore, in  comparing  the  two  methods,  it  is  necessary  to  choose  between 
a  temperature  measured  when  the  rate  of  change  is  great  with  a 
corresponding  lag  and  no  correction  for  chemical  contraction,  as  against 
a  method  of  measuring  the  temperature  when  the  rate  of  change  is  a 
minimum,  viz.  just  after  the  closing  of  the  suction-valve,  and  allowing 


ON   GASEOUS    EXPLOSIONS. 


193 


2bO( 

r^ 

200C 

\ 

\ 

I 

\\ 

1  i 

|(\ 

isnn 

'\^ 

1     \  * 

-I 

1 

\ 

H 

\ 

\\ 

1000 

\    ^ 

. 

4- 

1 

: 

> 

li<. 

1 
; 

x^ 

Sv^- 

•-... 

.. 

1 

i 

^ 

snn 

1 
/ 

^ 

^.-"^ 

•>. 

/   i 

3- 

<-^" 

•^ 

-V- 

/  4 

^ 

^. 

^j—^ 

TES' 

r  N9  1 

1 

- 

..    2 — 

„    3 

n 

" 

C 



360 


1914. 


180  720  540 

AUCTION  COMPRESSION  EXPANSION 

Fia.  13. 


360 


EXHA.UST 


194 


REPORTS   ON  THE  STATE   OF  SCIENCE. — 1914. 


for  chemical  contraction.     With  suitable  precautions  both  methods  can 
be  made  to  give  consistent  results. 

The  curve  in  fig.  13  shows  the  temperature  cycle  in  a  gas-engine 
cylinder  determined  by  Dr.  Goker  and  Mr.  Scoble  when  the  ratio  of 
air  to  gas  was  7'35  to  1.  The  j acket-temperatm^e  was  35"6°  C,  and 
the  highest  temperature  calculated  was  1836°  C. 


Tempekatubb  CrcLE  OF  Gas  Charge. — Conditions. 

Curve  Number 

I.H.P. 

Ratio  of  Air  to 
Gas 

Jacket  Outlet 
Temp.  °C. 

1. 

10-24 

7-35/1 

35-6 

2. 

9-96 

7-08/1 

37-2 

3. 

1011 

7-13/1 

81-4 

4. 

10-36 

6-71/1 

40-6 

5. 

10-36 

5-66/1 

52-8 

6. 

9-74 

6-64/1 

43-7 

Application  of  the  Work  of  the  Committee  to  Practical  Problevis. 

The  application  of  the  work  of  the  Committee  to  practical  problems 
can  be  illustrated  in  connection  with  the  calculation^  of  the  heat  ex- 
changed between  the  working  agent  and  the  walls  of  a  gas-engine 
cylinder. 

First  Law  of  Thermodynainics  and  the  quantities  necessary  to  apply 
it  to  determine  heat  lost  or  gained   by  the  working   charge  during  a 

change  of  state. 

Let  A  (fig.  14)  be  a  point  on  the  pressure  volume  diagram  repre- 
senting the  state  of  a  working  agent  with  regard  to  its  pressure  and 
volume.  Let  the  state  change  along  the  path  A,  B,  so  that  B  repre- 
sents the  state  after  the  change.     Then 


The  heat  received  by  the^ 
working   agent  from  its         ,-Massofl 
external        environment  -=  i      y^  _„    \ 
during    the    change    of         ^  °   -^ 

state  from  A  to  B  =  Q      ^ 

That  is,  reckoning  in  thermal  units, 


r  The  change  '^ 
]    of  its  inter-  I 
I    nal  energy 
[   per  pound 


The      workA 
done      by 
+  -i    the    agent  '- 
on  its  en- 
vironment 


Q  =  M  (Eb  -  Ea)  +  J 


(1) 


(2) 


In  which  Q  is  measured  in  pound  calories. 

M  is  the  mass  of  the  charge  in  pounds. 
Eb  is  the  internal  energy  of  the  charge  in  its  final  state. 
Ea  is  the  internal  energy  of  the  charge  in  its  initial  state. 
Z  is  the  work  done  by  the  agent  on  its  environment  measured  in  foot- 
pounds. 
J  =  1,400. 

Earlier  it  was  assumed  that  the  specific  heat  of  the  gas  used  in  the 
gas-engine  cylinder  was  constant,  and  that  the  change  of  internal  energy 
was  determined  by  the  change  of  temperature  only.  With  this  as- 
sumption the  first  term  on  the  right-hand  side  of  the  equation  was 


ON  GASEOUS    EXPLOSIONS. 


195 


reckoned  by  merely  multiplying  the  specific  heat  into  the  change  of 
temperature  corresponding  to  the  change  of  state  from  A  to  B,  the 
mass  of  the  charge  M  being  calculated  from  the  general  relation, 


M 


PV 

T 


(3) 


corresponding  values   of  P,    V,    and   T   being  taken   from    any  point 
on  the  path  where  they  could  be  determined.     It  is  known,  however. 


Fig.  14. 

that  the  specific  heat  is  variable,  and  the  Committee  began  their  work 
by  reviewing  all  the  available  experimental  data  in  connexion  with  the 
subject.  Several  members  of  the  Committee  were  themselves  carry- 
ing out  researches  in  relation  tO'  this  problem  at  the  same  time. 

Data  found  to  enable  this  Determinatiooi  to   be  made. 

The  aim  of  the  Committee  was  to  ascertain  the  true  value  of  the 
specific  heat  at  constant  volume,  Ky,  or,  to  put  it  in  another  way,  to 
ascertain  the  relation  between  the  internal  energy  of  the  gas  and  its 
temperature.  In  dealing  with  gas-engine  problems  it  is  more 
convenient  to  combine  equations  (1)  and  (2)  into  a  single  expression  in 
which  the  specific  heat  is  given  not  in  terms  of  the  unit  of  mass,  but 
in  terms  of  the  unit  of  volume  at  standard  pressure  and  temperature. 
Substituting  in  equation  (3)  for  the  standard  pressure,  1  atmosphere, 
for  the  standard  temperature,  273°  C.  absolute,  and  for  the  gas  con- 
stant, c  =  96,  it  will  be  found  that  the  weight  of  a  cubic  foot  of  the 
working  agent  at  standard  temperature  and  pressure  is  -081  lb.,  and 
therefore  in  terms  of  foot-pounds,  and  still  assuming  that  the  specific 
heat  at  constant  volume  is  constant,  equation  (2)  becomes, 


JQ  =  -081  JKv  (change  of  temperature)  -f  Z. 


o  2 


196 


REPORTS    ON   THE    STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 


The  quantity  O'OSl  JKy  represents  the  change  of  internal  energy 
in  foot-pounds  per  degi'ee  change  of  temperature  per  cubic  foot  as 
measured  at  standard  temperature  and  pressure.  When  Ky  is  variable 
and  is  a  known  function  of  T,  say  </>  (T),  the  term  becomes 


0081  J  <^  (T)  dT. 

Values  of  this  expression  in  which  the  lower  limit  Ti  is  0  degrees 
Centigrade  can  be  read  off  the  curve  given  in  fig.  15,  which  is  taken 
from  the  first  Eeport. 


1      1      1      1 

HlO 
CO, 

0  05 

e 

/ 

MJO 

/ 

80000 

/ 

/ 

t    45000 

HO 

.BORN   * 

HENNm6_ 

• 

J/ 

UBIC 

CL 

LIU 

NCEN. 

HMD  t  LE  CH4TEUCR . 

r        

o 

/ 

"    J5000 

Ui 

M* 

© 

y 

' 

^    30000 

■a 
-1 

y' 

1 

^    25000 

y 

^ 

o  20000 

< 

1 

2     15000 

UJ 

^ 

X 

'0000 

/ 

5000 

^ 

0 

?< 

)0          4< 

)0            « 

00           6( 

)0           lO 

TEM 

OO            12 
'CRATURE 

00          tl' 
,CENTIG 

OO 
RACE 

K 

aa        181 

OO           2 

300 

Vo  = 


Fig.  15. 

To  use  this  curve  to  find  the  internal  energy  corresponding  to  a 
given  state-point  it  is  necessary  to  measure  the  pressure  P  and 
volume  V  from  a  PV  diagram,  and  also  to  determine  the  absolute 
temperature  T.  The  corresponding  volume  at  standard  temperature 
and  pressure  is  then  calculated  from  the  equation, 

VP  To 
T    P„ 

This  calculated  value  of  Vo  when  multiplied  by  the  internal  energy 
as  given  by  the  curve  for  the  temperature  T  gives  the  internal 
energy  of  the  gas  corresponding  to  the  given  state-point. 

Symbolically  let 

Ea  =  internal  energy  corresponding  to  the  position  of  a  state-point  A. 

Va  =  the  corresponding  volume  measured  at  A  reduced  to  standard  temperature 

and  pressure,  and 
Yi    =  the  ordinate  of  the  curve  measured  at  the  temperature  corresponding  to 

the  temperature  of  the  state-point,  then 
Ea  =  Va.  Yt 


ON  GASEOUS   EXPLOSIONS,  197 

The  position  of  the  points  A  and  B  on  the  PV  diagram  gives  no 
indication  of  the  temperature  at  A  or  B.  If  the  temperature  at  one 
of  the  points,  however,  is  known,  then  the  temperature  at  the  second 
point  can  be  calculated  from  the  relation 

Pa  Va        Pb  Vb  ... 

m  =^        m  .....        \^) 

This  relation  expresses  the  characteristic  equation  for  gases,  and  is 
quite  independent  of  the  specific  heat  of  the  gases  concerned.  It 
applies  to  all  positions  of  the  state-point  in  the  PV  diagram  provided 
that  the  following  two  conditions  are  satisfied:  — 

Condition  1.    That  there  is  no  change  in  density  of  the  gas  such   as   may   be 
produced  by  some  change  in  its  chemical  constitution. 

„  2.  That  the  weight  of  the  working  agent  during  the  change  of  state 

from  A  to  B  is  constant. 

It  is  fundamentally  important,  therefore,  to  be  able  to  measure 
by  direct  observation  the  temperature  corresponding  to  at  least  one 
position  of  the  state-point  in  the  diagram,  because  by  means  of  this 
temperature  and  the  relation  expressed  in  equation  (4)  the  temperature 
corresponding  to  any  other  position  of  the  state-point  in  the  diagram 
can  be  calculated,  providing  always  that  the  conditions  1  and  2  are  not 
violated  during  the  change  of  state.  If  the  first  condition  is  violated 
there  is  a  small  change  of  volume  caused  by  chemical  action  as  the 
state-point  moves  from  A  to  B,  and  in  order  to  calculate  the  magnitude 
of  this  change  it  is  necessary  to  have  a  chemical  analysis  of  the 
gas  before  and  after  chemical  action.  When  these  analyses  are  known 
a  correction  can  be  made  and  equation  (4)  can  still  be  applied  to  calcu- 
late the  temperature.  This  kind  of  action  has  to  be  reckoned  with, 
for  example,  if  tlie  state-point  A  is  on  the  compression-curve  of  a  gas- 
engine  and  the  state-point  B  is  on  the  expansion-curve. 

The  earlier  part  of  this  report  shows  that  the  Committee  have  given 
a  good  deal  of  consideration  to  the  subject  of  the  direct  measurement 
of  temperature,  and  that  individual  members  have  worked  at  the 
problem  successfully.  Examples  have  been  given  earlier  in  the  report 
of  methods  which  have  been  applied  and  are  being  used  in  the 
researches  which  are  now  being  carried  out.  This  example  shows  how 
the  equation  (4)  is  used  to  calculate  the  temperature  for  different 
positions  of  the  state-point  B  from  observations  of  a  single  tempera- 
ture. The  single  temperature  which  it  is  most  useful  to  know  is  the 
suction-temperature,  and  this  may  be  defined  as  the  temperature  of  the 
charge  in  the  cylinder  just  after  the  admission  valve  is  closed.  There 
is  then  a  definite  weight  of  charge  in  the  cylinder  at  a  definite 
pressure  and  volume,  and  at  a  definite  temperature.  Allowing  for 
the  chemical  contraction,  equation  (4)  can  be  applied  along  the  expan- 
sion-curve. 

The  C'onnnittee  have  examined  into  the  question  of  leak  of  charge, 
and  have  come  to  the  conclusion  that  in  most  cases  in  a  modern 
engine  it  is  a  negligible  amount  when  proper  precautions  are  taken. 


198  REPORTS  ON  THE   STATE   OF  SCIENCE. — 1914. 

These  considerations  show  how  important  the  suction  temperature  is 
in  combination  with  the  indicator  diagram,  as  from  this  temperature 
and  the  pressure  and  volume  given  by  the  diagram  the  state  of  the 
working  agent  all  through  the  cycle  can  be  determined,  at  least 
approximately. 

The  values  of  the  suction  temperature  for  a  particular  engine  are 
exhibited  in  fig.  12  above,  and  a  diagram  of  the  kind  would  be  useful 
in  connexion  with  any  internal-combustion  motor. 

To  resume,  it  can  now  be  assumed  that  it  is  possible  to  fix  a 
temperature  for  one  particular  position  of  the  state-point  A,  and  then 
the  temperature  at  the  end  of  the  change  of  state  B,  if  not  observed, 
can  be  calculated.  With  a  knowledge  of  those  temperatures  the 
internal  energy  of  the  working  agent  can  be  read  oft  from  the  cui-ve 
(fig.  16),  and  then  the  first  term  on  the  right  side  of  the  equation,  viz. 

Eb  —  Ea  =  change  of  internal  energy 

is  determined. 

The  value  of  the  second  term  on  the  right  side  of  equation  (1)  is 
merely  the  value  of  the  shaded  area  under  the  path  AB  expressed  in 
foot-pounds.  Consequently,  from  a  pressure-volume  diagram  giving  the 
initial  and  final  conditions  of  the  working  agent  and  the  path  of  the 
state-point  in  between,  together  with  the  temperature  corresponding  to 
one  position  of  the  state-point,  the  right  side  of  the  equation  can  be 
determined  and  the  heat  gained  or  lost  by  the  working  agent  during 
the  change  can  therefore  be  computed.  If  there  is  no  gain  or  loss 
of  heat  the  work  done  is  done  at  the  expense  of  the  internal  energy 
of  the  working  agent  itself.  One  of  the  main  objects  of  the  Committee 
has  been  to  extend  our  knowledge  of  the  physical  constants  of  the 
gases  by  the  careful  examination  of  methods,  apparatus,  and  results  of 
various  investigators,  including  members  of  the  Committee,  and  change 
of  state  of  the  working  charge  in  a  gas-engine  can  now  be  followed 
with  a  degree  of  accuracy  which  hitherto  has  been  impossible. 

A  diagram  from  an  actual  gas-engine  shows  the  PV  changes  during 
the  whole  of  the  four-stroke  cycle,  but  the  method  explained  above 
can  only  be  applied  to  determine  the  heat  exchanges  during  that  part 
of  the  cycle  when  the  weight  of  charge  enclosed  in  the  cylinder  is 
constant — i.e.  during  the  period  between  the  closing  of  the  suction- 
valve  and  the  opening  of  the  exhaust-valve.  There  is  no  difficulty 
in  applying  the  method  practically  to  a  change  of  state  along  the  com- 
pression-curve because  the  conditions  1  and  2  above  are  fulfilled. 
There  is  no  chemical  change  and  the  weight  of  charge  is  constant. 
Applying  the  method  to  the  analysis  of  the  expansion-curve,  however, 
there  is  difficulty.  The  left  side  of  equation  (1),  Q,  gives  the  heat 
gained  or  lost  by  the  gas  during  a  change  of  state.  Q  includes  the  heat 
gained  by  combustion  as  well  as  the  heat  gained  or  lost  from  outside,  so 
that  it  must  be  written 

Q  =  0-hC 
where  0  represents  the  heat  gained  or  lost  to  the  outside,  and  C  repre- 


ON   GASEOUS   EXPLOSIONS.  199 

sents  the  heat  produced  by  combustion  during  the  change.  The  diffi- 
culty is  to  separate  these  two  during  a  change  of  state  along  the 
expansion-line.  It  is  probable  that  combustion  is  not  quite  com- 
plete at  the  point  of  maximum  pressure ;  in  fact  some  combustion  may 
be  going  on  right  up  to  the  point  at  which  the  exhaust-valve  opens. 
If,  therefore,  two  points  are  taken  on  the  expansion-curve  and  this 
method  of  analysis  is  applied,  neglecting  0,  the  heat  loss  determined 
will  obviously  be  too  great. 

An  analysis  of  the  diagram  by  this  method  will  be  found  in  Dr. 
Clerk's  Gustave  Canet  lecture,  and  need  not,  therefore,  be  further 
pursued. 

Attention  may  be  specially  drawn  to  the  cun'es  in  fig.  12,  which 
show  the  results  of  trials  made  for  the  purpose  of  ascertaining  the 
relationship  between  the  suction  temperature  and  the  strength  of  the 
mixture  used  and  on  the  speed.  When  the  mixture  is  9  parts  of  air  and 
1  part  of  gas  by  volume  the  suction-temperature  is  about  70°  C.  at 
a  speed  of  100  revs,  per  minute.  At  200  revs,  per  minute  the  suction 
temperature  is  increased  to  78i°  0.  At  the  constant  speed  of  200  revs. 
per  minute  the  temperature  gradually  increases  as  the  mixture  becomes 
richer ;  with  a  10  to  1  mixture  the  temperature  is  75°  0. ,  and  this 
increases  to  96^°  0.  with  a  6  to  1  mixture.  At  the  lower  speed  the 
change  in  temperature  is  almost  as  great  for  a  corresponding  change 
in  the  mixture,  namely  from  67i°  C.  to  82°  0.  With  a  modern  engine 
using  a  hij];her  compression  it  is  probable  that  the  temperatures  would 
be  generally  higher.  Fig.  13  shows  the  cyclical  variation  of  tempera- 
ture as  determined  by  Dr.  Coker  on  a  more  modern  engine,  and  the 
suction  temperatures  given  by  him  are  of  the  order  of  200°  0.  Dr. 
Coker  explains  this  high  suction  temperature  as  being  partly  due  to  the 
retention  of  hot  gas  and  partly  due  to  the  long  exhaust-pipe  which  was 
used. 

Dalby  and  Callendar's  experiments  have  shown  that  when  using 
rich  mixtures  the  maximum  temperature  in  the  cylinder  is  probably 
about  2000°  C,  and  these  results  have  been  confirmed  by  Coker  and 
Scoble.  For  the  mixtures  used  in  ordinary  working  conditions  the 
experiments  of  Dalby,  Callendar,  Coker,  and  Scoble  show  that  the 
temperature  is  about  1800°  C.  It  is  hoped  to  continue  the  experiments 
on  temperature  measurements  when  engines  of  more  modern  construc- 
tion have  been  installed  in  the  new  engine  laboratory  of  the  City  and 
Guilds  (Engineering)  College. 

The  concentration  of  research  on  the  accurate  measurement  of 
temperature  is  a  necessary  step  towards  a  more  certain  knowledge  of 
the  specific  heat  of  gases  at  high  temperatures;  and  the  vital  import- 
ance of  this  subject  is  indicated  by  the  brief  explanation  given  above  of 
the  method  by  which  the  determination  of  heat  exchange  between  the 
working  charge  and  the  walls  of  the  cylinder  can  be  made.  So  far  the 
Committee  have  only  been  able  to  present  the  curves  given  in  fig.  15 
as  representing  the  most  reliable  data  available.  The  practical  use  to 
which  the  curve  can  be  put  is  illustrated  by  using  the  data  given 
by  it  to  find  the  efficiency  of  an  engine  working  on  the  Otto 
cycle  without  loss  of  heat   assuming  that  the  mixture  used   is   that 


200  REPORTS   ON  THE   STATE   OP  SCIENCE. — 1914. 

specified   near  the   curve   in  fig.  15,  this   mixture  being    very    much 
nearer  the  actual  mixture  used  in  a  gas-engine  than  air. 


Efficiency  of  the 
air  standard 

•242 
•366 
•426 

•475 

The  Committee  are  of  opinion  that  they  can  usefully  continue  their 
work  by  organising  research  on  the  lines  which  have  been  foreshadowed 
in  this  report.  The  Committee  recommend,  therefore,  that  they  be 
again  re-appointed,  and  that,  in  view  of  the  expensive  nature  of  the 
research  and  the  organisation  involved,  the  sum  of  lOOZ.  be  granted 
to  them. 


Thermal  Efficiency. 

Efficiency 

calculated  from 

1 

the  curve  and  for  the 

T 

mixture 

given  in  fig.  13 

i    . 

, 

•187 

i    • 

,        . 

•273 

i    . 

. 

•337 

*    • 

. 

•384 

Stress  Distributions  in  Engineering  Materials.— Report  cf  the 
Committee,  consisting  of  Professor  J.  Perry  (Chairman), 
Professors  E.  G.  Coker  and  J.  E.  Petavel  (Secretaries), 
Professor  A.  Barr,  Dr.  C.  Chreb,  Mr.  Gilbert  Cook,  Pro- 
fessor W.  E.  Daley,  Sir  J.  A.  Ewing,  Professor  L.  N.  G-. 
PiLON,  Messrs.  A.  E.  Fulton  and  J.  J.  Guest,  Professors 
J.  B.  Henderson  and  A.  E.  H.  Love,  Mr.  W.  Mason,  Sir 
Andrew  Noble,  Messrs.  F.  Eogers  arid  W.  A.  Scoble,  Dr. 
T.  E.  Stanton,  and  Mr.  J.  S.  Wilson,  to  report  on  Certain 
of  the  More  Complex  Stress  Distributions  in  Engineering 
Materials. 

The  reports  presented  at  the  Birmingham  Meeting  of  the  Association 
led  the  Committee  to  the  view  that  the  co-ordination  of  the  results  of 
various  researches  was  rendered  difficult  by  the  diversity  of  the  materials 
used  in  the  tests.  It  was  therefore  thought  desirable  to  obtain  complete 
and  systematic  data  with  regard  to  three  definite  materials,  namely, 
a  mild  steel,  a  '3  per  cent,  carbon  steel,  and  a  steel  alloy. 

In  accordance  with  a  resolution  passed  at  the  meeting  of  December  19, 
1913,  a  stock  of  three  tons  standard  steel  has  been  obtained  for  the  Com- 
mittee by  Dr.  F.  Eogers.  This  consists  of : — (1)  Dead  mild  steel  (carbon 
•12  per  cent.) ;  (2)  Axle  steel  (carbon  "3  per  cent.) ;  (3)  Nickel  steel 

Some  of  the  steel  has  already  been  sent  to  various  members  of  the 
Committee,  and  in  due  course  full  information  will  be  available  with 
regard  to  the  behaviour  of  the  three  materials  under  a  large  number  of 
different  tests. 

The  mild  steel  was  kindly  presented  to  the  Committee  by  Messrs. 
Steel,  Peech,  and  Tozer,  and  the  axle  steel  by  Messrs.  Taylor  Bros. 

Information  with  regard  to  the  manufacture  of  the  standard  steels 
is  given  in  an  Appendix. 

A  report  on  the  '  Experimental  Determination  of  the  Distribution 
of  Stress  and  Strain  in  Sohds '  has  been  presented  by  Professors  Coker 
and  Filon. 

A  paper  on  the  '  Internal  Stresses  in  a  Built-up  Steel  Compression 


ON   STRESS   DISTRIBUTIONS    IN   ENGINEERING   MATERIALS.        201 

Member,'  by  Mr.  H.  Delepine,  has  been  communicated  by  Professor 
Petavel,  and  will  be  read  at  the  meeting. 

A  number  of  members  of  the  Committee  have,  during  the  past  year, 
been  engaged  on  subjects  dealt  with  in  last  year's  report,  but  in  most 
cases  the  experimental  work  is  not  yet  completed. 

The  subjects  under  investigation  are  the  following  : — 

Professor  Coker  and  Mr.  Scoble  :   Shear  Tests. 

Mr.  Cook  :    Tests  of  the  Physical  Constants  of  the  Standard  Steels. 

Messrs.  Cook  and  Robertson  :  Further  Work  on  the  Strength  of  Thick 
Cyhnders. 

Mr.  Fulton  :  Alternating  Stress  at  Low  Frequencies. 

Mr.  Guest  and  Professors  Dixon  and  Lea  :  Combined  Stresses. 

Mr.  Mason  :    Repeated  Combined  Stresses. 

Dr.  Rogers  :  Alternating  Stress,  Heat  Treatment,  and  Microscopical 
Examination. 

Mr.  Scoble  :    Repeated  Combined  Stresses. 

Dr.  Stanton  :    Repeated  Shear  Tests. 

Mr.  Mason  has  installed,  in  the  Engineering  Laboratory  at  the  Uni- 
versity of  Liverpool,  a  machine  specially  designed  for  experimental  work 
on  alternating  bending,  alternating  torsion,  and  simultaneous  alternating 
bending  and  torsion.  He  has  also  constructed  an  apparatus  for  measure- 
ment of  hysteresis. 

Dr.  Stanton  has  made  arrangements  to  test  the  standard  steels,  firstly 
by  reversals  of  simple  shearing  stress,  then  by  superimposing  bending 
and  direct  stresses. 

Mr.  Guest  and  Professors  Dixon  and  Lea  have  completed  the  erection 
of  their  apparatus,  and  are  engaged  in  preliminary  experimental  work. 

The  Committee  ask  to  be  re-appointed  with  a  grant  of  100?. 

Appendix. 
Outline  of  Manufacture  of  the  Standard  Steels. 
By  Dr.  F.  Rogers. 

No.  1  Steel.     (12  per  cent.  Carbon.) 

The  materials  used  in  the  manufacture  of  this  steel  are  hematite  pig 
iron,  steel  scrap  and  ore  of  the  purest  descriptions,  melted  very  carefully 
in  the  acid  open  hearth  furnace. 

The  composition  is  adjusted  by  the  addition  of  ferro-manganese, 
after  which  the  metal  is  cast  into  ingot-moulds.  The  ingots  are  then 
rolled,  with  several  heatings,  into  bars,  which  are  reeled  when  black-hot, 
giving  a  straightening  and  burnishing  effect  without  injuring  the  steel. 

This  metal  is  suitable  for  high-class  mild  steel. 

The  bars  supphed  to  the  Committee  are  the  whole  usable  portion  of 
two  ingots,  and  weigh  nearly  22^  cwts. 

No.  2  steel  ('3  per  cent,  carbon). 

Report  not  yet  received. 

No.  3  steel  (Sg  per  cent,  nickel). 

Report  not  yet  received. 

Experimental  Determination  of  the  Distribution  of  Stress  and  Strain 

in  Solids.     By  Professors  Filon  and  Coker. 
Very  httle  has  been  done  hitherto  in  the  way  of  determining  directly  the 
distribution  of  stresses  and  strains  in  the  interior  of  an  elastic  sohd.     The 


202 


EEPORTS    ON   THE    STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 


investigations  whicli  have  been  made  deal  almost  exclusively  with  the 
more  restricted  case  of  two-dimensional  stress  and  strain,  or  of  stress  and 
strain  in  a  thin  plate  parallel  to  the  faces  of  the  plate  itself,  a  problem 
known  to  elasticians  as  that  of  '  generahsed  plane  stress.'  ' 

In  these  cases  two  methods  have  proved  available.  The  first  method 
consists  in  measuring  directly  the  deformations  of  the  body  studied, 
by  observing  the  actual  distortion  of  a  face  of  the  sohd  parallel  to  the 
plane  of  strain.  In  practice  this  may  be  done  by  ruhng  this  face  into 
squares  and  observing,  with  a  kathetometer  or  micrometer,  the  relative 
shifts  of  various  parts  of  the  network.  From  these,  the  extent  by  which 
the  angle  at  a  node  of  the  network  has  been  changed  from  a  right  angle 
can  easily  be  found,  and  this  quantity,  as  is  well  known,  measures  the 
shearing  strain  (or  '  shde,'  according  to  a  terminology  followed  by  many 
writers  on  elasticity,  who  reserve  the  word  '  shear  '  to  denote  the  shearing- 
stress). 

In  this  way  values  of  the  shearing-strain  are  obtained  at  the  various 
nodes  of  the  network.     Again,  the  changes  of  distance  between  adjacent 


c 


E' 


H 


K 


F' 


A 


B 


Fig.  1. 


nodes  can  be  found,  and  from  these,  if  the  squares  of  the  network  are 
sufficiently  small,  the  extensions  at  the  various  nodes,  parallel  to  the 
hues  of  the  net,  can  be  obtained. 

The  plane-strain  can,  therefore,  be  mapped  out  over  the  whole  face  of 
the  sohd  which  is  xmder  observation.  If  this  method  is  to  give  satis- 
factory results  it  must  be  appUed  to  materials  where  the  strains  are 
comparatively  large.  It  has  been  apphed  with  considerable  success  by 
Professor  Karl  Pearson  (1)  and  various  workers  associated  with  him  to 
models  of  dams  constructed  of  gelatine-glycerine  jelly,  and  in  tliis  way 
various  results  of  interest  in  the  theory  of  masonry  dams  have  been 
obtained,  although  it  cannot  be  said  that  the  complete  system  of  stresses 
in  such  dams  is  yet  known  with  any  certainty.  In  other  cases  measure- 
ments of  the  distortions  produced  in  circles  described  on  the  face  of  a 
model  have  been  used  to  determine  the  principal  strains  and  their  direc- 
tions, as  in  the  experiments  of  Messrs.  Wilson  and  Gore  (2). 

Dr.  E.  N.  da  C.  Andrade  (3)  has  also  employed  a  block  of  jelly  to 
investigate  the  distribution  of  slide  in  such  a  block  when  two  of  its  opposite 

'  Love,  Theory  of  Elasticity,  p.  135, 


ON   STRESS   DISTRIBUTIONS   IN   ENGINEERING   MATERIALS.       203 

faces  AB,  CD  (Pig.  1)  constrained  to  remain  plane  and  parallel  and  un- 
disturbed are  given  a  translatory  displacement  relative  to  each  other, 
parallel  to  their  plane. 

Dr.  Andrade  found  that  along  the  middle  plane  EF  of  the  block  (half- 
way, that  is,  between  the  two  faces  whose  displacement  was  prescribed) 
the  distribution  of  shde  gave  two  maxima  at  points  H,  K  distant  about 
one-sixth  of  the  length  from  the  unstressed  faces  perpendicular  to  the 
plane  of  strain,  the  shde  falhng  gradually  to  a  minimum  at  0. 

For  a  section  E'  F'  near  the  middle  plane  an  effect  of  the  same  type 
occurred,  but  was  less  marked.  For  a  section  E"  F"  near  the  face  CD 
where  the  constraint  was  appHed  the  slide  remained  fairly  uniform  over 
the  greater  part  of  the  length  of  the  section,  going  down  rapidly  at  the 
ends  to  the  value  zero  at  CD. 

The  problem  attacked  experimentally  by  Dr.  Andrade  is  one  of  which 
no  exact  theoretical  solution  is  known.  Dr.  Andrade  himself  attempted 
to  fit  his  conditions  by  an  approximate  solution,  but  either  through  the 
failure  of  the  approximation,  or  from  some  other  cause,  the  results  of 
observation  and  calculation  agreed  only  quahtatively. 

The  second  method  used  for  the  investigation  of  the  distribution  of 
stresses  inside  a  plate  subjected  to  stress  in  its  own  plane  depends  on  the 
property,  discovered  by  Sir  David  Brewster  in  1816,  and  independently 
t3y  Fresnel,  that  glass  and  other  isotropic  transparent  substances  become 
doubly  refracting  under  stress. 

Since  then  this  effect  has  been  studied  by  a  number  of  observers  (4). 
It  may  be  taken  as  fairly  well  estabhshed  that  when  a  ray  of  polarised 
light  traverses  a  plate  stressed  in  its  own  plane,  it  is  broken  up  into  two 
components,  polarised  along  the  two  hues  of  principal  stress  at  the  point 
where  the  ray  crosses  the  plate,  and  the  relative  retardation  of  these  two 
rays  on  emergence  in  air  is 

Ct(P-Q), 

where  t  =  thickness  of  the  plate,  P  and  Q  are  the  two  principal  mean 
stresses  in  the  plane  of  the  plate,  and  C  is  a  co-efficient  depending  upon 
the  material  and  the  wave-length  of  the  Ught  (5). 

Clerk  Maxwell  (6)  was  the  first  to  go  fairly  fully  into  the  theory  of  the 
appearances  presented  when  a  plate  under  varjdng  stress  in  its  own  plane 
is  placed  between  crossed  Nicols.  He  showed  that  the  hght  is  restored 
at  all  points  except  those  for  which  : 

(a)  The  fines  of  principal  stress  are  parallel  to  the  axes  of  the  Nicols. 

Since  the  condition  for  extinction  of  the  fight  is  here  independent  of 
the  wave-length,  these  hnes  will  be  qmte  black.  These  may  be  called  the 
fines  of  equal  incfination  or  isocfinic  fines. 

(6)  The  principal  stress-difference  has  such  a  value  that  Cr(P— Q)  is  an 
exact  multiple  of  the  wave-length. 

These  will  be  fines  of  equal  principal  stress-difference,  and  will  give 
a  different  set  of  fines  for  different  wave-lengths.  They  are  thus,  in 
general,  brilhantly  coloured,  the  same  stress-difference  corresponding 
to  the  same  tint.     The  only  exception  is  the  hne  corresponding  to  P  —  Q=0. 

These  may  be  called  (follo\ving  Maxwell)  the  isochromatic  hnes,  the 
black  hne  corresponding  to  P— Q=0  being  called  the  neutral  fine. 

Observations  of  the  isocfinic  fines  fiave  the  advantage  that  these  lines 
are  exhibited  under  comparatively  small  stress  and  are  independent  of 
the  co-efficient  C.     Their  use  does  not,  therefore,  require  straining  the 


204  REPORTS    ON   THE    STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

material  to  an  extent  likely  to  produce  permanent  set,  and  they  can  be 
shown  by  comparatively  tliiu  sjiecimeus.  Also  they  do  not  require  any 
previous  investigation  of  the  co-efficient  C  for  the  given  material,  or  of  its 
dependence  upon  the  wave-length. 

In  theory  observation  of  the  isochnic  hues  is  sufficient  to  determine 
the  stress  system,  provided  we  have  information  as  to  the  actual  stresses 
at  a  very  limited  number  of  points  (7).  Such  information  is  generally 
available  from  the  known  boundary  conditions. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  calculations  required  to  actually  deduce  the 
stresses  from  the  isochnic  hues  are  comphcated,  and  are  very  difficult 
to  apply  to  cases  where  the  data  are  expressed  by  purely  empirical  curves. 
The  isochnic  hues  are,  therefore,  better  suited  to  experimental  verifica- 
tion of  stress  distribution  already  known  from  theory,  and  for  which  the 
theoretical  isochnic  hues  can  be  calculated  beforehand  and  compared 
with  observation.  They  have  been  so  used  by  M.  Corbino  and  Trabacchi 
(8)  using  rings  of  gelatine  to  verify  Volterra's  (9)  theory  of  internal  strains 
in  a  multiply  connected  elastic  sohd  ;  and  also  by  Filon  (10),  who  used 
glass  beams  to  verify  the  ordinary  theory  of  stresses  in  a  beam  at  a  distance 
from  points  of  isolated  loading,  and  also  his  own  theory  of  the  distribution 
of  stress  in  a  beam  near  a  point  of  isolated  loading.  Both  Corbino  and 
Trabacchi,  and  Filon  found  that  their  experimental  results  confirmed  the 
predictions  of  the  theory  of  elasticity  (11).  Cams  Wilson  (12),  who  used 
in  his  investigation  both  the  isochnic  and  the  isochromatic  hues,  was  the 
first  to  aj)ply  the  optical  method  to  discover  the  laws  of  stress  distribution 
in  a  glass  beam,  doubly  supported  and  centrally  loaded. 

He  gives  a  drawing  of  the  fines  of  principal  stress  in  such  a  beam,  but 
does  not  use  them  further,  and  restricts  his  comparison  of  theory  with 
experiment,  to  the  stresses  in  the  cross-section  immediately  under  the  load ; 
the  theory  with  which  he  compares  his  results  was  originally  given  by 
Boussinesq  (13),  and  treats  the  height  of  the  beam  as  infinitely  thick.  Sir 
G.  Gr.  Stokes  gave,  in  a  note  to  Carus  Wilson's  paper,  an  empirical  correc- 
tion to  Boussinesq's  theory.  An  exact  theory  of  tliis  problem  has  since 
been  given  by  Filon  (14). 

The  use  of  the  isochromatic  fines  and  generaUy  of  experiments  de- 
pending upon  tint  has  this  advantage,  that  it  pelds  directly  the  value 
of  the  stress-difference  P— Q.  If  this  be  combined  with  a  determination 
of  the  direction  of  principal  stress  at  each  point,  then  considerable  direct 
information  is  given  at  once,  and  some  cases  of  practical  importance  have 
been  examined  by  Honigsberg  and  Dimmer  (15). 

The  determination  both  of  P— Q  and  of  the  directions  of  principal 
stress  may  be  combined  in  one  measurement,  which  is  very  simply  made 
by  means  of  an  apparatus  due  to  Coker  (16).  Coker  uses  a  thin  celluloid 
plate,  cut  to  represent  an  engineering  structure  in  which  it  is  desired  to 
investigate  the  stresses.  This  is  a  more  easily  worked  material  than  glass, 
and  a  lesser  thickness  is  required,  as  its  stress-optical  co-efficient  is  con- 
siderable. To  obtain  a  measure  of  the  stress-difference  at  any  point  a 
tension  member  is  placed  in  front  of  the  strained  model,  in  a  direction 
corresponding  to  one  of  the  principal  axes  of  stress,  and  the  colour  effect 
produced  in  the  loaded  model  is  neutrafised  by  applying  a  sufficient  load 
to  this  cahbrating  member.  The  tensional  stress  T  affords  a  measure  of 
the  difference  of  the  principal  stresses  (P— Q)  subject  to  a  small  correction 
when  (P— Q)  and  T  have  different  signs. 

An  improved  way  of  doing  this,  which  saves  these  repeated  adjust- 


ON   STRESS    DISTRIBUTIONS    IN   ENGINEERING    MATERIALS.       205 

ments  of  T,  is  to  use  a  test-piece  under  pure  flexure  (without  sliear)  in  its 
own  plane.  This  can  be  readily  produced  in  a  straining  frame  as  in  the 
accompanying  diagram.  The  stress  will  then  vary  linearly  from  P  to  Q 
and  may  be  read  off  along  a  scale  PQ,  which  can  be  previously  caUbrated 
against  a  specimen  under  known  tension. 

A  httle  sideways  shift  of  the  test-plate  is  then  all  that  is  required  to 
compensate  the  stress-difference  at  any  given  point,  provided  that  the 
direction  of  principal  stress  had  been  found  previously. 

Coker  has  used  a  cahbration  tension  member  to  determine  the  distribu- 
tion of  stress  in  plates  of  various  shapes — for  example,  in  tension  specimens 


Fig.  2. 

pierced  with  circular  holes,  decks  of  ships  with  various  openings,  cement 
briquettes,  &c.  (17).  He  has  also  (18)  investigated  Andrade's  problem 
of  the  block  whose  opposite  faces  slide  with  regard  to  one  another  re- 
maining undistorted,  and  he  obtains  by  this  optical  method  a  distribution 
of  shear  very  similar  to  that  obtained  by  Andrade  from  direct  measure- 
ments of  the  shde.  Mr.  Scoble  and  he  have  also  appHed  this  method  to 
determine  the  distribution  of  stress  due  to  a  rivet  in  a  plate  (19). 

The  photo-elastic  determination  of  stress  carried  out  in  this  way  does 
not,  however,  determine  the  stress  in  the  plate  completely.  It  will  be 
noticed  that  all  the  method  gives  is  the  principal  stress-difference  at  any 
point.  If  each  principal  stress  at  a  given  point  be  increased  by  any 
arbitrary  quantity,  the  appearances  are  in  no  wise  altered.  To  obviate 
this,  Coker  has  used  the  stretch-squeeze  effect  in  the  plate  to  measure 
the  sum  P— Q  of  the  principal  stresses,  a  suggestion  due  originally  to 
Mesnager  (20).  For  clearly,  if  r  be  the  thickness  of  the  plate,  -q  Poisson's 
ratio,  the  plate,  at  the  point  where  the  principal  stresses  are  P,  Q,  will 
become  thinner  by  an  amount  '7t(P-j-Q)  an  amount  which  is  small, 
but  with  dehcate  instruments  not  impossible  to  measure. 

It  will  be  noticed  that  this  provides  yet  a  third  method  for  exploring 
the  field  of  stress  in  a  plate. 

There  is,  however,  no  necessity  for  doing  this,  as  the  information 
derived  from  the  known  values  of  the  stress-difference  and  the  direction 
of  the  hnes  of  principal  stress  can  be  readily  applied  to  find  the  complete 
system  of  stresses. 

Let  the  axes  of  x  and  y  be  taken  in  the  plane  of  the  plate.  Let  P  and 
Q  now  denote  the  normal  stresses  across  elements  dij  and  dx  respectively, 
S  the  shearing  stress  across  either  of  the  above  elements.    Then,  if  the 


206  REPORTS    ON   THE    STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

lines  of  principal  stress  make  an  angle  a  with  tlie  axes,  and  if  R  is  the 
principal  stress-dift'erence,  it  is  well  known  that 

P— Q=R  cos  2a 
2S=R  sin  2a. 

Thus  a  determination  of  R  and  a  at  every  point  leads  to  the  value 
of  S  at  all  points. 

On  the  other  hand,  considering  the  equihbrium  of  a  small  rectangle 
dx,  dy  and  neglecting  body-forces,  we  have  the  well-known  body  stress 
equations  for  generahsed  plane  strain, 

Sec        hy         '  Sx       8y 

Now,  at  a  point  of  the  boundary,  all  the  stresses  will  be  known. 
For  the  normal  stress  across  an  element  of  the  boundary  where  the 
outwards  normal  makes  an  angle  with  the  axis  of  x  is 

P  cos2  e  +  Q  sin2  (9+2S  cos  6  sin  6 

=  P  +  Q  +  ^-Q  cos  26  +  8  sin  20. 

S  and  P— Q  being  known  from  optical  data,  and  the  normal  stress  across 
the  boundary  being  also  known  from  the  boundary  conditions,  the  above 
equation  determines  P+Q  and  hence  (P— Q  being  known)  P  and  Q. 

Consider  now  a  point  A  of  the  plate.  Draw  a  hne  through  A  parallel 
to  the  axis  of  x  to  meet  the  nearest  boundary  at  a  point  Ao  (iCo,  yf). 

Then,  integrating  the  equation 

SP       .     ^^Q 

8a;      hy 

along  the  hne  Ay  A,  we  find 

P-P„=-jlS.^a;, 

where  Po  is  the  value  of  P  at  A,,. 

Similarly,  if  a  hne  through  A  parallel  to  the  axis  of  y  meets  the  nearest 
boundary  at  a  point  Bq  (jc,  ?/o)  when  the  value  of  Q  is  Qo, 


V 

Q-Qo  =  —  Yx  '  ^y' 


l/o 

Now,  if  we  know  the  value  of  S  at  all  points,  the  values  of  the  partial 
differential  co-efficients   g-.     g-    can    be    obtained    approximately    by 

taking  differences.  P  and  Q  can  then  be  found  as  above  by  the  ordinary 
process  of  graphical  integration,  Pn,  Qo  being  known,  as  explained.  This 
method  can  be  used  with  any  set  of  experimental  data,  provided  only  that 
these  are  accurate  enough  to  allow  of  differences  beine  taken  to  calculate 
SS  8S 
g->    g-.     In  any  case,  before  actually  aj^plyingthe  method,  the  curves  for 

S  when  eitlier  x  =  constant  or  y  =  constant  should  be  '  smoothed  '  so 


ON    STRESS    DISTRIBUTIONS    IN    ENGINEERING    MATERIALS.       207 

as  to  take  out  accidental  inequalities.  A  check  on  the  accuracy  of  the 
calculation  is  easily  pro\aded,  for  the  calculated  P  — Q  should  agree  with 
the  value  optically  observed. 

In  many  problems  it  is  known  that  one  of  the  normal  stresses  is  through- 
out very  small.  In  this  case,  if  Q,  say,  is  nearly  zero,  we  have  P=R  cos  2a, 
and  the  stress  chfference  leads  easily  to  the  complete  system  of  stresses. 
This  assumption  has  been  made  by  Coker  in  his  earher  papers,  but  it 
would  seem  desirable  to  justify  it  more  fully. 

NOTES. 

(References  to  these  are  given  in  the  text.) 

(1)  Karl  Pearson,  A.  F.  C.  Pollard,  C.  W.  Wheen,  and  L.  F.  Richardson  : 
An  Experimental  Study  of  the  Stresses  in  Masonry  Dams.  (Drapers' 
Company  Research   Memoirs  :      Technical  Series  V.) 

(2)  J.  S.  Wilson  and  W.  Gore  :  Stresses  in  Dams.  '  Proc.  Inst.  C.E.,' 
1908. 

(3)  E.  N.  daC.  Andrade  :  The  Distribution  of  Shde  in  a  Right  Six-face 
Subject  to  Pure  Shear.     '  R.S.  Proc.  A.,'  vol.  85,  pp.  448-461. 

(4)  Sir  David  Brewster:  'Phil.  Trans.'  1816,  p.  156.  'Annalesde 
Chimie  et  de  Physique,'  vol.  xx.  Fresnel :  '  Qlluvres  d'Augustin  Fresnel,' 
tome  1,  p.  713.  F.  E.  Neumann,  '  Abh.  d.  k.  Acad.  d.  Wiss.  zu  Berhn,' 
1841,  vol.  ii.,  p.  50-61.  See  also  '  Pogg.  Ann.'  vol.  hv.  John  Kerr  : 
'  Phil.  Mag.,'  1888,  ser.  5,  vol.  26,  No.  161.  G.  Wertheim  :  '  Annales  de 
Chimie  et  de  Physique,'  ser.  3,  vol.  xl.,  p.  156. 

(5)  F.  Pockels  :  '  Ueber  die  Aenderung  des  optischen  Verhaltens 
Verschiedener  Glaser  durch  elastische  Deformation,'  Ann.  d.  Physik,  1902, 
ser.  4,  vol.  7,  p.  745.  L.  N.  G.  Filon  :  On  the  Variation  with  the  Wave- 
length of  the  Double  Refraction  in  Strained  Glass,  '  Camb.  Phil.  Soc. 
Proc.,'  vol.  xi.  Pt.  vi.,  vol.  xii.  Pt.  i.,  and  vol.  xii.  Pt.  v.  On  the  Dispersion 
in  Artificial  Double  Refraction,  '  Phil.  Trans.  A.,'  vol.  207,  pp.  263-306 
(1907).  PreUminary  Note  on  a  New  Method  of  Measuring  directly  the 
Double  Refraction  in  Strained  Glass, '  R.S.  Proc.  A.,'  vol.  79,  ^jp.  440-442 
(1907).  Measurements  of  the  Absolute  Indices  of  Refraction  in  Strained 
Glass,  '  R.S.  Proc.  A.,'  vol.  83,  pp.  572-578  (1910).  On  the  Temperature 
Variation  of  the  Photo-elastic  Effect  in  Strained  Glass,  '  R.S.  Proc.  A.,' 
vol.  89,  pp.  587-593  (1914). 

(6)  Clerk  Maxwell :  '  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  Edin.,'  vol.  xx.,  1853,  p.  1172  ; 
or  '  Collected  Papers,'  vol.  i. 

(7)  A  proof  of  the  statement  in  the  text  is  as  follows  : — Let  E  be  the 
stress  function  for  generahsed  j)lane  stress  (Love  :  '  Theory  of  Elasticity,' 
pp.  86  and  446),  P,  Q,  S  the  mean  stresses  xx,  yy,  xy  in  the  usual  notation, 
R  the  principal  mean  stress-difference,  <^  the  angle  which  the  hues  of 
principal  stress  make  with  the  axes. 

Then  it  is  known  that 

R2=(P_Q)2+4S2 

tan  2<^-=2S/P-Q 

2S=P  sin  24>  P-Q=R  cos  2</.. 

Also  the  mean  stresses  are  given  in  terms  of  the  stress  function  by 

P_  S-E  n_S'E  Q  S^E 


hf  ^     hx''  8a;,  V 


208  REPORTS    ON   THE    STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

Using  the  transformations 

2rj=x — ly 
we  find  readily 

...    Q_p+2cS=^^,     (1)  Q-P-2<S  =  |f     (2) 


Q  +  P=,P,      (3) 


From  (1)  and  (2) 


Now,  the  isoclinic  lines  give  (^  as  a  function  of  x,  y  and  therefore  of  ^,  7; 
for  every  point. 

On  the  other  hand,  it  is  well  known  that  E  satisfies  the  equation 

V  .  E=-0 
or 

of  which  the  solution  is 

E=E,(a+E.(7;)+^E3(a+^E,(^)     (5) 

El,  E2,  E3,  and  E4  being  arbitrary  functions. 
(4)  then  gives 


Ai^-n) 


=E/'(,)+^E,"(>?)     (6) 


_E/'(|)+r?E3"(f) 

Putting  ^=0,  1=0  successively  in  the  identity     (6) 

Ei"(^)=€-^"l>^f.o) .  [Eo"(0)+^E4"(0)']     (7) 

E,"(7;)=e''*(^'))    .[e/'(0)+>,E3"(0)]     (8) 


ON   STRESS   DISTRIBUTIONS   IN    ENGINEERINGS    MATERIALS.        209 

Differentiating  (6)  witli   regard  to   ^,17  and   then   putting  ^=0   and 
i;=0  respectively,  we  find 


E/'(v,)=4c(^|)^^^E,/'(r,)+e^'*('^"')  [  E/"(0)+^E3"'(0)  J     (9) 
/'{i)=  -4.(^^)^^E/'(^)+e-'"*«.o)  |e,"'(0)+|E/"(0)  j     (10) 


B 


Assume E,"(0)=A,  E3"(0)-B,  E,'"(0)=C,  E3"'(0)=D. 

Equations  (7)-(10)  determine  E^'iv),  ^/'(v)  and  Lence  Ei"(l)>  E3"(^) 
as  homogeneous  Hnear  functions  of  A,  B,  C,  D. 

Hence  E=Ae,+Be2+Ce3+De4+a|+/J)74-y^77+8,  where  e,,  e-i,  e^,  e^ 
are  now  known  functions  and  a,  /3,  y,  8  are  arbitrary  constants. 

The  terms  in  a  ^  8  do  not  affect  the  stresses  and  may  be  dropped. 

The  term  y  i  rj  may  add  y  to  P+Q. 

If,  now,  the  value  of  any  stress  be  known  at  a  given  point,  this  leads 
to  a  hnear  equation  between  A,  B,  C,  D,  y. 

Hence  the  complete  specification  of  the  stress  at  two  points  leads  to 
six  equations  for  A,  B,  C,  D,  y  in  hke  manner,  if  we  consider  the  conditions 
at  the  boundary,  where  two  of  the  stresses  are  in  general  known,  the  con- 
ditions at  three  points  give  six  equations.  In  either  case  we  have  more 
than  enough  equations  to  determine  A,  B,  C,  D,  y. 

Thus  the  stress  conditions  at  a  few  points,  together  with  the  isochnio 
lines,  determine  the  stress  system  completely. 

(8)  0.  M.  Corbino  and  Trabacchi  :  '  Rendiconti  Acad,  dei  Lincei,' 
vol.  18,  1909.     See  also  letter  by  0.  M.  Corbino  in  '  Nature,'  Jan.  16,  1913. 

(9)  Volterra  :    '  Annales  de  I'Ecole  Normale  de  Paris,'  1907. 

(10)  L.  N.  G.  Filon  :  The  Investigation  of  Stresses  in  a  Rectangular 
Bar  by  Means  of  Polarised  Light,  '  Phil.  Mag.,'  Jan.  1912. 

(11)  Volterra,  loc.  cit.  Note  (8)  ;  Corbino,  loc.  cit.  Note  (7).  Filon, 
loc.  cit.  Note  (9)  ;  also  Filon,  '  Phil.  Trans.  A.,'  vol.  201,  pp.  63-155. 

(12)  Carus  Wilson  :    '  Phil.  Mag.,'  ser.  5,  Dec.  1891. 

(13)  Boussinesq  :  '  Comptes  Rendus,'  vol.  114,  pp.  1510-1516.  See 
also  Flamant :  '  Comptes  Rendus,'  vol.  114,  pp.  1465-1468. 

(14)  L.  N.  G.  Filon :  On  an  Approximate  Solution  for  the  Bending  of  a 
Beam  of  Rectangular  Cross-section  under  any  System  of  Load  :  '  Phil. 
Trans.  A.,'  vol.  201,  pp.  63-155. 

(15)  0.  Honigsberg  and  G.  Dimmer  :  Interferenzfarben  beanspruchter 
durchsichtiger  Korper.  0.  Honigsberg :  Unmittelbare  Abbildung  der 
neutralen  Schichte  bei  Biegung  durchsichtiger  Korper  in  zirkularpolar- 
isierten  Licht,  '  International  Association  for  Testing  Materials,'  Brussels 
Congress,  1906. 

(16)  E.  G.  Coker  :  The  Determination  by  Photo-elastic  Methods, 
of  the  Distribution  of  Stress  in  Plates  of  Variable  Section,  with  some 
Apphcations  to  Ships'  Plating,  '  Transactions  of  the  Institution  of  Naval 
Architects.'    See  especially  pp.  9-11. 

1914.  i'         ■^i'i'  p 


210  REPORTS   ON   THE    STATE    OP   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

(17)  E.  G.  Coker :  Paper  cited  in  Note  14  and  the  following  : — The 
Optical  Determination  of  Stress,  '  Phil.  Mag.,'  1910.  The  Distribution  of 
Stress  at  the  Minimum  Section  of  a  Cement  Briquette,  '  International 
Association  for  Testing  Material,'  1912.  The  Effects  of  Holes  and  Semi- 
circular Notches  on  the  Distribution  of  Stress  in  Tension  Members, '  Phy- 
sical Society  of  London,'  1913. 

(18)  E.  G.  Coker  :  An  Optical  Determination  of  the  Variation  of 
Stress  in  a  Thin  Eectangular  Plate  subjected  to  Shear,  '  Proc.  Koy. 
Soc.,'1912. 

(19)  E.  G.  Coker  and  W.  A.  Scoble  :  The  Distribution  of  Stress  due 
to  a  Rivet  in  a  Plate, '  Transactions  of  the  Institution  of  Naval  Architects,' 
1913. 

(20)  A.  Mesnager :  Mesure  des  efforts  interieurs  dans  les  sohdes  et 
apphcations,  '  International  Association  for  Testing  Materials,'  Buda- 
Pesth  Congress,  1901. 


The  Lake  Villages  in  the  Neighbourhood  of  Glastonbury. — 
Report  of  the  Committee,  consisting  of  Professor  W.  Boyd 
Dawkins  {Chairman),  ]\Ir.  Willoughby  Gardner  {Secre- 
tary), Professor  W.  Ridgeway,  Sir  Arthur  J.  Evans,  Sir  C. 
Hercules  Read,  Mr.  H.  Balfour,  and  Mr.  A.  Bulleid, 
appointed  to  investigate  the  Lake  Villages  in  the  Neighbour- 
hood of  Glastonbury  in  conneetion  with  a  Committee  of  the 
Somersetshire  Archaeological  and  Natural  History  Society. 
{Drawn  up  by  Mr.  Arthur  Bulleid  and  Mr.  H.  St.  George 
Gray,  the  Directors  of  the  Excavations.) 

The  fifth  season's  exploration  of  the  Meare  Lake  Village  by  the 
Somersetshire  Archseological  and  Natural  History  Society  began  on 
May  13,  1914,  and  will  be  continued  until  May  27  (exclusive  of  filling 
in).  The  ground  being  excavated  is  situated  in  the  same  field  and  is 
continuous  with  the  work  of  previous  years.  As  the  report  has  to  be 
sent  in  on  May  22,  while  the  excavations  are  in  progress,  any  notes 
regarding  the  work  will  necessarily  be  incomplete  and  curtailed.  There 
has  been  considerable  difficulty  this  year  in  procuring  labour,  and  it 
is  proposed  to  reopen  the  excavations  in  September.  The  digging 
includes  the  examination  of  the  ground  situated  to  the  north-east  of 
Dwelling-Mound  V.,  south-east  of  Dwelling-Mound  VII.,  the  south- 
west quarter  of  Dwelling-Mound  IX.,  and  the  ground  lying  to  the 
north-east  of  Dwelling-Mound  XVIII.  There  is  little  of  interest,  so 
far,  to  note  structurally,  but  the  number  and  importance  of  the  objects 
found  have  been  well  maintained. 

The  Eelics. 

This  report  is  called  for  before  the  season's  work  is  half  completed, 
and  at  a  time  when  the  excavators  are  only  on  the  fringe  of  two  well- 
defined  dwelling-mounds.  Hence  there  is  little  to  say  with  regard 
to  the  relics  so  far  discovered. 

Bone. — The  bone  objects  include  part  of  two  needles,  worked  tibiae 
of  sheep  and  ox,  tarsal  and  carpal  bones  of  sheep,  cut  and  perforated 


THE  LAKE  VILLAGES  IN  THE  NEIGHBOURHOOD  OF  GLASTONBURY.   211 

shoulder-blades,  polishing-bones ;  and  a  long  tubular  die  with  numbers, 
3,  4,  5,  6,  represented  by  small  circular  depressions  on  the  sides, 
and  of  a  similar  variety  to  those  found  in  the  Glastonbury  Lake  Village ; 
also  a  piece  of  bone  cut  for  the  formation  of  two  dice.  A  bone  object 
of  a  new  type  is  the  coarse  comb  of  rude  workmanship  fonned  from 
a  rib-bone  of  ox  or  horse;  there  are  eight  large,  clumsy  teeth  of  varied 
size,  which  bear  evidence  of  considerable  wear ;  it  is  quite  of  a  different 
character  from  the  weaving-combs  so  frequently  found  in  the  lake 
villages. 

Crucibles. — Several  fragments. 

Bronze. — The  bronze  objects  include  a  piece  of  bordering,  two 
fibulge  of  safety-pin  design  (La  Tene  XXL),  one  in  almost  perfect 
condition,  and  a  small  ornamented  ring-handle,  perhaps  of  a  vessel. 
A  long  tubular  object  formed  from  a  strip  of  sheet  bronze  was  also 
found,  the  working-end  of  which  is  trifurcated  by  splitting  the  metal 
for  a  distance  of  about  f  inch,  each  of  the  divisions  tapering  to  form 
a  three-pointed  instrument. 

Iron. — Parts  of  knives  and  fragments  of  pointed  objects. 

Flint. — A  few  flint  flakes,  some  with  secondary  chipping. 

Glass. — A  perfect  bead  of  clear  white  glass,  ornamented  with  three 
sunk  spiral  devices  filled  with  a  light  yellow  paste,  has  'been  added 
to  the  bead  series ;  and  others  have  been  found  in  addition. 

Antler. — Part  of  a  polished  tine,  a  small  tubular  object,  a  cut  piece 
with  partial  perforations,  two  weaving-combs,  'cheek-pieces,'  and 
tool-handles. 

Kimmeridge  SJiale. — Part  of  a  fluted  armlet  of  large  size,  lathe- 
turned;  and  portions  of  three  others. 

Tusks. — Several  boars'  tusks  (?  -wild),  including  one  perforated. 

Querns. — No  complete  upper  or  lower  stone  has  been  found,  but 
several  large  portions  of  well-worked  saddle  and  rotary  querns  have 
been  uncovered  in  Mound  IX. 

Other  Stone  Objects. — Several  sling-stones,  found  singly;  a  large 
number  of  whetstones  ;  a  few  small  smooth  pebbles  (perhaps  calculi). 

Spindle-whorls. — Six  have  been  found  so  far,  (a)  one  of  baked  clay, 
[b)  four  of  lias  stone,  (c)  a  part  of  one  formed  from  an  ammonite. 

Baked  Clay. — Several  sling-bullets  O'f  fusiform  shape  have  been 
collected;  also  a  large  triangular  loom-weight  and  fragments  of  others 
in  Mound  IX. 

Pottery. — No  complete  vessel  has  been  found,  but  shards  are  very 
abundant  in  proportion  to  the  area  dug.  The  rougher  wares  are  strongly 
represented,  'but  a  fair  number  of  ornamented  pieces  have  been 
collected,  including  some  new  and  elegant  designs.  Part  of  an  orna- 
mented pot-cover  of  a  type  previously  found  at  Meare  has  been  found ; 
also  at  least  two  separate  fragments  of  Eoman  ware  of  the  '  Burtle 
type,'  obtained  from  below  the  alluvial  deposits  and  on  the  original 
surface  of  Roman  times. 

Animal  Remains. — Large  quantities  of  bones  of  domesticated 
animals  are  being  collected,  chiefly  of  young  animals.  Many  split 
bones  and  splinters  have  been  noticed.  Bird-bones  are  also  commonly 
found.     A  cock-spur  has  also  come  to  light  at  Mearc,  which  implies  that 

r  2 


212  REPORTS   ON  THE   STATE   OF   SCIENCE. — I9l4. 

the  sport  of  cock-fighting,  common  in  Gaul  before  the  Roman  conquest, 
was  carried  on  in  the  lake  village  of  Meare,  as  well  as  in  that  of 
Glastonbury. 

The  Committee  are  desirous  that  they  should  be  authorised  to  act 
fpr  the  ensuing  year  on  the  part  of  the  British  Association,  and  that 
a  grant  of  20L  should  be  made  in  aid  of  the  exploration  that  is  mostly 
paid  for  by  local  effort. 


Physical  Characters  of  the  Ancient  Egyptians. — Rejwrt  of  the 
Committee,  consisting  of  Professor  G-.  Elliot  Smith  {Chair- 
man), Dr.  F.  C.  Shrubsall  (Secretary),  Professor  A.  Keith, 
Dr.  F.  Wood  Jones,  and  Dr.  C.  G.  Seligmann. 

Professor  Elliot  Smith's  Report. 

This  report  deals  with  two  distinct  series  of  anthropological  material, 
(A)  one  from  Saqqara  in  Lower  Egypt,  and  (B)  the  other  from  the 
Southern  part  of  the  Kerma  basin  in  the  Sudan.  Both  collections 
are  of  quite  exceptional  importance  from  their  bearing  upon  the 
history  and  the  racial  movements  in  the  Nile  Valley. 

(A.)  The  Committee  was  appointed  primarily  with  the  object  of 
acquiring,  studying,  and,  if  feasible,  transporting  to  England  a  valuable 
and  unique  series  of  skeletons  of  Ancient  Egyptians,  buried  in  mastabas 
of  the  Second  and  Third  Dynasties  at  Saqqara,  which  Sir  Gaston 
Maspero,  Director-General  of  the  Egyptian  Government  Antiq_uities 
Department,  had  placed  at  my  disposal.  The  material  was  -brought 
to  light  in  the  course  of  the  excavations  carried  on  for  the  Antiquities 
Department  by  its  Senior  Inspector,  Mr.  J.  E.  Quibell,  who  did 
everything  in  his  power  to  facilitate  and  help  me  in  my  investigations. 
The  cemetery  in  which  the  material  was  obtained  is  situated  a  short 
distance  to  the  north  of  the  Pyramids  of  Saqqara,  and  included  the 
tomb  of  Hesy,  from  which  the  famous  wooden  portrait  panels  (now 
in  the  Cairo  Museum)  were  obtained  by  Mariette  Pasha  many  years 
ago.  The  tombs  themselves  are  of  very  great  interest,  and  will  be 
described  in  detail  in  Mr.  Quibell 's  official  report,^  a  summary  of 
which  was  read  at  the  Dimdee  Meeting.  They  are  the  earliest  known 
examples  of  elaborate  subterranean  rock-cut  tombs,  and  range  in  date 
from  the  latter  part  of  the  Second  Dynasty  until  well  into  the  period 
of  the  Third  Dynasty.  At  the  Dundee  Meeting  of  the  Association  I 
read  Mr.  Quibell 's  account  of  this  cemetery,  from  which  the  following 
extracts  ^  have  been  taken  :  — 

'  This  is  the  area  in  which  Mariette  found  most  of  his  mastabas, 
from  which  much  of  the  knowledge  of  the  Old  Kingdom  has  been 
obtained. ' 

'  Excavations  at  Saqqara,  I9I0-I911,  Service  des  Antiquites  de  I'Egypte. 

^  These  extensive  quotations,  not  published  hitherto,  are  necessary  to  explain 
the  importance  and  precise  significance  of  the  anthropological  questions  involved 
in  the  study  of  the  material,  to  the  consideration  of  which  I  shall  return  in  the 
latter  part  of  tliis  report. 


ON   PHYSICAL   CHARACTERS    OF   THE   ANCIENT   EGYPTIANS.        213 

'  More  than  400  tombs  were  dug  and  recorded :  they  were  singularly 
uniform  in  type  and  cover  but  a  small  period  in  time.  Four  were  of 
the  First  Dynasty,  and  the  rest  of  the  Second  and  Third.  Intrusive 
burials  of  later  ages  were  confined  to  two  periods,  that  of  Thotmes  III. 
and  (probably)  late  Ptolemaic,  and  were  unimportant.' 

'  In  what  follows  we  w-ill  confme  ourselves  to  the  Second  and  Third 
Dynasties :  — 

'  These  tombs  were  most  varied  in  size,  but  uniform  in  plan.  One 
was  50  metres  long  and  30  wide,  but  the  one  I  have  chosen  as  a  type 
was  no  more  than  li  metres  long,  and  even  originally  not  1  metre 
high.  It  consists  of  a  hollow  oblong  of  imbaked  brickwork  filled  in 
with  gravel  and  stone  chip,  plastered  and  whitewashed  externally. 
On  the  east  side  are  two  niches,  the  southern  one  being  the  larger  and 
the  more  important.  Below  the  mastaba  was  a  small  stairway  and  a 
subterranean  chamber.  The  smaller  tombs  were  often  built  in  rows, 
and  their  position  parallel  with  the  sides  of  the  larger  ones  suggested 
that  they  belonged  to  the  servants  or  relatives  of  the  great  men. 

'  One  tomb  showed  very  clearly  the  origin  of  the  later  type  in 
stone.  The  niche  has  been  withdrawn  into  the  body  of  the  building 
and  protected  by  a  door.  A  small  chamber  is  thus  formed,  and  the 
sides  of  this  were,  no  doubt,  decorated  with  paintings ;  later,  when 
stone  replaced  the  crude  brick,  the  scenes  were  made  in  low  relief. 
This  is  the  form  of  most  of  the  mastabas  published  by  Mariette ;  the 
more  complex  plans  of  the  large  tombs  that  have  been  left  open  are 
exceptional. 

'  The  paths  between  the  tombs  were  very  narrow,  hardly  wide 
enough  for  one  man  to  pass,  and  among  the  larger  tombs,  where  there 
were  walls  3  metres  and  more  high,  must  have  formed  a  perilous 
maze.  They  were  umcli  used;  offerings  of  minute  quantities  of  food 
were  brought  on  every  feast  day  and  placed  before  the  false  doors  in 
little  vases  like  egg-cups  and  saucers.  Piles  of  these  pots  are  found 
thrown  away  near  some  of  the  tombs. 

'  Very  little  stone-work  was  found.  Small  tanks  20  centimetres 
or  so  long  occasionally  remained  before  the  niches,  and  in  two  cases 
an  inscribed  stone  panel  depicting  the  deceased  seated  before  his  table 
of  offerings  had  escaped  the  search  for  lime.  This  panel  appears  in 
the  middle  of  the  later  stelse  of  the  Fifth  Dynasty,  of  which  it  was 
evidently  the  most  important  part. 

'  The  sides  of  the  niches  may  have  borne  painted  decoration — 
probably  did  so — but  no  trace  of  this  remained. 

'  In  one  mastaba,  a  very  large  one,  the  wall  was  double:  the  two 
niches  wei'e  carefully  built  in  both  the  inner  and  the  outer  walls, 
evidently  in  order  that  the  inner  one  might  retain  its  magical  value, 
even  if  the  outer  one  were  destroyed. 

'  The  space  inside  the  four  walls  was  generally  filled  with  gravel 
and  with  stone  chip  from  the  subterranean  chamber,  but  in  some  of 
the  larger  tombs  the  filling  contained  also  a  great  number  of  coarse 
vases,  many  crushed  by  the  overlying  gravel,  but  many  also  unbroken. 
These  we  thought  at  first  might  have  been  the  jars  used  by  the  work- 
men for  food,  but  some  of  them  were  of  unbaked  clay,  and  could  hardly 


214  REPORTS   ON  THE   STATE   OP  SCIENCE. — 1914. 

have  been  used  at  all.  In  other  cases,  too,  these  vases  had  been 
placed  in  orderly  rows ;  in  one  the  whole  desert  floor  between  the 
walls  of  the  tomb  and  the  edge  of  the  shaft  had  been  covered  with 
these  vases,  with  clods  of  black  clay  placed  between  them.  It  would 
seem,  then,  that  these  were  deposits  intended  to  supplement  the 
furniture  of  the  subterranean  chamber. 

'  In  the  case  here  shown  there  can  be  little  doubt.  Below  the 
filling,  hidden  beneath  3  metres  of  gravel,  we  found  a  shallow  trench 
^  mfetre  wide,  once  roofed  with  wood.  Inside  it  were  two  rows  of 
jars  or  model  bams,  each  30  centimetres  high,  made  of  unbaked  clay, 
and  containing  a  brown  organic  powder,  probably  decayed  corn.  The 
trench  is  lined  with  brick,  and  from  it  a  tiny  tunnel,  a  handbreadth 
wide  and  high,  leads  to  the  mouth  of  the  shaft.  This,  surely,  was  a 
secret  supply  of  food  for  the  dead  man. 

'  In  thi'ee  of  the  large  tombs  a  still  more  elaborate  provision  was 
made.  A  row  of  brick  chambers,  or  tanks,  was  sunk  in  the  floor  of 
the  tomb,  filled  with  jars,  and  covered  with  a  course  of  brick.  What 
the  jars  contained  is  not  clear;  a  very  light  organic  matter,  probably 
a  fat,  filled  the  lower  half  of  a  few,  but  most  of  them  were  empty  when 
found.  These  chambers,  or  tanks,  must,  however,  have  once  contained 
something  of  value,  for  in  one  tomb  they  had  been  laboriously  robbed. 
A  shaft  had  been  sunk  through  the  filling — in  this  case  composed  of  a 
very  tough,  dried  mud — into  one  of  the  chambers,  and  from  this 
tunnels  bad  been  forced,  sometimes  through  the  walls,  sometimes 
above  them  through  the  mud  filling,  tdl  all  the  eight  chambers  had 
been  rifled.  The  labour  must  have  been  considerable  and  the  risk  not 
trifling:  there  was  nothing  to  show  how  it  had  been  repaid. 

'  We  now  leave  the  structures  above  ground  and  come  to  the  shaft. 

'  This  was  nearly  always  in  the  form  of  a  stair,  sloping  down 
from  the  north  or  east  to  the  chamber  mouth.  The  stair  often  starts 
from  the  east,  near  the  north  niche,  and  bends  at  a  I'ight-angle  half- 
way down ;  this  would  be  practically  useful  while  the  digging  was 
going  on,  as  it  would  stop  a  falling  stone  before  it  acquired  an 
awkward  velocity.  The  shafts,  like  the  tombs,  vary  much  in  size. 
Some  are  12  metres  deep,  som.e  so  small — 1  metre  or  less — that 
the  steps  would  be  of  no  practical  use. 

'  In  the  larger  and  deeper  tombs  the  steps  are  cut  in  the  rock,  are 
of  reasonable  size,  and  evidently  served  their  purpose  in  the  excavation 
of  the  chamber  below;  but  in  many  of  the  moderate  sized  mastabas, 
those  4  to  5  metres  long,  the  steps  are  of  brick,  and  are  too  narrow 
and  fragile  for  a  man  to  stand  on  them.  Shafts  and  steps  in  the 
small  tombs,  and  presumably  also  in  the  large  ones,  were  carefully 
plastered  and  whitewashed  for  the  funeral  ceremony.  In  small  tombs 
a  low  skirting  wall  a  few  inches  in  height  was  built  round  the  shaft, 
and  this,  too,  was  whitened.  The  ui^per  part,  the  mastaba,  was  built 
after  the  funeral.  But  in  larger  tombs  this  was  not  practical;  the 
works  above  and  below  ground  had  to  go  on  together,  so  the  stair 
was  fenced  in  by  a  separate  wall. 

'  Shafts  were  generally  filled  with  gravel,  the  portcullis  being  relied 
on  to  secure  the  mouth  of  the  chamber ;  but  in  large  tombs  they  were 


ON  PHYSICAL  CHARACTERS   OP   THE   ANCIENT  EGYPTIANS.       215 

filled  with  slabs  of  stone,  packed  in  on  edge,  and  in  some  cases  a 
pavement  of  lieavy  blocks  was  laid  in  above.  A  few  stone  vases  were 
occasionally  placed  in  the  shaft,  and  in  one  tomb  a  great  number  had 
been  laid  on  the  steps  of  the  stair.  The  same  arrangement  was  found 
by  Garstang  in  a  great  tomb  at  Bet  Khallaf. 

'  The  portcullis  consisted  of  a  large  flat  block  of  stone  with 
rounded  edges,  sometimes  as  much  as  3  metres  long  and  1'5  metres 
wide,  which  fitted  into  a  gi-oove  cut  in  the  rock.  It  nmsfc  have  been 
lowered  before  the  mastaba  was  built  and  chocked  up  so  that  its  base 
was  above  the  door  of  the  chamber.  Eopes  were  used  to  aid  in 
lowering  it;  the  channels  cut  by  them  were  observed  in  one  stone. 

'  The  chamber  opened  either  on  the  south  or  west,  very  rarely  the 
north,  never  on  the  east. 

'  It  was  generally  a  small,  rudely-cut  cave,  too  small  to  hold  a 
body  laid  at  full  length ;  this  small  rough  chamber  was  the  general 
rule,  but  the  larger  tombs  have  a  series  of  chambers  of  a  somewhat 
elaborate  plan. 

'  On  passing  the  portcullis  in  these  we  find  ourselves  in  a  broad 
passage,  from  which  three  or  four  chambers,  probably  magazines, 
open  on  each  side. 

'  A  wide  doorway  at  the  end  leads  to  a  continuation  of  the  passage, 
and  this  to  further  chambers,  in  which  there  is  some  variety  of  plan; 
but  two  features  are  constant.  To  the  right — that  is,  to  the  S.W. — 
is  the  actual  burial  chamber  with  remains  of  a  single  skeleton ;  in  the 
S.-E.  corner  is  a  feature  new  in  Egyptian  tombs,  and,  surely,  in  any 
other  tombs — viz.,  a  dummy  latrine;  north  of  this,  in  two  cases,  was 
a  narrow  chamber  with  rude  basins  carved  in  the  floor — probably 
meant  for  a  bathroom.  The  provision  for  the  dead  was  evidently  more 
thoughtful  and  complete  than  in  later  ages. 

'  In  all  these  underground  chambers  the  antiquities  found  were 
somewhat  disappointing.  It  is  true  that  we  did  obtain  a  great  number 
of  bowls  and  dishes  of  alabaster,  diorite,  and  other  stones — indeed,  an 
emban'assing  quantity  of  them — also  ewers  and  basins  of  copper, 
occasionally  a  wooden  piece  from  a  draughtsboard,  a  box  or  a  bit  of 
ivory  inlay,  and  that  the  mud-seals  on  the  vases  were  in  three  tombs 
inscribed  with  Kings'  names,  thereby  giving  us  our  assured  dates  for 
the  cemetery ;  but  the  ancient  robbers  had  very  different  returns  for 
their  labour;  there  had  certainly  i^een  quite  other  classes  of  monuments 
of  which  no  sample  had  survived.  All  the  tombs  except  the  very 
smallest  and  poorest  had  been  robbed,  and  robbed,  too,  at  a  very  early 
period :  this  was  clear  from  the  knowleclge  shown  by  the  robbers  of 
the  construction,  and  the  skill  with  which  they  penetrated  to  the  burial 
chamber  with  a  minimum  of  labour.  Sometimes  the  earth  inside  the 
chamber  had  been  passed  through  a  sieve :  this  shows  that  the  second 
robber  had  found  some  gold  beads  left  behind  by  the  first ;  he  (the 
first  one)  would  not  need  a  sieve — he  found  the  coffin  and  all  the 
furniture  lying  clear. 

'  We  assume  that  thei-e  was  a  coffin  in  all  cases — indeed,  fragments 
were  often  found,  but  complete  coffins  remained  in  four  tombs  only, 
and  these  four  of  the  poorest. 

'  They  are  short,  with  panelled  sides  and  arched  square-ended  lid : 


216  EEPORTS   ON    THE   STATE   OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

two  niches  are  made  in  the  east  side.  In  one  coffin,  the  east  side 
of  which  alone  is  here  shown,  the  central  panels  are  covered  with 
a  series  of  slabs;  these  are  rounded  at  the  ends  and  do  not,  as  one 
would  expect,  butt  against  or  mortise  into  the  uprights ;  this  suggests 
that  they  are  in  imitation  of  a  door.'  [Similar  coffins  were  subse- 
quently found  by  Professor  Flinders  Petrie  in  a  contemporary  cemetery 
on  the  opposite  bank  of  the  river.] 

'  When  the  east  side  of  the  coffin  is  taken  away  the  body  appears, 
sharply  contrasted,  with  head  to  the  north  and  face  east.  The  limbs 
ai'e  swathed  in  linen  bands,  and  masses  of  linen  folded  together  lie 
above  the  body.  There  was  some  little  evidence  of  an  attempt  at 
mummification,  but  no  flesh  remained  on  the  bones;  those  of  the 
arm  lay  free  inside  a  wide  cylinder  of  wrappings,  which  retained  the 
shape  of  the  limb.  The  preseiTation  of  these  coffins  and  bodies  was 
partial;  some  of  the  wood  was  quite  sound,  other  pieces  could  not  be 
moved.  So  of  the  cloth;  some  had  been  eaten  by  white  ants,  but 
some  was  in  admirable  presei'vation. 

'  About  fifty  skeletons  and  parts  of  skeletons  were  found  in  fair 
condition,  and  these,  happily,  owing  to  the  visit  of  Professor  Elliot 
Smith,  could  be  carefully  examined,  some  of  them  before  they  had 
been  touched. 

'  In  one  only  of  all  these  four  hundred  tombs  have  paintings  been 
found,  but  this  is  of  very  considerable  interest,  and  the  paintings  are 
so  extensive  that  our  time  for  a  whole  season  has  been  mainly 
occupied  in  copying  them.     This  is  the  tomb  of  Hesy. 

'  The  panels  of  Hesy  have  been,  for  more  than  forty  years,  in 
the  Museum;  they  were  brought  there  by  Mariette,  who  discovered 
them  and  attributed  them,  correctly,  to  the  Third  Dynasty.' 

These  quotations  from  Mr.  Quibell's  report  will  make  it  clear 
that  we  are  dealing  with  the  remains  of  the  very  people  who  were 
responsible  for  technical  inventions  of  far-reaching  importance  in  the 
history,  not  merely  of  Egyptian  craftsmanship,  but  of  that  of  the 
whole  world.  This  series  of  tombs  reveals  the  stages  in  the  acquisi- 
tion of  the  means  of  cutting  out  extensive  rock  tombs;  and  it  is  a 
matter  of  considerable  significance  to  determine  the  jDrecise  racial 
characteristics  of  the  people  who  invented  and  were  the  first  to  practise 
these  arts  and  crafts  which  were  destined  to  exert  so  profound  an 
influence  on  the  world's  culture. 

The  crucial  importance  of  the  human  remains  buried  in  these 
tombs  depends  upon  the  fact  that  the  earliest  bodies  hitherto  found 
in  Lower  Egypt  (exclusive  of  those  brought  to  light  at  Turah  in  the 
winter  of  1909-1910  by  Professor  Hermann  Junker,  and  described  by 
Dr.  Derry,  to  which  reference  will  be  made  later)  belonged  to  a  later 
period — Fourth  to  Sixth  Dynasties — and  revealed  undoubted  evidence 
of  considerable  alien  admixture,  such  as  does  not  occur,  except  in  rare 
sporadic  instances,  in  the  earlier  remains  from  Upper  Egypt.  The 
problem  for  solution  was  the  determination  of  when  and  how  this 
process  of  racial  admixture  began. 

The  contemporai-y  and  earlier  material  found  by  Professor  Junker 
upon  the  opposite  (east)  bank  of  the  river,  and  a  little  further  north, 


ON  PHYSICAL   CHABACTERS   OF  THK   ANCIENT  EGYPTIANS.        217 

was  in  a  very  bad  state  of  preservation,  and  no  adequate  photographic 
record  was  obtained  to  permit  of  exact  comparisons  with  other  collec- 
tions. But  Dr.  Berry's  report,  which  seems  to  suggest  that  the  alien 
element  in  these  poorer  graves  did  not  become  certainly  appreciable 
until  the  time  of  the  Third  Dynasty,  served  to  add  to  the  interest  of 
Mr.  Quibell's  material,  and  to  make  it  more  than  ever  desirable  to 
secure  and  preserve  a  collection  of  such  crucial  importance  for  the 
investigation  of  the  problems  of  Egypt's  anthropological  history. 

The  chief  difficulty  that  faced  me  was  how  satisfactorily  to  deal 
with  a  collection  of  most  fragile  bones,  a  large  proportion  of  which 
were  certain  to  become  damaged,  more  or  less  severely,  during  trans- 
port. As  there  was  no  anthropologist  on  the  spot  to  measure  and 
make  descriptive  notes  on  the  material,  it  was  proposed  to  employ 
experts  to  photograph  each  skull,  and  other  important  bones,  before 
they  were  treated  with  size,  or  other  strengthening  agent,  in  prepara- 
tion for  transport  to  England. 

But,  while  preparations  were  being  made  for  carrying  out  this 
scheme,  most  of  the  difficulties  were  removed  by  the  fact  that  the 
Egyptian  Government  requested  me  to  go  out  to  JEgypt  in  connection 
with  the  work  of  the  Archfeological  Survey  of  Nubia,  and  it  thus 
became  possible  to  visit  Mr.  Quibell's  excavations  in  person,  to 
examine  and  measure  all  the  material  on  the  spot,  to  supervise  the 
work  of  photographing  and  packing  it  for  transmission  to  England. 
It  was  possible  to  do  so  much  in  the  short  time  at  my  disposal, 
because  Mr.  Quibell  and  his  trained  workmen  afforded  every^  help, 
and  Mr.  Cecil  M.  Firth  and  his  native  photographic  assistant. 
Mahmmd  Shaduf,  of  the  Nubian  Archaeological  Survey,  volunteered 
to  help.  Mr.  Firth  took  about  a  hundred  and  thirty  photographs  of 
the  material.  Every  help  was  also  given  by  the  Egyptian  Survey 
Department  in  the  loan  of  instruments  and  other  apparatus.  Further- 
more, the  authorities  at  the  Museum  of  the  Eoyal  College  of  Surgeons 
in  London  offered  to  take  charge  of  and  repair  the  material  on  its 
arrival,  and  to  grant  me  every  facility  for  its  investigation. 

Full  notes  and  photographs  were  obtained  of  all  human  material 
rescued  by  Mr.  Quibell,  consisting  of  the  remains  of  thirty-nine 
individuals  of  the  Second  and  Third  Dynasties,  most  of  which  is  now 
safely  housed  in  the  Eoyal  College  of  Surgeons'  Museum.  At  the 
outset  it  may  be  stated  that  the  material  closely  resembles  the  human 
remains  of  the  Pyramid  Age  found  in  neighbouring  sites  of  a  some- 
what later  date.  There  are  quite  definite  evidences  of  some  racial 
influence  alien  to  the  Proto-Egyptian  race ;  but  the  difficult  problem  is 
raised  as  to  how  much  of  the  contrast  in  the  features  of  the  two 
populations — Upper  Egyptian  and  Lower  Egyptian  at  the  Second 
and  Third  Dynastic  Periods — is  due  to  admixture  and  blending;  and 
how  much,  if  any,  is  due  to  the  specialisation  in  type  of  the  Delta 
portion  of  the  Proto-Egyptian  people. 

The  investigation  also  revealed  some  suggestion  of  attempts  at 
mummification  as  early  as  the  Second  Dynasty — a  fact  of  some 
interest,  as  the  earliest  undoubted  case  of  mummification  is  refeiTed 
to  the  Fourth  or  Fifth  Dynasty   (more  probably  the  latter),   and  no 


218  REPORTS   ON  THE   STATE   OP  SCIENCE. — 1914. 

evidence  has  been  obtained  before  of  attempted  mummification  of  a 
body  which  was  not  buried  in  the  fully  extended  position. 

While  in  Egypt  I  took  the  opportunity  of  comparing  the  Saqqara 
skulls  directly  with  the  type  collection  of  Predynastic  skulls  in  the 
Anatomical  Museum  of  the  Cairo  School  of  Medicine,  and  also  with 
skulls  of  the  Fourth  and  Fifth  Dynasties  at  Dr.  George  Reisner's 
excavations  (for  Harvard  University  and  Boston  Museum)  at  the 
Giza  Pyramids. 

For  convenience  of  comparison  I  have  followed  the  plan  and  used 
the  notation  explained  in  the  Eeport  on  the  Archeeological  Survey  of 
Nubia  (]910),  vol.  ii.,  p.  40. 

Detailed  Statement  of  the  Results  of  Examination  of  the 
Human  Remains. 

2102  F.'  Man  about  forty-five  j'^ears  of  age,  with  well-defined 
alien  traits.*  Buried  in  a  small  mastaba  with  degraded  stair  placed 
alongside  a  big  mastaba.  A  very  big,  broad,  full  ovoid  calvaria,  with 
large  bregmatic  bone  and  squarish  orbits,  and  narrow  high-bridged 
nose.  The  rest  of  the  face  and  mandible  are  missing  (that  is,  were 
not  saved  by  Mr.  Quibell).  L.  (maximum  length  of  cranium  in  milli- 
metres) 205,  B  (maximum  breadth  of  cranium)  14G,  F.B.  (minimal 
frontal  breadth)  98,  H.  135,  L.O.  38x34. 

2104  G.  A  man  with  a  short  and  very  perfect,  well-filled  ovoid 
skull,  which  does  not  conform  to  the  Egyptian  type;  rounded  orbits; 
long  narrow  nose;  jaw  of  distinctly  ahen  type.  L.  176,  B.  139,  H.  137 
(approximately),  F.B.  90,  T.F.  119,  U.F.  73,  Biz.  122,  Interorb.  21, 
N.  50  X  23,  E.G.  39  x  35,  L.O.  36  x  34. 

2104  J.  A  characteristic  example  of  the  type  of  skull  (male)  alien 
to  Egypt,  which  was  found  at  Giza  and  also  at  the  Biga  Cemetery  at 
Nubia.  It  has  large,  obliquely  placed,  squarish  orbits ;  prominent 
narrow -bridged  nose,  with  very  projecting  sharp  margins  and  long 
nasal  spine;  a  broad  face  with  the  zygomatic  arches  cui-ved  strongly 
outward;  a  jaw  with  a  wide  chin;  and  a  ramus  which  is  narrow, 
moderately  high,  and  has  a  big  coronoid  process.  The  skull  is  a 
short,  broad,  full  ovoid ;  there  is  a  straight  line  of  brow  and  nose ; 
very  deep  conceptaculoe  cerebelli,  associated  with  manifestation  of 
an  occipital  vertebra.  L.  174,  B.  134,  F.B.  93,  H.  136,  Biz.  130, 
T.F.  119,  U.F.  71.  C.B.  99,  F.B.  91,  Interorb.  22-5,  E.G.  37x37, 
L.O.  37-5x36,  N.51-5x21j-5,  Big.  102-5.  Femur,  rough  estimate 
of  length,  486.  One  molar  is  carious,  and  there  is  widespread  but 
slight  periostitis  of  the  leg-bones  and  pelvis.  The  pelvis  and  leg- 
bones  are  very  big  and  massive. 

2104  N.W.  Woman,  pi'obably  about  twenty-eight  years  of  age. 
The  skull  is  a  broad,  flat  ovoid  (or  beloid),  with  markedly  sloping 
forehead,    the   profile   passing  without  break   into   the   nose    ('  Greek 

'  Distinguishing  number  of  the  grave  in  Mr.  Quibell's  Archasological  Report. 

■*  In  using  the  term  '  alien  traits  '  I  refer  to  features  which  are  foreign  to 
the  Proto-Egyptian  people  as  well  as  to  the  Brown  Race  in  general.  In  most 
cases — as  for  example  this  instance — these  foreign  features,  such  as  '  a  very  big, 
broad,  full  ovoid  calvaria,'  'squarish  orbits,'  and  'narrow  high-bridged  nose' 
are  distinctive  of  the  Armenoid  population  of  Western  Asia. 


ON  PHYSICAL  CHARACTERS   OF   THE   ANCIENT  EGYPTIANS.       219 


Fig.  1. 


Fia.  2. 


Fra.  3. 


220  REPORTS   ON   THE   STATE   OF  SCIENCE. — 1914. 

profile  ') ;  square  orbits  with  rounded  angles ;  nose  moderately  broad 
and  not  very  prominent,  but  the  nasal  spine  is  large.  In  most 
respects  the  mandible  conforms  to  the  Proto-Egyptian  type,  but  the 
ramus  shows  a  tendency  towards  the  form  distinctive  of  the  Biga 
population  (see  '  Report  of  the  Archfeological  Survey  of  Nubia,'  1907- 
1908,  vol.  ii.).  The  teeth  are  perfectly  healthy.  The  femur  is  small 
and  slender,  with  slight  flattening  of  the  upper  part  of  the  shaft.  The 
length  of  the  right  femur  is  407,  and  the  diameter  of  its  head  38. 
L.  178-5,  B.  138,  F.B.  93,  H.  132,  Biz.  122,  T.F.  120,  U.F.  76, 
O.B.  102,  F.B.  98,  Interorb.  24-5,  E.O.  39x34,  L.O.  36x34-5, 
N.  55x27,  Big.  87,  Sym.  36. 

2104  H.E.  This  is  a  man  about  twenty  or  twenty-one  yeai's  of 
age,  with  a  curious  blending  of  the  features  seen  in  the  skeletons  of 
the  man  2104  J.  and  the  woman  2104  N.W.,  having  the  cranial 
features  of  the  former  and  the  facial  traits  of  the  latter.  The  skull 
is  a  moderately  broad,  well-filled  ovoid,  with  a  sloping  forehead  and 
a  profile  like  2104  N.W.  The  nose  also  resembles  that  of  the  latter, 
but  is  also  curiously  like  that  found  in  the  Nubian  people  at  the  time 
of  the  Middle  Kingdom.  Its  lower  margins  are  rounded.  The  orbits 
are  not  quite  so  square  as  those  of  N.W.,  being  almost  elliptical  and 
oblique.  The  teeth  are  perfectly  healthy  and  unworn.  The  large 
size  of  the  canines  and  incisors  has  produced  slight  prognathism. 
The  left  tibia  is  306  in  length;  its  epiphyses  are  just  consolidating. 
L.  181-5,  B.  141,  F.B.  97,  H.  138-5,  Biz.  131,  T.F.  120,  U.F.  73, 
Interorb.  27,  E.O.  40x33,  L.O.  38x33,  N.  52-5x26,   Big.  86,  Sym.  35. 

2162.  An  elderly  man  with  the  coronal,  sagittal,  and  lambdoid 
sutures  almost  completely  closed.  The  teeth  are  well  worn,  but 
healthy,  excepting  for  a  '  perforation  abscess  '  ^  at  the  root  of  the  lower 
right  first  molar.  There  is,  however,  a  considerable  amount  of  tax'tar 
deposit  on  the  teeth.  The  cranium  is  a  big  ovoid  or  beloid,  with 
prominent  superciliary  ridges;  small,  flat,  horizontal  orbits;  small, 
narrow,  high-bridged,  sharp-edged  nose;  a  wide  jaw,  with  broad  chin, 
and  a  moderate  ramus  of  alien  form,  with  out-splayed  angles.  There 
is  evidence  of  severe  arthritis  in  the  left  temporo-mandibular  joint. 
The  face  conforms  to  a  type  which  is  often  seen  in  the  Dynastic 
Egyptian.  L.  193,  B.  139,  H.  136,  F.B.  91,  Big.  105,  Sig.  52, 
T.F.  113,  U.F.  69,  Biz.  134,  N.  54x25,  Interorb.  26,  L.O.  38x29, 
E.O.  37x30. 

2116  N.  This  skeleton  is  probably  a  woman's.  It  conforms  to 
the  Proto-Egyptian  type,  the  mandible  being  quite  typical,  and  the 
skull  a  long  ellipsoid,  which  is  well  filled.  None  of  the  cranial  sutures 
show  any  sign  of  closing,  although  the  teeth  are  moderately  worn 
and  encrusted  with  deposits  of  tartar.     L.  181,  B.  129,  F.B.  93. 

2146.  A  middle-aged  or  elderly  man,  with  a  full  ovoid  or 
beloid  skull,  with  flattened  occiput,  somewhat  rounded  orbits,  and 
moderately  prominent  nose.  The  coronal,  sagittal,  and  lambdoid 
sutures    are  closing,    and   the   teeth    are   worn   down,    and   there   are 

'  By  this  term  I  refer  to  an  alveolar  abscess,  which  is  not  due  to  dental 
caries,  but  originates  by  infection  through  the  pulp  cavity  of  a  tooth,  which  has 
been  exiJoscd  by  excessive  wearing-down. 


ON  PHYSICAL   CHARACTERS   OP  THE   ANCIENT  EGYPTIANS.       221 

several  '  perforation  abscesses.'  There  is  thinning  of  the. left  parietal 
bone.  L.  183,  B.  139,  H.  146,  F.B.  93,  U.F.  72,  Biz.  130,  N.  53-5x25, 
Interorb.  24,  L.O.  38x33,  R.O.  38x33. 

2152.  Middle-aged  man,  whose  coronal  and  sagittal  sutures  are 
beginning  to  close.  The  teeth  are  well  worn  down,  and  there  are 
four  '  perforation  abscesses,'  that  associated  with  the  upper  left  second 
molar  opening  by  a  h^rge  perforation  into  the  maxillary  antrum.  The 
jaw  is  a  big,  heavily  built  ovoid,  with  well-marked  muscular  impres- 
sions and  prominent  superciliary  ridges.  The  orbits  are  flat  and 
horizontal,  the  nose  is  narrow  with  a  prominent  high-bridged  root. 
L.  188,  B.  138,  H.  1-38,  F.B.  100,  U.F.  69,  Biz.  135,  N.  49x24-5, 
Interorb.  24,  L.O.  40x32,  R.O.  40x33. 

2170.  A  man  whose  coronal  suture  is  beginning  to  close,  and 
whose  perfectly  healthy  teeth  are  only  slightly  worn.  The  skull  is  a 
big,  well-filled  ovoid,  with  sloping  forehead  and  moderate  supei'ciliary 
ridges.  The  face  is  short  and  broad,  with  small,  narrow  nose  and 
very  flat  orbits.  The  jaw  is  heavily  built,  but  its  form  is  Proto- 
Egyptian.  L.  187,  B.  141,  F.B.  95,  H.  138,  Big.  131,  T.F.  110, 
U.F.  67,  Interorb.  25,  R.O.  40x32,  R.O.  40x33. 

2170.  A  man  whose  coronal  suture  is  beginning  to  close,  and 
whose  perfectly  healthy  teeth  are  only  slightly  worn.  The  skull  is  a 
big,  well-filled  ovoid,  with  sloping  forehead  and  moderate  superciliary 
ridges.  The  face  is  short  and  broad,  witb  small,  narrow  nose  and 
very  flat  orbits.  The  jaw  is  heavily  built,  but  its  form  is  Proto- 
Egyptian.  L.  187,  B.  141,  F.B.  95,  H.  138,  Big.  131,  T.F.  110, 
U.F.  67,  Interorb.  25,  R.O.  40x30-5,  L.O.  38x30-5,  N.  53x24. 

2173  D.  This  is  a  child  of  nine  or  ten  years,  with  a  typical  Proto- 
Egyptian  pentagonoid  skull. 

2172  B.  This  is  a  woman  of  twenty  years,  or  perhaps  a  little 
more,  with  a  small  head  of  Proto-Egyptian  type,  and  well  filled 
pentagono-ovoid  form;  the  nose  has  a  small  horizontal,  elliptical, 
flattened  bridge;  small  mandible,  with  a  very  pointed  chin:  the 
zygomatic  arches  are  laterally  compressed.  The  teeth  are  in  excellent 
condition  and  practically  unworn.  L.  178,  B.  128,  F.B.  85,  H.  129, 
Biz.  116  (estimated),  T.F.  Ill,  U.F.  68,  G.B.  98,  F.B.  94,  Interorb. 
24,  R.O.  38x27,  L.O.  35x28,  N.  46x24^5,  Big.  82,  Sym.  35,  Sig.  45. 

2172  E.B.  A  woman  with  very  perfect,  small,  well-filled  ovoid  or 
ellipsoid  cranium.  The  face  might  be  Proto-Egyptian,  but  the  large 
orbits  and  prominent-spined  nOiSe  suggest  alien  affinities.  The  coronal 
suture  is  beginning  to  close.  L.  173,  B.  130,  F.B.  90,  H.  138-5, 
Biz.  121,  T.F.  102,  Interorb.  20,  R.O.  37x32,  L.O.  38x32,  N.  48x23. 

2172  a  (?  or  j8).  This  is  a  man  with  teeth  moderately  worn,  but 
quite  healthy.  Sutures  all  open.  Long  pentagonoid  cranium  with  a 
markedly  bombS  occipital.  Prominent  superciliary  ridges  thickening 
whole  upper  edge  of  orbits  meet  across  the  mid-line,  overhanging  the 
depressed  and  flattened  root  of  the  nose.  Orbits  flattened ;  nose  wide ; 
typical  Proto-Egyptian  jaw,  with  pointed  chin  and  characteristic 
ramus.  L.  194,  JB.  136-5,  H.  141,  F.  95,  T.F.  107,  U.F.  66,  Biz.  130, 
N.  49x30,  L.O.  38x30,  R.O.  39x29,  Interorb.  23-5. 

2173.  A  woman  about  twenty-one  years  of  age.     Teeth  healthy. 


222  REPORTS   ON  THE   STATE   OP  SCIENCE. — 1914. 

Typical  Proto-Egyptian  pentagonoid  skull,  with  small,  broad,  flat- 
bridged  nose  (nasals  fused),  not  separated  by  any  depression  from  the 
frontal;  oblique  orbits,  and  typical  high  ramus  and  coronoid  process 
of  the  alien  type  of  iaw.  L.  173,  B.  133,  H.  133,  F.  92,  T.P.  110, 
U.F.  67,  N.  47x23-5,  Interorb.  24,  E.O.  smashed. 

2173  A.  This  is  a  woman  with  teeth  well  worn;  left  upper  molars 
carious,  abscesses  at  all  upper  molars.  Temporal  part  of  coronal 
suture  closed,  as  well  as  the  whole  sagittal  and  part  of  lambdoid. 
Big  broad  ovoid  head,  with  senile  thinning  commencing.  Broad  face 
with  out-curved  zygomatic  arches  and  out-splayed  angles  of  jaw. 
Long,  very  narrow  nose,  with  prominent  spine,  but  not  very, high 
bridge.  Large  square  orbits,  with  deficient  lateral  walls.  Left  femur 
is  severely  affected  by  osteomyelitis,  according  to  Professor  Ferguson, 
of  Cairo,  who  had  taken  the  bone  before  I  arrived  at  Saqqara.  Large 
inflammatory  excavation  in  front  of  right  sacro-iliac  joint.  L.  183, 
B.  137,  F.  96-5,  H.  135.  Biz.  133,  T.F.  125,  U.F.  80,  Interorb.  23, 
E.O.  39x36-5,  L.O.  40x37,  N.  55x23,  Big.  106. 

2173  D.  A  woman's  skull,  almost  edentulous,  but  all  the  sutures 
are  still  open.  A  broad,  flat,  beloid  cranium  associated  with  a  small 
infantile  face.  L.  175,  B.  138,  F.B.  90,  H.  117,  Biz.  119,  T.F.  101, 
U.F.  69,  E.O.  37x30,  L.O.  36x31,  N.  52x22. 

2175.  A  man  with  all  upper  incisors  and  right  canine  teeth  gone, 
probably  the  result  of  some  alveolar  disease,  leaving  now  a  large  hole 
about  27  mm.  in  diameter.  The  three  principal  sutures  are  closed. 
Has  a  large,  lofty,  well-filled  ovoid  skull.  Face  very  long,  narrow 
and  ovoid,  with  Proto-Egyptian  type  of  orbits;  but  small,  narrow, 
high-bridged,  sharp-margined  nose.  Pointed  jaw  with  a  high  ramus, 
set  at  so  oblique  an  angle  that  the  sigmoid  height  cannot  be  measured. 
L.  185-5,  B.  144,  F.B.  96,  H.  140,  Biz.  131,  T.P.  130,  U.F.  73 
(estimated),  Interorb.  21,  E.O.  41x32,  L.O.  40x32,  N.  50x24. 

2262.  A  woman  with  a  perfect  set  of  healthy,  almost  unworn 
teeth;  temporal  part  of  coronal  suture  closed.  A  iDig  broad  pentago- 
noid skull  with  large  alien  jaw  and  rounded  orbits.  L.  189,  B.  141, 
F.B.  95,  H.  131,  Biz.  122,  T.F.  119,  U.F.  72,  Interorb.  24,  E.O. 
37x33,  L.O.  36x33-5,  N.  49x24. 

This  individual  exhibits  signs  suggestive  of  some  form  of  mummifi- 
cation having  heen  attempted.  If  so,  it  is  the  earliest  authentic 
evidence  of  such  a  practice.  The  skeleton  was  found  completely 
invested  in  a  large  series  of  bandages — more  than  sixteen  layers  still 
intact,  and  probably  at  least  as  many  more  destroyed — ten  layers  of 
fine  bandage  (warp  seventeen  and  woof  forty-eight  threads  to  the 
centimetre),  then  six  layers  somewhat  coarser  cloth,  and  next  to  the 
body  a  series  of  badly  corroded,  very  irregularly  woven  cloth,  much 
coarser  (warp  six  and  woof  fourteen  per  centimetre)  than  the  inter- 
mediate and  outer  layers.  Each  leg  was  wrapped  separately,  and 
there  was  a  large  pad  on  the  perineum.  Tlie  bandages  were  broad 
sheets  of  linen  rather  than  the  usual  narrow  bandages.  The  body  was 
flexed,  as  was  usual  at  this  period. 

In  the  wide  interval  between  the  bandages  and  the  bones  there 
was  a  large  mass  of  extremely  corroded  linen,  whereas  the  int/ermediate 


ON  PHYSICAL  CHARACTERS   OF  THE   ANCIENT  EGYPTIANS.       223 

and  superficial  layers  of  cloth  were  quite  well  preserved  and  free  from 
corrosion,  except  along  a  line  where  the  cloth  was  corroded  to  repre- 
sent the  rima  pudendi — a  fact  of  great  interest  when  it  is  recalled 
that  in  the  Fifth  and  probably  the  Fourth  Dynasties  it  was  the  custom 
to  fashion  (in  the  case  of  male  mummies)  an  artificial  phallus. 

The  corrosion  is  presumptive  evidence  that  some  material  (probably 
crude  natron)  was  applied  to  the  surface  of  the  body  with  a  view  to 
its  preservation.  If  so,  this  is  the  earliest  body  with  unequivocal 
evidence  of  an  attempt  artificially  to  preserve  or  prevent  decomposition 
in  the  soft  tissues. 

2262  N.  (?)  Woman  aged  twenty  years  of  age.  The  teeth  are 
healthy  and  almost  unworn.  Cranial  sutures  all  open.  Small 
infantile  face  of  characteristic  Proto-Egyptian  type.    Broad  pentagonoid 


Fig.  4. 

cranium   and  flat  orbits.     L.  185,  B.  142,  F.B.  83,  H.  136,    Biz.  124, 
T.F.  105,      U.F.  63,      Interorb.  2r5,      E. 0.39-5x30,      L.O.  37x30, 

N.  48x23. 

2262  B.N.  A  small  tornb  containing  a  man  aged  about  forty  years. 
Teeth  extremely  worn ;  right  lower  molar  carious ;  severe  alveolar 
abscesses  in  upper  jaw;  only  a  few  stumps  left.  Typical  Proto- 
Egyptian  pentagonoides,  shading  into  ovoides.  Low,  very  slightly 
oblique  orbits;  narrow  nose  with  high  bridge,  very  sharp  margin  and 
prominent  spine.  Semitic  curve  of  nasal  bones.  Mandible  with  widely 
splayed  angles.  The  face  as  a  whole,  while  Proto-Egyptian  in  type, 
has  a  suggestion  of  the  criminal  Blemmye  type  in  jaw,  nose,  and 
orbits — ?  a  Sinaitic  Arab.  Three  lower  incisors  (two  right  and  one 
left  removed),  left  zygomatic  arch  fractured,  and  rejoined  with  inward 


224  REPORTS  ON  The  state  op  science. — 1914. 

bend.  L.  189,  B.  135,  F.B.  97-5,  H.  141,  Biz.  130,  T.F.  110,  U.F.  70, 
C.B.  105,  F.B.  93,  Interorb.  23,  E.O.  38-5x30-5,  L.O.  39-5x31, 
N.  50x23,  P.  53x37,  Big.  108,  H.S.  28. 

2262  J.N.  A  man  of  about  twenty  years  of  age.  Basilar  recently 
closed.  Teeth  healthy  and  only  slightly  worn.  Perfect  Proto- 
Egyptian  type.  Long  ovoid,  fairly  broad.  L.  183,  B.  137'5,  H.  135, 
F.  89,  U.F.  69,  Biz.  120,  N.  50x23,  Interorb.  22,  L.O.  36x29 
(flat,  horizontal,  oblong),  E.O.  38x30. 

2196.  This  is  a  man  whose  coronal  is  beginning  to  close.  Very 
full  broad  ovoid;  large  squarish  orbits;  very  naiTow,  long,  high-bridged 
nose;  no  jaw.  L.  188,  B.  137,  H.  145,  F.  91,  U.F.  75,  N.  55x23, 
Biz.  130  (curved  out),  Interorb.  20,  L.O.  37x33,  E.O.  37-5  x  31-5. 

2187.  A  woman  of  about  twenty-five  years,  with  teeth  quite 
healthy.  Flattened  beloid  skull,  with  Proto-Egyptian  jaw  and  hori- 
zontal flattened  orbits.  Small  Proto-Egyptian  nose  and  slight 
prognathism.  L.  171,  B.  140,  H.  132,  F.  90,  Interorb.  22,  L.O. 
37-5x29,  E.O.  38x29,  N.  44x23,  Biz.  120,  U.F.  62-5,  T.F.  105. 

2256  N.  A  man  almost  edentulous,  seven  stumps  flush  with  gum. 
Coronal,  sagittal,  and  lambdoid  closed.  Big,  well-filled  ovoid  head; 
oblique  squarish  orbits,  and  narrow  prominent  nose  of  alien  type. 
L.  186,  B.  138,  H.  134,  F.  104,  U.F.  73,  Biz.  132  (well  curved  out), 
Interorb.  24,  L.O.  40x32,  E.O.  37x33  (right  occiput  much  more 
prominent),  N.  54x24. 

2256  S.  A  child  of  thirteen  or  fourteen  years.  Flat  beloid  skull 
175x133,  H.  133.  Small  elliptical  horizontal  orbits.  Very  narrow, 
sharp-edged,  prominent  nose. 

2256  S.  (2nd.)  Child  about  seven  years  old.  Long,  narrow, 
pentagonoid  skull.     L.  176,  B.  127. 

2191.  Woman.  Coronal  and  sagittal  sutures  beginning  to  close. 
Metopic  suture  present.  Teeth  moderately  worn  and  perfectly  healthy, 
with  slight  tartar.  Slender  beloid  skull.  Fronto-nasal  profile  an 
unbroken  line,  sharp-edged  nose  of  type  suggestive  of  Giza  (that  is, 
from  the  necropolis  of  the  Great  Pyramids)  aliens.  L.  174,  B.  130, 
H.  124,  U.F.  65,  N.  48x24,  L.O.  39x31,  F.  87-5,  Interorb.  22. 

No.  ?  A  man  aged  fifty  years ;  principal  sutures  closing,  but  teeth 
only  slightly  worn  and  quite  healthy.  Large  beloid  skull,  but  face 
of  Proto-Egyptian  type,  with  small  pointed  mandible.  Nose  probably  of 
bulbous  type  (like  that  of  King  Mycerinus,  as  displayed  in  his  statues). 
L.  189,  B.  144,  P.  97,  H.  141,  Biz.  129,  T.F.  73,  Interorb.  26, 
E.O.  40x32,  L.  39  x  32,  N.  50  x  28,  Femur  E.  468,  head  45. 

No.  ?  Man  with  small,  regular,  well-worn,  perfectly  healthy 
teeth.  Temporal  part  of  coronal  suture  closed.  A  somewhat 
effeminate  skull  with  typical  small-featured  Proto-Egyptian  face,  but 
well-filled  ovoid  cranium.  L.  179,  B.  138,  P.  96,  H.  137,  Biz.  123, 
T.F.  108,  U.F.  70,  Interorb.  25,  E.O.  36-5x31,  L.O.  36x30, 
N.  49-5x24. 

2307.  A  skeleton,  probably  female,  obtained  from  a  large  mastaba, 
but  not  certain.  Coronal,  lambdoid,  and  sagittal  sutures  closed.  Well- 
filled  ovoid  skull.     L.  185,  B.  137,  H.  126,  F.  100. 

2311    B.  A   woman   forty-five   years   of   age.      Large,    well-filled, 


ON  PHYSICAL   CHARACTERS   OF  THE   ANCIENT   EGYPTIANS.        225 

broad  ovoid,  almost  ellipsoid  cranium.  Face  of  Proto-Egyptian  type; 
moderately  large,  almost  horizontal  orbits;  moderate  nose;  typical 
pointed  Proto-Egyptian  jaw;  low  ramus,  with  small  coronoid.  Vertical 
forehead,  passing  without  interruption  into  line  of  nose.  Femur  E. 
413,  head  40.  Femur  small,  with  no  pronounced  features,  slenderly 
built.  Diameter  of  hea'd,  40  mm.  L.  181,  B.  137,  F.  93,  H.  139, 
Biz.  127,  T.F.  116,  U.P.  73,  C.B.  99,  F.B.  92.  Interorb.  24,  P.O. 
38x31,  L.O.  40x31,  N.  50x24,  Big.  84,  Sym.  30,  Sig.  47,  Cir.  510. 
2313  W.    A  man    with    healthy  but    well-worn   teeth;   left    upper 


Fig.  5. 


incisor  missing  and  a  curiously  regular  bevelled  V-shaped  hole  in  its 
place.  Coronal  and  sagittal  sutures  closing.  A  big,  high,  ovoid  cranium, 
with  very  narrow,  high-bridged,  prominent,  sharp-margined,  promi- 
nent-spined  nose.  Large  squarish  orbits;  jaw  with  moderate  ramus; 
beard  on  chin;  race  certainly  alien.  L.  186,  B.  143,  F.  92,  H.  138, 
Biz.  130.  T.F.  124,  U.F.  76,  Interorb.  21,  P.O.  40x34,  L.O.  39x35, 
N.  55x23. 

2314  0.  Man.  Small  pentagonoid  skull  of  Proto-Egyptian  type, 
cranium  greatly  thickened  (parietal,  11  mm.). 

2315  N.E.  A  man's  skull,  with  coronal  suture  just  beginning  to 
close.  Ovoid  head  with  prominent  superciliary  margin;  a  small, 
narrow,  sharp-margined,  prominent-spined  nose,  otherwise  typical 
small-featured  Proto-Egyptian.  L.  180,  B.  139-5,  F.  90,  H.  143, 
Biz.  125,  T.F.  119,  U.F.  72,  Interorb.  21-5,  P.O.  39x31,  L.O. 
38x32,  N.  50x25.     Some  tartar  on  the  teeth,  which  are  well  worn. 

1914.  Q 


226  REPORTS   ON  THE   STATE   OP  SCIENCE. — 1914. 

An  abscess,  starting  from  the  infection  of  the  pulp  cavity  of  the  worn 
left  upper  molars,  has  eroded  large  holes  in  palate  and  into  maxillary 
antrum. 

2316.  Probably  a  fem.ale  about  thirty-five  years.  Cranium  is  a 
well-filled  ovoid,  with  flattened  occiput,  with  fairly  broad,  sloping 
forehead.  Moderately  large  squarish  orbits,  and  small,  narrow,  and 
not  very  prominent  nose.  Teeth  perfectly  regular,  and  only  very 
slightly  worn.  Mandible  with  somewhat  curved  body,  and  a  narrow 
ramus,  but  not  very  high.  In  the  temporal  fossa  there  is  a  very  marked 
prominence  in  the  postero-lateral  corner  of  the  frontal.  On  the  left 
side  series  of  four  lumbar  vertebrte  and  the  sacrum  probably  belonging 
to  this  body  ankylosed  by  severe  inflammatory  process,  which  also 
affects  the  sacro-iliac  joints,  although  there  is  no  fusion  of  the  bones 
in  these  joints.  L.  174,  B.  134,  F.  96,  H.  130,  Biz.  123,  T.P.  Ill, 
U.F.  70,  O.B.  97,  F.B.  95,  Interorb.  26,  E.O.  40x33,  L.O.  39-5x34, 
N.  50x24-5. 

2323  0.  Woman  with  temporal  suture  closing  and  parietal  thin- 
ning becoming  apparent.  Thick  mass  of  tartar  on  teeth.  Alveolar 
abscesses  around  upper  molars.  Very  small  head  with  typical  Proto- 
Egyptian  face,  but  rather  well-filled  ovoid  cranium.  L.  167,  B.  129, 
P.  86,  H.  129-5,  Biz.  115,  T.F.  105,  U.F.  65,  Interorb.  20,  E.O. 
35  X  30,  L.O.  35  x  30,  N.  49  x  23. 

2338.  Probably  a  man  with  very  effeminate  skull.  The  femur 
suggests  masculine  sex.  Coronal  suture  closing.  Large  tartar  deposits 
on  the  teeth;  alveolar  abscesses  at  the  two  lower  molars  on  both  sides. 
Typical  Proto-Egyptian  pentagonoid  skull;  large  square  orbits,  but 
otheriAase  characteristic  Proto-Egyptian  face  with  suggestion  of  negroid 
influence.  Very  slender  humeri,  the  right  coronoid  fossa  perforated, 
anterior  lamella  only  of  left  gone.  Femur  E.  443,  head  44,  L.  184, 
B.  132,  P.  91,  H.  134,  Biz.  123,  T.F.  118,  U.F.  69-5,  C.B.  95,  F.B.  93, 
Interorb.  24,  E.O.  39x36,  L.O.  39x36,  N.  50x23-5. 

2344  A.  Woman  about  forty  years  of  age.  Typical  Predynastic 
narrow  pentagonoid  skull.  Orbits  were  small,  horizontal,  and  ellij^ti- 
cal.  Mandible  was  missing.  Long  and  very  slender  femur  with  no 
outstanding  peculiarities.  Diameter  of  head  38.  Femur  E.  440, 
oblique.  L.  175,  B.  131,  F.  83,  H.  135,  Biz.  120,  U.F.  69,  Interorb.  24, 
E.O.  35x31-5,  L.O.  35x31-5,  N.  40x24. 

2347  C.  A  woman's  cranium  of  Proto-Egyptian  type,  with  sutures 
open.     Facial  skeleton  missing.     L.  180,  B.  134,  H.  131,  F.  91. 

2358.  A  woman  with  perfectly  healthy,  only  slightly  worn  teeth. 
Temporal  part  of  coronal  suture  closing.  Perfect  ovoid  skull,  with 
sloping  forehead  and  uninterrupted  line  of  forehead  and  nose. 
Bounded  oi'bits  and  shai'p-edged  narrow  nose  of  somewhat  alien 
appearance.  L.  180,  H.  135,  B.  137-5,  P.  89,  U.F.  67,  Biz.  120, 
N.  49x23,  Interorb.  20,  L.O.  37x33,  E.O.  38x33. 

Skull  found  on  stair  noiih  of  2376.  Man.  Teeth  healthy  and 
only  slightly  worn.  Cranial  sutures  all  open.  Flattened  beloid  skull, 
with  sloping  forehead;  jaw  with  broad  chin  and  moderate  ramus. 
Femur  E.  445,  head  42.  Tibia  curved  and  platycnemic.  L.  182, 
B.  140,  P.  97,  H.  130. 


ON  PHYSICAL  CHARACTERS  OF  THE  ANCIENT  EGYPTIANS.   227 

2416.  A  man  with  coronal  suture  beginning  to  close  and  sagittal 
half-closed.  Big  broad  pentagonoid  skull,  the  face  being  Dynastic- 
Egyptian  in  type,  with  Proto-Egyptian  jaw.  Three  lower  incisors 
removed  at  some  time.  L.  187,  B.  141,  F.  99,  H.  139,  T.F.  120, 
U.P.  74,  Biz.  137  (established),  Interorb.  27,  E.O.  38x31,  L.O. 
smashed,  N.  52x20. 

2433.  Sex  uncertain.  Temporal  part  of  coronal  suture  closed. 
Mandible  healthy  and  well  worn.  Left  upper  first  molar  and  first 
premolar  alveolar  abscesses  due  to  infection  through  the  pulp  cavities 
exposed  by  the  wearing  down  of  the  teeth.  Large  abscess  destroyed 
alveolus  from  second  lower  right  molar  to  the  premolars  (inclusive). 
Small  well-filled  ovoid  cranium.  The  nose  has  a  somewhat  flattened 
bridge,  the  jaw  being  rather  a  pronounced  featiure,  typically  Lower 
Egyptian.  L.  171,  B.  132,  F.  90,  H.  13r5,  Biz.  128,  T.F.  106, 
U.F.  67,  C.B.  98,  F.B.  94,  Interorb.  22,  E.O.  39x33,  L.O.  37x31, 
N.  50x23  (moderately  large  orbits,  not  very  oblique).  Big.  86, 
Sym.  27,  Sig.  52  (moderate  outward  curve  of  zygomatic  processes). 

The  Significance  of  these  Data. 

In  discussing  the  facts  thus  set  forth  I  cannot  refrain  from 
expressing  regret  that  it  was  not  possible  to  examine  each  skeleton 
in  situ  in  the  tomb.  For  in  removing  human  remains  from  tombs, 
not  only  does  the  material  suffer  considerable  damage,  but  a  great 
deal  of  the  most  valuable  kind  of  evidence  is  destroyed.  In  this 
particular  instance  the  loss  of  this  opportunity  is  particularly  regx'etted, 
because  I  feel  sure  important  facts  bearing  upon  the  early  practice  of 
mummification  might  have  been  recovered. 

In  making  these  remarks  I  am  not  unmindful  of  the  fact  that 
Mr.  Quibell  removed  the  material  from  the  tombs  into  his  workroom 
with  the  object  of  facilitating  my  work  and  enabling  me  to  do  as 
much  as  possible  in  the  limited  time  which  I  was  able  to  spend  upon 
this  work  at  Saqqara. 

Apart  from  supplying  what  is  perhaps  the  earliest  evidence  of 
attempts  at  mummification  (see  the  account  of  No.  2262  above),  this 
group  of  remains  has  also  provided  the  earliest  known  instances  of 
symmetrical  thinning  of  the  parietal  bones  not  due  to  senile  changes. 
That  this  parietal  atrophy  was  not  due  to  old  age  is  quite  certain, 
because  the  best-marked  case  occurred  in  the  skull  of  a  young  woman 
(No.  2323  C)  who  could  not  have  been  much  more  than  thirty  years 
of  age.  This  is  interesting  in  view  of  the  fact  that  such  parietal 
thinning  has  not  hitherto  been  known  to  occur  at  so  early  a  period, 
although  it  became  exceedingly  common  in  the  Pyramid  Age,  two 
Dynasties  later.  Its  causation  seems  to  be  associated  with  the  habit 
of  constantly  wearing  heavy  wigs,  which  by  pressure  affect  the 
blood  supply  of  the  parietal  bones." 

Another  interesting  feature  of  the  material  discussed  in  this  report 
is  the  rarity  of  dental  caries,  which  became  so  common  and  wrought 
such  appalling  havoc  in  the  successors  of  these  people  of  Memphis  a 

°  Elliot  Smith,  '  The  Causation  of  the  Symmetrical  Thinning  of  the 
Parietal  Bones  in  Ancient  Egyptians,'  Journnl  of  Anatomy  and  Physiology, 
vol.   xli.,  1907. 

Q  2 


228  REPORTS   ON  THE   STATE   OP   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

few  years  later  during  the  Pyramid  Age.  Alveolar  abscesses  are 
common  enough,  but  they  are  not,  as  a  rule,  the  result  of  dental 
caries,  ats  I  have  explained  above. 

The  contrast  presented  by  this  collection  of  human  remains  to 
those  of  the  Proto-Egyptian  population  of  the  Predynastic  period  is 
so  profound,  and  the  alien  features  so  widely  diffused  amongst  them, 
that  a  fundamental  problem  is  raised  for  discussion.  This  question  is 
so  large  that  I  propose  specially  to  consider  its  bearings  in  a  separate 
communication  to  the  Association. 

The  intimate  blending  of  this  Egyptian  population  with  a  people 
of  foreign  type  and  origin  at  so  early  a  period  as  the  Second  and  Third 
Dynasties  points  to  the  fact  that  we  have  to  deal,  not  with  a  recent 
admixture,  but  one  which  must  have  been  taking  place  for  many 
generations  before  the  time  of  the  Second  Dynasty.  But  we  have  no 
evidence  to  indicate  whether  the  Western  Asiatic  element — for  thei'e 
can  be  no  doubt  as  to  the  nature  of  the  alien  strain — had  been  percolat- 
ing into  the  Delta  gradually,  or  Came  more  suddenly  in  larger  volume 
possibly  as  a  people  already  mixed  to  some  extent  with  Egyptian  blood 
in  Syria  or  elsewhere. 

The  important  result  emerges  from  such  considerations  that  the 
people  who  developed  the  wonderful  and  precocious  civilisation  of 
Egypt  were  not  pure  Proto-Egyptians.  The  gi'owth  of  early  Egyptian 
civilisation  no  doubt  represents  the  gradual  evol-ution  of  the  ideas  and 
the  arts  and  crafts  which  we  know  to  have  had  their  origin  among  the 
Predynastic  people  of  Upper  Egypt ;  but  their  full  fruition  came  only 
when  the  contact  of  peoples  of  diverse  origin  in  Lower  Egypt  brought 
the  influence  of  new  ideas  and  new  manners  of  thought^probably 
also  a  more  vii'ile  type  of  intellect — to  stimulate  and  help  in  the 
development  of  the  Egyptian  civilisation. 

B.   The  Human  Remains  of  the  Hyksos  Period  found  in  the  Southern 
Part  of  the  Kerma  Basin  {Sudan). 

At  the  end  of  19]  3  I  received  from  Professor  George  A.  Eeisner, 
who,  working  on  behalf  of  Harvard  University  and  the  Boston 
Museum,  had  excavated  a  site  at  the  south  of  the  Kerma  Basin,  in 
the  Dongola  Province,  a  series  of  skeletons  of  the  Hyksos  Period. 
These  bones  were  sent  to  me  for  examination,  with  the  consent  of  the 
Archaeological  Committee  of  the  Sudan  Government  and  the  approval 
of  the  Governor-General,  Sir  Eeginald  Wingate,  whose  interest  in  the 
anthropology  of  the  Sudan  is  well  known. 

As  only  a  part  of  the  material  has  yet  been  sent  to  me,  and  as 
Dr.  Reisner  has  not  yet  communicated  the  details  of  the  archaeological 
evidence,  it  would  perhaps  be  preferable  if  I  withhold  my  report  until 
next  year. 

I  may  say  that  the  tombs  of  the  wealthier  people  contained  the 
remains  of  typical  Egyptians,  such  as  we  know  to  have  lived  in  the 
Thebaid  during  the  times  of  the  New  Empire;  while  the  other  tombs 
contained  skeletons  of  Proto-Egyptian  and  Middle  Nubian  (C  group) 
types.  Although  slight  negi'oid  traits  are  common,  there  is  a  sur- 
prising absence  of  the  more  obtrusive  negro  features. 


ARTIFICIAL   ISLANDS   IN   LOCHS   OF    HIGHLANDS   OF   SCOTLAND.    229 


Artificial  Islands  in  the  Lochs  of  the  Hiyhlands  of  Scotland. — 
Fourth  Report  of  the  Committee,  eonsistincj  of  Professor  Bo\d 
Dawkins  {Chairman),  Mr.  A.  J.  B.  Wace  (Secretary),  and 
Professors  T.  H.  Bryce,  J.  L.  Myres,  and  W.  Eidgeway. 

Since,  owing  to  the  meeting  of  the  Association  in  Australia  tliis  year, 
reports  have  tO'  he  sent  in  at  a  much  earher  date  than  usual,  the  Com- 
mittee have  so  far  little  to  record.  The  Eev.  F.  O.  Blundell,  the  Com- 
mittee's correspondent  at  Fort  Augustus,  continues  to  collect  and 
tabulate  information.  He  desires  to  thank  the  Committee  for  their 
assistance  and  for  their  encouragement  in  his  investigations  of  a  subject 
which,  though  full  of  interest,  presents  many  difficulties  that  can 
scarcely  be  realised  by  those  who  have  not  taken  part  in  the  work. 

By  the  courtesy  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Scotland,  fifty 
reprints  of  the  paper  read  befoi'e  that  Society,  containing  numerous 
illustrations,  have  been  circulated  amongst  the  correspondents  of  this 
Committee,  and  this  has  again  stimulated  interest  in  the  subject.  The 
Paper,  which  was  compiled  largely  from  the  replies  to  the  British 
Association  inquiry,  was  printed  in  full  in  the  '  Transactions  '  of  the 
Society,  and  elicited  numerous  letters  of  congratulation  on  the  results 
obtained  by  the  Association.  Mr.  Gilbert  Goudie,  F. S.A.Scot.,  writes 
amongst  others :  — '  May  I  be  allowed  to  add  that  I  have  been  much 
impressed  by  your  paper  on  Artificial  Islands  in  the  "  Proceedings  of 
the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Scotland  ' '  ?  These  I  had  previously 
regarded  as  entirely  exceptional  and  rare,  but  the  numerous  instances 
you  adduce  go  far  to  show  that  they  were  almost  the  normal  idea — ■ 
quite  a  new  conception  which  will  influence  me  largely  in  looking  at 
these  things  in  future.' 

One  of  the  main  objects  of  the  Committee  is  to  secure  a  suitable 
site  for  excavation.  The  artificial  island  in  Loch  Kinellan  was  pro- 
visionally fixed  upon  last  year  for  excavation  this  year.  Now  Mr.  F.  C. 
Diack  of  Aberdeen  has  sent  photographs  and  particulars  of  the  '  Island  * 
in  the  Loch  of  Leys,  Banchory.  The  loch  is  now  completely  dry,  and 
therefore  this  island  is  a  much  more  suitable  site  for  excavation  than 
that  in  Loch  Kinellan.  The  Secretary  proposes  to  visit  the  site  with 
the  Eev.  F.  0.  Blundell  in  July,  and  hopes  to  receive  the  permission 
of  the  proprietor.  Sir  Thomas  Burnett,  Bart.,  of  Crathes,  for  the  pro- 
posed excavation.  It  is  hoped  that  the  funds  at  the  disposal  of  the 
Committee,  together  with  a  grant  made  by  the  Carnegie  Trust  to  Dr. 
R.  Munro  for  the  excavation  of  the  island  in  Loch  Kinellan,  will  be 
sufficient  for  a  preliminary  excavation. 

The  Committee  desires  to  be  reappointed  and  that  a  grant  of  51. 
should  be  applied  for  at  the  next  meeting  of  the  British  Association. 

It  will  be  necessary  for  a  new  Secretary  to  be  appointed — Professor 
r.  H.  Bryce  is  suggested. 


230  REPORTS  ON  The  state  of  science. — 1914. 


Exploration  of  the  Palccolithic  Site  known  as  La  Cotte  de  St. 
Brelade,  Jersey,  during  IQli.—RejJort  of  the  Committee,  con- 
sisting of  Dr.  E.  E.  Marbtt  {Chairman),  Dr.  A.  Keith,  Dr. 
C.  Andrews,  Dr.  A.  Dunlop,  Mr.  G.  de  Gruchy,  Col.  E. 
Gardner  Warton  (Secretary),  appointed  to  excavate  a  Paleo- 
lithic Site  in  Jersey. 

Scheme  of  Operations. 

The  Committee  arranged  with  Mr.  Ernest  Daghorn,  who  had  for  the 
three  previous  years  canied  out  the  excavation  of  tliis  site  with  signal 
success,  that  for  the  sum  of  50Z.  (being  the  full  grant  authorised  by 
the  British  Association)  he  should  supply  throughout  the  months  of 
March  and  April  1914,  viz.,  for  forty-eight  working  days,  the  services 
of  three  experienced  quarrymen,  while  himself  superintending  their 
labours;  that  he  should  bear  the  responsibility  for  all  accidents; 
and  that  he  should  fui-nish  whatever  tools  or  other  appliances  might 
be  required  for  the  work.  The  Committee  has  to  thank  Mr.  Daghorn 
for  having  amply  fulfilled  all  that  was  expected  of  him.  The  men 
worked  with  a  will,  and  great  intelligence  was  displayed  in  the 
execution  of  orders. 

Attention  was  exclusively  directed  to  the  main  cave,  already 
partially  excavated  by  the  Societe  Jersiaise  in  1911  and  1912.  Mean- 
while it  was  hoped  that  it  might  be  found  to  extend  round  the  back 
of  the  ravine,  up  to  now  masked  by  talus,  and  so  to  be  continuous 
with  the  smaller  cave  opposite,  which  Messrs.  Marett  and  de  Gruchy 
uncovered  in  1913.  Hitherto  exploration  of  the  main  cave  had  been 
confined  to  the  outer  or  western  side,  where  the  roof  is  somewhat 
lower^  and  the  pile  of  superincumbent  debris  consequently  less.  As 
the  side  contiguous  with  the  back  of  the  ravine  is  approached,  the 
mass  overlying  the  palaeolithic  floor  and  reaching  up  to  the  roof  passes 
from  about  twenty-five  to  some  forty  feet  of  thickness;  so  that  for 
every  square  foot  of  floor  to  be  cleared  an  amount  of  material  weighing 
approximately  a  ton  has  to  be  removed.  It  was  now  decided  to  tackle 
this  heavier  part  of  the  task  and,  as  far  as  might  be  possible  in  the 
time,  to  carry  the  clearing  right  across  the  mouth  of  the  cave  to 
whatever  might  prove  to  be  its  inner  or  eastern  limit. 

For  the  first  three  weeks  the  attack  concentrated  on  the  upper 
portions  of  the  cave-filling,  the  extreme  top  being  demolished  by  a 
successful  piece  of  blasting  which  brought  down  some  eighty  tons. 
The  ultimate  aim  being  to  open  up  the  floor  outwards  from  a  line 
running  parallel  to  the  mouth  about  eighteen  feet  from  it,  it  was 
necessary  to  cut  back  the  higher  portions  of  the  detritus  to  the  extent 
of  another  ten  or  twelve  feet,  so  as  to  provide  some  sort  of  slope,  and 
thus  minimise  the  result  of  sudden  downfalls.  This  was  done  without 
revealing  either  the  true  back  of  the  cave  or  the  supposed  chimney 
through  which  the  clay  and  rock-rubbish,  other  than  what  is  due  to 
roof-collapse,  must  have  descended.  It  may  be  noted,  however,  that 
a  tentative  excavation  on  the  further  or  northern  side  of  the  cliff  into 


ON  PALEOLITHIC    EXPLORATION  IN  JERSEY.  231 

which  the  cave  penetrates  brought  to  hght  a  considerable  fissure, 
about  twenty  feet  higher  than  the  level  of  what  is  to  be  seen  of  the 
cave-roof;  and  this  may  very  well  turn  out  to  be  the  upper  end  of  this 
hypothetical  funnel.  For  the  rest,  these  topmost  parts  of  the  cave- 
filling  proved  to  be  absolutely  sterile,  with  the  single  curious  exception 
that  right  at  the  back  of  the  cave,  some  thirty-five  feet  above  the  floor, 
a  piece  of  bone  was  noticed  to  jut  out  When  this  was  with  some 
difficulty  rescued  from  its  rather  inaccessible  position,  it  was  found 
to  have  all  the  appearance  of  extreme  antiquity,  and  is  probably 
assignable  to  Bos.  Presumably,  therefore,  it  is  contemporary  with 
the  cave-filling,  and  came  down  therewith  from  above. 

It  was  calculated  that  it  would  be  just  possible  with  two  months' 
work  to  carry  a  clearing  about  eighteen  feet  broad  right  across  the 
mouth  of  the  cave  to  its  eastern  side-wall,  since  its  upper  and  visible 
portion,  distant  about  thirty  feet  from  the  opposite  side-wall,  showed 
a  perpendicular  drop  which  might  be  presumed  to  extend  indefinitely 
downwards.  On  April  8,  however,  it  was  discovered  that  this  wall, 
along  the  whole  breadth  of  the  eighteen  feet  in  process  of  clearance, 
was  undercut,  at  a  point  about  sixteen  feet  above  floor-level,  by  a 
further  cavity.  To  judge  by  the  narrow  section  opened  up,  there  is 
not  less  than  twelve  feet  of  additional  penetration  to  be  reckoned  with 
on  this  side.  Shielded  as  it  is  by  its  lower  roof,  this  annexe  would 
appear  to  be  at  once  remarkably  dry  and  free  from  shattering  falls  of 
rock.  Thus  it  offers  conditions  more  favourable  to  the  preservation 
of  bone  than  the  high-domed  cave  on  which  it  borders,  and  would  be 
an  ideal  place  in  which  to  come  upon  human  remains.  This  discoveiy 
led  to  a  modification  of  the  original  plan,  the  breadth  of  the  clearing 
being  reduced  to  about  ten  feet,  so  as,  consistently  with  thorough 
exploration  of  the  portion  of  floor  uncovered,  to  stretch  forth  a 
'  feeler  '  in  this  tempting  direction.  Nothing  short  of  a  fresh  bout 
of  excavation,  however,  supported  by  a  grant  no  less  substantial  than 
the  last,  will  enable  the  Committee  to  cope  with  this  unexpected 
lateral  extension  of  the  main  cave ;  not  to  speak  of  the  rearward  parts 
of  the  cf.vern  which  are  likely  to  prove  more  or  less  prolific  also. 

In  proceeding  towards  the  eastern  wall  it  was  at  first  impossible  to 
note  any  stratification  in  the  gradually  thickening  floor  owing  to  the 
large  blocks  distributed  through  it.  At  about  twenty  feet,  as  measured 
from  the  western  side,  there  was,  for  the  first  time,  clear  evidence  of 
some  sort  of  stratification.  For  three  feet  above  floor  level  there  was 
a  bed  of  thick  ashes  of  a  deep  black  colour.  Above  for  about  one 
foot  succeeded  an  almost  completely  sterile  layer.  Then,  for  another 
two  feet,  occuiTed  frequent  implements  in  a  layer  of  brownish  clay, 
interspersed  with  slight  traces  of  a  darker  matter.  It  was  at  first 
thought  that  the  implements  of  the  lower  layer  were  rougher,  and 
that,  in  particular,  the  typical  Mousterian  '  point  '  was  absent.  Sub- 
sequent observation,  however,  controlled  by  careful  segregation  of  the 
finds  from  each  layer,  failed  to  bear  out  this  view,  some  of  the 
finest  points  (one  of  them,  however,  being  worked  on  both  sides,  and 
in  this  way  suggesting  an  older  style  of  manufacture)  being  found  in 
the  lower  bed.     Of  course  a  more  detailed  examination  of  the  products 


232  REPORTS    ON   THE    STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914, 

of  the  different  layers  may  establish  some  sort  of  sequence  in  their 
forms.  When  the  recess  on  the  eastern  side  was  reached  the  height 
of  the  implementiferous  soil  amounted  to  as  much  as  twelve  feet  above 
the  point  taken  to  represent  floor-level.  At  the  very  top  of  this  bed 
were  found  three  mammoth  teeth  and  a  large  number  of  well-made 
implements.  It  is  even  possible  to  distinguish  these  highest  portions 
as  a  third  stratum,  since  in  one  place  the  top  of  the  layer  immediately 
above  the  sterile  bed  already  mentioned  was  marked  for  about  six  feet 
by  a  thin  line  of  almost  pure  sand.  This  sand  was  not  such  as  might 
result  from  disintegration  of  the  local  rock,  and  its  occurrence  almost 
suggested  that  the  inhabitants  of  the  cave  must  at  one  time  have 
indulged  in  the  luxury  of  a  sanded  floor.  This  line  of  sand  stood  at 
al)out  six  feet  above  floor-level. 

Osteological  Remains. 

At  least  5,000  portions  of  bone,  mostly  very  fragmentary,  were 
discovered.  It  has  been  found  possible  only  to  submit  thciSe  to  the 
roughest  preliminary  examination.  Dr.  Andrews  reports  as  follows 
on  tlie  selection  of  bones  submitted  to  him  at  tlie  British  Museum  :  — 

Hyceiia  Crocula,  var.  Sprlrea. — Portions  of  premolar  teeth. 

Canis  Vulpes. — Maxilla. 

Cervus  Megaceros  (Irish  Elk). ^Unworn  upper  molar,  fragment 
of  mandible  with  molars. 

Cervus  Elaphiis  (Eed  Deer). — Portions  of  jaw,  with  teeth. 

Raugifer  tarandus  (Reindeer). — Numerous  teeth,  bones,  and  pieces 
of  antler. 

?  Capreolus  Cciprea  (Roe  deer). — A  tooth. 

(joat  or  Sheep. — A  tooth. 

Bos  primigenius. — Fragments  of  bones  and  teeth. 

Equiis. — Numerous  teeth  of  a  horse.  The  teeth  are  large,  but  it 
does  not  follow  that  the  horse  was. 

Elephas  primigenius  (Mammoth). — Portions  of  a  thin  plated  tooth. 

Myodes  lorquatus  (Arctic  lemming). — Numerous  lower  jaws  and 
bones. 

A  metatarsus  of  some  species  of  Grouse. 

This  brings  up  the  list  of  species  (exclusive  of  varieties  as  in  the 
case  of  Equidcs  and  Bovidcs)  from  six  to  thirteen,  Rhinoceros  ticho- 
rhinus  having  been  found  on  previous  occasions,  and  yields  what  may 
be  described  as  a  thoroughly  representative  Pleistocene  fauna  of  the 
cold,  or  tundra,  type. 

Artefacts. 

The  amount  of  worked  flint  unearthed  in  the  course  of  the  recent 
excavation  proved  simply  immense,  over  3  cwt.  of  implements  and 
chips  (including  hammer  stones)  having  been  extracted.  It  must  be 
remembered  that  flint  is  not  found  in  situ  in  the  Channel  Islands,  so 
that  it  is  perfectly  certain  that  all  flint  found  in  the  cave  has  been 
brought  there  by  man.  It  is  impossible  briefly  to  convey  an  impres- 
sion of  the  full  extent  of  the  material  awaiting  detailed  study.  This 
site  will  assuredly  bear  comparison  with  any  other  Mousterian  site  as 


ON  PALAEOLITHIC    EXPLORATION  IN  JERSEY.  233 

a  source  of  a  representative  series  of  types.     Very  symmetrical  '  points  ' 
adorned  with  the  finest  secondary  chipping  occurred  to  the  number  of 
several    dozen.       The    largest    measured    130x88    mm.       Curiously 
enough,    a   small   piece  broken   from   the   side  of   this   specimen   was 
recovered  at  a  spot  distant  several  yards  away,  though  at  the  same 
level,   the  patina  proving  that  the  fi'acture  was  ancient.      Some  of  the 
'  points  '  were  of  the  graceful  elongated  type  that  has  been  termed 
'  hemi-Solutrian.'       The     most     characteristic     of     these     measured 
97x63  nnn.     It  is  to  be  noted  that  the  implement  _  from  the  lowest 
layer  worked  on  both  sides  was  of  this  shape,  measuring  115x52  mm. 
It  is  made  of  a  piece  of  flint  of  a  '  knotty  '  kind  which  may  well  have 
invited  additional  trimming.     Several  cases  of  double  patination  occur, 
the  most  noticeable  being  that   of   a   well- formed   '  point  '   measuring 
70x50  mm.,  which,  having  first  been  blocked  out  in  true  Mousterian 
style,  has  afterwards  had  time  to  acquire  a  white  patina  (very  similar 
to  that  characteristic  of  the   Neolithic  in  Jersey,    and  thus   possibly 
standing  for  some  5,000  years),   and  has  been  subsequently  subjected 
to    elaborate    re-chipping    along    the    edges.     A    '  point  '    beautifully 
worked  in  jasper,  but,  unfortunately,  broken  at  the  base,  is  something 
of  a  curiosity.     For  the  rest,  every  known  type  of  scraper  abounds. 
Special  notice  may  be  taken  of  a  frequent  type  in  which  the  core  has 
been  utilised  as  a  handle.     A  certain  number  of  small  pieces,  the  best 
examples  measuring  50x22,  35x22,  and  30x20  mm.,  bear  a  strong 
resemblance  to  arrow-heads,  the  more  so  as  they  have  notched  bases; 
though   to   ascribe   tlie  bow   to  Mousterian   times   may   be   somewhat 
unorthodox.     One  specimen,  again,  is  of  that  '  rostrocarinate  '  type  of 
which  so  much  has  lately  been  heard.     Apart  from  the  worked  flint, 
there  is  a  very  interesting  series  of  utilised  pebbles,  every  variety  of 
hammer  stone  being  found.     It  seems  to  have  been  customary  with 
the  inhabitants  of  this  cave  to  split  pebbles,  especially  those   formed 
of    diabase,    and    to    use    the    longitudinal    sections    as  _  scrapers  or 
polissoirs.      By  good  fortune  it  was  possible  to  re-constitute  such   a 
pebble  out  of  three  portions  found  in  different  parts  of  the  lowest  bed, 
at  some  distance  from  each  other.     Occasionally  pieces  of  stone  other 
than  flint  had  been  trimmed  into  the  rough  semblance  of  'points,' 
the  best  example  being  of  the  hard  sandstone  (gres  Armoricain)  found 
in  Alderney.     A  very   interesting  series  has  been   provisionally   con- 
structed of  granite  implements.     These  occurred  in  the  heart  of  the 
bed  of  ashes,  side  by  side  with  flint  implements  of  similar  form,  under 
such  conditions  as  almost  certainly  to  exclude  the  possibility  of  their 
being   accidental    splinters    from   the   roof.      Certain   bone    fragments 
showed  clearly  the  signs  of  having  been  cut  with  a  flint  knife,  and  it 
is  possible  that  they  will  have  to  be  ranked  as  implements,    one  of 
them,    for    instance^   whether  by    accident  or  design,  making  a  very 
convenient  spatula.     It  only  remains  to  add  that  everything_that  can 
possibly    be    of   human   workmanship,    including    all    the    inevitable 
dehitage   d'atclier,    has   been   carefully    preserved   and   stored  by    the 
kindness  of  the  Societe  Jersiaise  in  a  special  room,  where  the  student 
can  work  over  the  whole  material  at  his  leisure,  with  every  chance  of 
constructing  a  truly  classical  series. 


234  EEPORTS    ON   THE   STATE    OP   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

AcTcnowledgments. 

The  Chairman,  Dr.  E.  E.  Maretfc,  directed  operations  from 
March  21  to  April  22,  inclusive,  the  Secretary,  Colonel  Warton, 
assuming  responsibility  for  the  rest  of  the  time.  Nine  members  of 
the  Oxford  University  Anthropological  Society,  including  Dr.  F.  C.  S. 
Schiller  and  Mr.  W.  McDougall,  F.E.S.,  took  an  active  part  in  the 
work,  while  there  were  also  many  local  helpers,  most  of  them 
Hiembers  of  the  Socis^t^  Jersiaise.  Special  thanks  are  due  to  Mrs. 
JBriard  for  the  use  of  her  car  and  for  her  personal  assistance  in  the 
important  matter  of  transport;  to  Mrs.  Coltart  and  Miss  Bayly  for 
their  help  both  in  finding  and  in  dealing  with  the  finds ;  to  Mr.  G.  de 
Gruchy,  the  proprietor  of  the  site,  who  helped  in  the  actual  work 
of  excavation  for  about  a  fortnight;  to  Captain  A.  H.  Coltart  (Exeter 
College),  who  actively  superintended  the  work  during  its  final  stages, 
and  took  a  leading  part  in  arranging  the  material  at  the  Museum ;  to 
Mr.  B.  de  Chrustchoff  (Lincoln  College),  who  for  a  month  inhabited 
a  small  cabin  upon  the  site  itself,  and  acted  as  custodian  of  the 
treasure;  to  Mr.  T.  B.  Kiitredge  (Exeter  College),  who  was  constantly 
at  work  for  a  month,  and  afforded  great  assistance  in  every  way; 
to  Mr.  Emile  Guiton,  of  the  Societe  Jersiaise,  who  acted  as  photo- 
grapher-in-chief; to  Mr.  Joseph  Sinel,  curator  of  the  Museum  of  the 
Society  Jersiaise,  who  took  efficient  steps  to  secure  the  preservation  of 
the  osteological  remains ;  and  last,  but  not  least,  to  Dr.  Smith  Wood- 
ward and  Dr.  Andrews,  of  the  British  Museum,  for  the  determination 
of  the  fauna  represented  by  these  remains. 

Future  Policy. 

The  Committee  wishes  to  apply  to  the  British  Aissociation  for  a 
grant  of  not  less  than  the  sum  previously  given,  in  order  that  the 
work  may  be  continued  without  delay.  It  is  well-nigh  a  certainty 
that  a  rich  store  of  remains  awaits  excavation,  and,  indeed,  that  it  lies 
exceedingly  near  to  hand,  more  especially  along  the  eastern  side, 
where  the  hearth  deposits  are  particularly  rich.  Any  such  grant  will 
be  devoted  entirely  to  the  work  of  removing  the  debris.  All  incidental 
expenses  will  be  met  by  local  contributions,  as  in  the  present  case. 


The  Production  of  Certified  Copies  of  Hausa  Manuscripts. — 
Report  of  the  Committee,  consisting  of  Mr.  E.  S.  Hartland 
(Chairman),  Pnofessor  J.  L.  Myres  (Secretary),  Mr.  W. 
Crooke,  and  Major  A.  J.  N.  Tremearne. 

The  sum  of  20L,  placed  at  the  disposal  of  the  Committee  in  1912, 
has  been  expended  in  payment  of  the  printer. 

Copies  have  been  presented  as  follows :  To  the  Committee  for 
Anthropology,  Oxford;  the  Syndicate  for  Anthropology,  Cambridge; 
the  Imperial  Institute;  the  London  School  of  Economics;  I'Ecole 
d'Anthropologie,  Paris;  the  University  Library,  Berlin;  the  India 
Office  Library;  Exeter  College,  Oxford;  Christ's  College,  Cambridge; 
King's  College,  London;  and  to  various  missionary  and  other  religious 


ON  THE   PRODUCTION   OF  CERTIFIED    COPIES   OF   HAUSA  MSS.      235 

societies  where  texts  in  Hausa  will  be  accessible  and  useful  to  students. 
The  usual  copies  have  also  been  deposited  in  pursuance  of  the  Copy- 
right Acts.  There  remain  three  copies  in  hand  which  the  Committee 
hope  to  distribute  in  a  similar  way  shortly. 


The  Prehistoric  Civilisation  of  the  Western  Mediterranean.— 
Report  of  the  Committee,  consisting  of  Professor  W.  Eidge- 
WAY  (Chairman),  Dr.  T.  Ashby  (Secretary),  Dr.  W.  L.  H. 
Duckworth,  Mr.  D.  Gr.  Hogarth,  Sir  A.  J.  Evans,  and 
Professor  J.  L.  Myres,  appointed  to  report  on  the  present 
state  of  knowledge  of  the  Prehistoric  Civilisation  of  the 
Western  Mediterranean  tvith  a  view  to  future  research. 
(Drawn  up  hy  the  Secretary.) 

Our  knowledge  on  this  subject  has  made  considerable  progress  in 
recent  years,  though  one  of  the  main  hypotheses — that  of  the  advance 
of  the  so-called  '  Mediterranean  '  race  (to  which  several  scholars 
attribute  the  megalithic  civilisation  of  the  end  of  the  Neolithic  and 
the  dawn  of  the  Bi'onze  Age)  from  North  Africa — has  yet  to  be  tested 
by  further  research  in  Tripolitania  and  Cyrenaica,  which  we  may  hope 
that  ItaUan  archaeologists  will  shortly  be  able  to  undertake.  In  the 
meantime,  the  megalithic  remains  of  Malta  have  been  studied  to 
some  extent  by  the  British  School  at  Eome,  though  more  work  might 
be  profitably  undertaken  there;  a  considerable  number  of  dolmens  are 
now  known  in  Sardinia ;  and  a  new  group  of  them  has  recently  been 
found  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Bari,  in  the  south-east  of  Italy. 

It  would  be  important  to  study  the  intermediate  links  in  the  chain, 
which  seems  to  connect  the  megalithic  civilisation  of  the  Western 
Mediterranean  with  that  of  our  own  islands :  and  the  dolmens  of 
Spain  and  Portugal  might  with  some  profit  be  further  examined. 


The  Teaching  of  Anthropology . — Report  of  the  Committee,  con- 
sisting of  Sir  Richard  Temple  (Chairman) ,  Dr.  A.  C.  Haddon 
(Secretary),  Sir  E.  F.  IM  Thurn,  Mr.  W.  Crooke,  Dr.  C.  G. 
Seligmann,  Professor  G.  Elliot  Smith,  Dr.  R.  R.  Marett, 
Professor  P.  E.  Newberry,  Dr.  G.  A.  Auden,  Profes'sors  T.  H. 
Bryce,  p.  Thompson,  R.  W.  Eeid,  H.  J.  Flbuke,  and  J.  L. 
Myres,  afid  Sir  B.  C.  A.  Windlb,  a2)i)ointed  to  investigate 
the  above  subject. 

The  President  of  Section  H,  Sir  Richard  Temple,  initiated  a  discus- 
sion at  the  Birmingham  Meeting  on  the  practical  application  of 
anthropological  teaching  in  Universities.  A  report  of  this  discussion 
was  printed  in  Man,  1913,  No.  102,  giving  the  President's  opening 
statement,  extracts  from  letters  from  distinguished  administrators  and 
ethnologists,  and  an  abstract  of  the  speeches  made  by  Sir  Everard  im 


236  REPORTS   ON   THE   STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

Thurii,   Ml-.    W.    Crooke,    Lieut. -Colonel   Guidon,    Dr.    Haddon,    Dr. 
Marett,  and  Professor  P.  Thompson. 

A  Committee  was  appointed  by  the  British  Association  lor  the 
purpose  of  devising  practical  mea'sures  for  the  organisation  of  anthro- 
pological teaching  at  the  Universities  in  the  British  Islands.  With 
this  committee  was  associated  a  committee  appointed  by  the  Council 
of  the  Royal  Anthropological  Institute.  These  committees  met  in 
joint  session  at  tlie  Institute,  under  the  chairmanship  of  Sir  Richard 
Temple,  and  passed  the  following  resolutions :  '  (a)  It  is  necessary  to 
organise  the  systematic  teaching  of  Anthropology  to  persons  either 
about  to  proceed  to,  or  actually  working  in,  those  parts  of  the  British 
Empire  which  contain  populations  alien  to  the  British  people,  {h)  The 
organisation  can  best  be  dealt  with  by  the  collaboration  of  the  Royal 
Anthropological  Institute,  the  British  Association,  and  the  Universi- 
ties, with  the  support  and  co-operation  of  the  Government,  the  Foreign 
Office,  the  India  Office,  the  Colonial  Office,  and  the  Civil  Service 
Commissioners,  (c)  It  would  be  well  for  the  organisation  to  take  the 
form  of  encouraging  the  existing  Schools  of  Anthropology  at  the 
Universities  and  the  formation  of  such  schools  where  none  exist. 
(d)  As  laboratories,  a  library,  and  a  museum,  readily  available  for 
teaching  students,  are  indispensable  adjuncts  to  each  school,  it  is 
desirable  to  encourage  their  formation  where  they  are  not  already  in 
existence. ' 

By  the  courtesy  of  the  Master  and  Wardens  of  the  Worshipful 
Company  of  Drapers  of  the  City  of  London,  a  conference  to  consider 
the  findings  and  recommendations  of  the  Joint  Committee  was  held  in 
the  Hall  of  that  Company  on  February  19,  1914.  The  President  of 
the  Conference  was  the  Right  Hon.  the  Earl  of  Selborne.  A  large 
number  of  representatives  of  various  Home  and  Colonial  Government 
Departments,  Universities,  Societies,  as  well  as  politicians,  adminis- 
trators, and  others,  were  present  or  sent  letters  of  regret  at  their 
inability  to  be  present  at  the  Conference,  and  expressing  their  sym- 
pathy with  the  purpose  of  the  Conference.  A  full  report  of  this 
Conference  will  be  found  in  Man,  1914,  No.  35. 

In  November  1913  Sir  Richard  Temple  addressed  the  Indian 
Civil  Service  students  at  Exeter  College,  Oxford.  In  February  1914 
he  published  a  pamphlet  entitled  'Anthropology  a  Practical  Science,' 
which  included  his  Birmingham  Address  (1913),  an  Address  delivered 
in  Camibridge  in  1904,  and  extracts  from  that  given  at  Oxford  (1913). 
In  March  he  addressed  the  American  Luncheon  Club,  and  also  the 
Sphinx  Club,  both  mercantile  institutions,  on  Anthropology  in  its 
'  Ijusiness  '  aspects.  And  he  has  engaged  to  do  the  same  at  the 
Merchants'  Luncheon  Club  at  Hull. 

It  has  not  yet  been  possible  to  place  the  findings  of  the  Conference 
before  the  Prime  Minister,  whose  time  has  been,  and  is  still,  taken  up 
with  urgent  matters  of  State.  An  endeavour  to  secure  an  audience 
with  the  Prime  Minister  will  be  made  when  an  opportune  moment 
arrives. 


ON  THE  DUCTLESS  GLANDS,  237 


The  Ductless  Glands. — Report  of  the  Committee,  consisting  of 
Professor  Sir  Edward  Sch.afer  (Chairman) ,  Professor  Swale 
Vincent  {Secretary),  Professor  A.  B.  Macallum,  Dr.  L.  E. 
Shore,  and  Mrs.  W.  H.  Thompson.  {Drawn  up  bij  the 
Secretary.) 

Mr.  a.  T.  Cameron  has  cpntinued  his  investigations  on  the  presence 
and  function  of  iodine  in  different  tissues.  Examination  of  the  thyroids 
of  the  elasmohranchs  ScylUum  canicula  and  Raid  clavata  gave  positive 
results,  th,ose  for  female  ScylUum  thyroids  (1'16  per  cent.)  Being 
higher  than  any  previously  reported.^  Examination  of  the  thyroids  of 
the  dog-fish  Acanthias  vulgaris,  oi  the  frog,  of  the  alligator,  and  of 
the  pigeon  gave  positive  results,  the  variations  found  being  traceable 
to  variations  in  diet.  Comparison  of  the  iodine  content  of  thyroid  and 
parathyroid  tissue  in  the  dog  gave  such  marked  differences  as  to 
warrant  the  assumption  that  the  parathyroid  is  not  concerned  with  the 
production  of  iodine  compounds,  and,  therefore,  as  far  as  these  are 
concerned,  that  there  is  a  differentiation  of  function  between  the  two 
glands.^ 

A  wider  investigation  has  shown,  in  comparison  with  data  previously 
published  by  others,  that  iodine  is  an  almost  invariable  constituent 
of  all  organisms,  plant  and  animal,  the  amount  depending  on  the  diet 
and  medmm  of  the  organism.  With  higher  development  there  is  greater 
specificity  of  the  tissue  concerned  in  storing  iodine,  until  in  the 
vertebrates  no  tissue  except  thyroid  contains  appreciable  quantities. 
Thymus  especially  has  been  examined  in  a  large  number  of  species, 
with  negative  results.  All  normal  thyroids  contain  iodine,  the  amount 
varying  with  the  diet,  and  between  the  limits  O'Ol  and  11  per  cent, 
(dry  tissue).  Other  observers  have  shown  previously  that  sponges  and 
corals  (besides  many  algte)  contain  quantities  of  iodine  comparable  with 
that_  in  the  thyroid.  Three  other  types  of  tissue  have  been  found  in 
marine  organisms  which  contain  amounts  of  iodine  over  01  per  cent, 
(dry  tissue)  viz.  :  the  horny  tubes  of  Eunicid  worms,  the  external 
cutaneous  tissues  of  the  '  foot  '  of  the  horse-clam,  and  the  test  of  a 
tunicate.  Further  work  will  be  carried  out  to  determine  the  type  of 
iodine  compound  in  these  tissues,  with  a  view  to  throwing  further  light 
upon  the  type  of  iodine  compound  in  the  thyroid.  The  above  results 
are  in  course  of  publication. 

Mr.  Cameron  is  also  engaged  in  work  on  the  effects  of  feeding  iodine 
compounds  (and  thyroid)  on  the  amount  of  iodine  present  in  the  thyroid 
gland,  with  a  view  to  determine  the  rate  of  increase  or  diminution. 
These  results  are  not  yet  ready  for  publication. 

The  Secretary  has  been  engaged  upon  various  problems  connected 
with  the  ductless  glands.  The  effects  of  varying  conditions  upon  the 
histological  structure  of  the  thyroid  and  parathyroid  have  been  investi- 
gated in  a  preliminary  fashion,  but  the  results  are  conflicting  and 
difficult  to  interpret.     The  variations  in  structure  in  normal  thyroids 


1  Biochem.  J.,  7,  466,  1913.  «  j.  £^^7.  chem.,  16,  465,  1914. 


238  EEPORTS   ON   THE    STATE   OP   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

are  so  great  that  the  effects  of  feeding,  drugs,  &c.,  cannot  be  sum- 
marised in  a  definite  manner.^ 

The  pharmacodynamics  of  different  extracts  have  also  been  studied. 
Among  other  facts  to  which  attention  will  be  called  in  subsequent 
publications  it  may  be  mentioned  that  large  doses  of  adrenin  by  no 
means  always  interfere  with  the  normal  action  of  the  vagus,  that  the 
rise  of  blood-pressure  due  to  injection  of  adrenin  is  of  a  double  nature, 
and  that  comparatively  small  doses  of  the  last-mentioned  drug 
frequently  cause  an  unexpected  fatal  result  in  dogs. 

The  effects  of  adrenin  and  thyroid  extracts  upon  the  activity  of  the 
vagus  have  led  to  an  inquiry  as  to  the  effect  of  hormones  upon 
vaso-motor  reflexes,  and  owing  to  the  unsatisfactory  accounts  given 
in  the  majority  of  books  as  to  the  actual  facts  in  connection  with  these 
reflexes,  it  has  been  necessary  to  extend  the  inquiry  so  as  to  include 
a  consideration  of  the  vaso-motor  reflexes  in  general.  So  far,  the  only 
hormone  which  appears  to  give  any  interesting  results  is  the  extract  of 
pituitary,  the  effect  of  injection  of  the  extract  being  to  change  the  nature 
of  the  reflex,  so  that  in  cases  where,  for  example,  stimulation  of  the 
cenlral  end  of  the  sciatic  produces  a  fall  of  blood-pressure,  afteir 
injection  of  pituitary  extract  a  similar  stimulation  produces  a  rise. 

This  work  is  nearly  ready  for  publication. 

The  Committee  desire  to  be  reappointed  with  a  grant  of  4:01. 


Galorimetric  Observations  on  Man. — Report  of  the  Committee, 
consisting  of  Professor  J.  S.  Macdonald  (Chairman),  Dr. 
F.  A.  DuFFiELD  (Secretary),  and  Dr.  Keith  Lucas,  appointed 
to  make  Galorimetric  Observations  on  Man  in  Health  and  in 
Febrile  Conditions.     (Draion  up  by  the  Secretary.) 

In  furnishing  a  report  upon  the  calorimetric  work  undertaken  during 
the  past  year,  it  is  necessary  to  refer  to  a  paper  published  by  Professor 
Macdonald  and  pi'inted  in  the  'Proceedings  of  the  Royal  Society,' 
B,  vol.  87,  1913,  and  to  a  communication  to  the  Physiological  Society, 
May  1914.  The  commencement  of  the  first  paper,  containing  a  de- 
scription of  the  apparatus  and  of  the  method  of  procedure  followed 
in  these  experiments,  may  be  omitted  here,  since  these  have  been  in- 
cluded in  previous  repoi'ts  of  this  Committee.  The  latter  part,  which 
IS  the  collected  and  digested  results  of  a  very  large  number  of  experi- 
ments made  upon  a  variety  of  individuals,  forms  a  large  part  of  this 
report. 

The  experiments  all  through  have  been  carried  out  by  Professor 
Macdonald  with  the  apparatus  and  in  the  manner  already  described 
by  himself  in  the  earlier  reports.  The  subject,  shut  up  within  the 
calorimeter,  was  made  to  perform  a  definite  measured  amount  of 
mechanical  work  upon  the  cycle.  The  degree  of  work  was  varied  in 
different   experiments,    and    from    the    data    of   these   heat-production 

"  See    discussion,    Lancet,    1914   (March    and    April),    by    Bell,    McGarrison, 
Chalmers,  Watson,  and  Vincent. 


ON  CALORlMETRlC    OBSERVATIONS    ON   MAN.  239 

figures  have  been  obtained  which  fall  into  four  groups  corresponding 
to  the  grades  of  mechanical  work  done.  It  has  been  found  that  these 
results  may  be  expressed  by  a  constant  multiplied  by  a  function  of 
the  subject's  weight,  which  varies  with  the  amount  of  mechanical 
work  performed  in  the  different  groups,  i.e.  '02,  'OS,  '07  and  "09  h.-p. 

Group  A — Heat-production  =  K„W^'* 
„     B-  „  =K,W^/^ 

„      C—  „  =K,W« 

.,     D-  »  .=K, 

From  these  results  it  is  evident  that  the  weight  becomes  less  and 
less  of  a  handicap  as  the  mechanical  work  increases.  And,  to  carry 
this  a  stage  further,  the  query  arises  as  to  the  likelihood  of  the  weight 
becoming  a  positive  advantage  at  a  still  higher  grade  of  mechanical 
vv'ork. 

The  communication  to  the  Physiological  Society  contains  a  formula 
for  one  of  the  subjects  cycling  at  a  revolution  rate  varying  from  40 
to  98  revolutions  per  minute,  and  performing  external  work  against  a 
brake  varying  in  different  experiments  from  0  to  73  calories  per  hour — 

V  gg.g 

43V '^1  +  r^jTr^j-nX  work  in  Kals.  per  hour  =  Kals.  per  hour. 

The  first  part  of  the  formula  represents  the  heat-production  associated 
with  the  rate  of  movement  'V,'  and  is  the  same  no  matter  what  the 
value  of  the  external  work  performed  by  the  movement.  The  second 
is  the  '  coefficient  of  efficiency  '  multiplied  by  the  external  work  done, 
and  fully  represents  the  heat-production  associated  with  the  perform- 
ance of  external  work.  It  will  be  noticed  that  this  coefficient  of 
efficiency  is  represented  as  varying  inversely  with  the  two-thirds 
power  of  the  subject's  weight,  and  that  the  '  efficiency  '  which  is  its 
reciprocal  therefore  varies  directly  with  this  value.  This  has  been 
found  universally  the  case  in  the  data  from  all  the  remaining  subjects, 
and  explains  the  fact  that  in  the  heavier  work  experiments  the  results 
become  independent  of  the  subject's  weight,  if  consideration  is  paid 
to  the  other  fact,  also  elicited  from  these  data,  that  the  heat-production 
associated  with  movements  per  se  (irrespective  of  the  mechanical  work 
performed  by  them)  varies,  on  the  other  hand,  directly  with  the  function 
of  the  weight.  In  fact  the  total  energy  transformation  is  the  sum 
of  the  two  factors,  one  due  to  the  subject's  movements  per  se  varying 
directly,  the  other  due  to  performance  of  mechanical  work  in  the 
course  of  these  movements  varying  inversely  as  the  subject's  weight; 
but  in  neither  case  in  a  simple  linear  fashion.  The  general  formula 
given  (Proc.  Physio.  Soc,  March  1914),  is 

vw!      56.3 
87WV^™  +  W's  ^  '^°^^- 

The  first  fraction  is  probably  expressible  in  the  foUov/ing  form— 

KJV 

KWV »  '  where  '  v'  is  the  natural  rate  due  to  the  '  pendular 
character '  of  the  limb  movements,  and  V  is  the  particular  rate 
imposed  in  each  experiment. 


240  REPORTS    ON   THE   STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 191 4. 

Professor  Macdonald  also  finds  analogies  between  these  results  and 
those  of  walking  experiments  described  by  Douglas  and  Haldane  in 
'Phil.  Trans.'  B,  ciii.,  p.  245.  A  full  consideration  of  the  matter  will 
be  found  in  a  paper  communicated,  June  1914,  to  the  '  Proc.  Eoy. 
See'  on  the  '  Mechanical  Efficiency  of  Man.' 

The  section  of  the  work  dealing  with  the  respiratory  changes  has 
also  been  continued  during  the  past  year.  A  number  of  experiments 
have  been  performed  in  which  the  respiratory  interchange  of  a  man, 
doing  a  measured  amount  of  mechanical  work  upon  a  cycle  in  the 
calorimeter,  has  been  investigated.  The  calorimeter  is  ventilated  by 
means  of  a  stream  of  air  drawn  through  it  at  a  uniform  rate  by  a 
pump  and  measured  by  a  meter  placed  on  the  distal  side  of  the  latter. 
All  three  are  connected  by  tubing,  through  which  the  air  flows,  and 
the  air  as  it  leaves  is  sampled  by  suitable  means  every  ten  minutes. 
The  samples  thus  obtained  are  examined  by  the  gas-analysis  apparatus 
devised  by  Dr.  Haldane,  and  the  carbon  dioxide  and  oxygen  percentage 
deteiTuined.  The  carbon  dioxide  figures,  w"hen  plotted  against  the  time 
on  squared  paper,  take  the  form  of  a  cur\e  rising  steadily  to  a  horizontal 
asymptote. 

In  order  to  understand  the  figures  thus  obtained  it  was  obviously 
necessary  to  inquire  into  the  question  of  storage  of  gases  within  the 
calorimeter,  and  to  do  this  a  number  of  calibration  experiments  (17  in 
all)  were  made,  in  which  a  stream  of  carbon  dioxide,  measured  by  a 
gas-meter  and  generated  by  a  modification  of  the  apparatus  described 
in  a  paper  by  Young  and  Caudwell  ('  Soc.  Chem.  Ind.,'  March  1907), 
was  passed  into  the  calorimeter  at  a  uniform  rate,  and  the  ten  minutes' 
samples  examined  in  the  manner  described  in  the  experiments  on  the 
human  subject.  Attempts  were  then  made  to  discover  the  relation 
which  exists  between  the  curve  of  the  carbon  dioxide  in  the  leaving  air 
and  that  of  the  carbon  dioxide  introduced  from  the  generating  appara- 
tus ;  but  so  far  the  results  appear  so  complicated  that  no  definite  relation 
has  been  arrived  at.  However,  quite  recently  Mr.  G.  H.  Livens,  M.A., 
Lecturer  on  Mathematics  to  the  University,  has  rendered  most  valuable 
assistance  towards  solving  this  problem.  A  fairly  accurate  empirical 
formula  has  been  obtained  from  the  actual  readings,  but  it  is  not  of 
such  good  agreement  with  the  theoretical  formula  as  is  desired,  and 
further  experiments  are  being  made  to  detect  the  cause  of  the  dis- 
crepancy. 

Ownig  to  the  appearance  of  a  considerable  error  in  the  readings  of 
the  large  meter  used  for  measuring  the  volume  of  the  air-flow  through 
the  calorimeter,  it  became  necessary  to  replace  it  by  a  water-meter 
supplied  by  Messrs.  Parkinson  and  Cowan,  Ltd.  Also,  a  large  number 
of  tests  were  made,  both  in  the  Physiological  Laboratory  and  through 
the  courtesy  of  the  Sheffield  Gas  Company  at  their  test-room,  on  the 
small  meter  which  is  used  for  measuring  the  volume  of  carbon  dioxide 
introduced  into  the  calorimeter  in  the  calibration  experiments  men- 
tioned above.  I  am  now  certain  that  the  error  in  our  estimation 
on  these  accounts  is  well  under  2  per  cent. 


ON  iSFFECT   OF  LOW  TEMPERATURE  ON  COLD-BLOODED  ANIMALS.      '24.i 

The  Effect  of  Low  Temperature  on  Cold-blooded  Animals. — 
Report  of  the  Committee,  consisting  of  Professor  Swale 
Vincent  (Chairman)  and  Mr.  A.  T.  Cameron  (Secretary). 
(Drawn  up  by  the  Secretary.) 

Mr.  a.  T.  Cameron  has  continued  the  experiments  of  Cameron  and 
Brownlee  on  frogs  communicated  in  the  last  report,  and  has  arrived  at 
the  following  conclusions:  — 

(1)  The  death-temperature  of  R.  pipiciis  from  cold  is  -  l"ib°  ± 
015°  C. 

(2)  There  is  no  climatic  adaptation,  nor  any  periodic  adaptation  due 
to  hibernation,  in  R.  pipiens. 

(3)  The  cause  of  death  is  a  specific  temperature  effect  on  the  co- 
ordinating centres  in  the  central  nervous  system.  Those  controlling 
lung-respiration  may  be  specially  concerned. 

(4)  Frogs  survivmg  degrees  of  cold  such  as  those  occurring  during  a 
Manitoban  winter  do  so  below  the  surface,  near  the  margin  of  springs, 
and  are  themselves  never  subject  to  temperatures  below  the  freezing- 
point  of  water. 

(5)  There  seems  to  be  a  slight  variation  in  the  death-temperature 
from  cold,  of  different  species  of  frogs,  amounting  to  some  tenths 
of  a  degree  Centigrade. 

(6)  Frogs  heated  rapidly  to  normal  room-temperature  from  a  tem- 
perature just  below  the  freezing-point  of  their  body-fluids  (and  not  itself 
capable  of  causing  death)  are  thrown  into  a  peculiar  hypersensitive 
condition,  in  which  cessation  of  lung-breathing  takes  place  for  long 
periods. 

These  results  are  deduced  from  experiments  with  R.  pipiens  from 
Manitoba,  Minnesota,  and  Illinois,  with  R.  clamitans  from  Minnesota, 
and  with  R.  sphenocephala  from  C.  Carolina.  The  experimental  details 
will  be  published  elsewhere.  The  Committee  do  not  wish  to  be  re- 
appointed. 


Miners'  Nystagmus.— Interim  Report  of  the  Committee,  con- 
sisting of  Professor  J.  H.  Muirhead  (Chairman) ,  Dr.  T.  G. 
Maitland  (Secretary),  Dr.  J.  Jameson  Evans,  a)id  Dr. 
C.  S.  Myers,  appointed  to  investigate  the  Physiological  and 
Psychological  Factors  in  the  Production  of  Miners' 
Nystagmus. 

Factors  concerned:  (a)  Internal;  central  and  peripheral,     (b)  External. 

Two  features  have  long  been  admitted  to  be  provoking  agencies  in  the 
production  of  miners'  nystagmus — an  external  factor,  defective  lighting, 
and  an  internal  or  peripheral  factor,  viz.,  muscular  strain.  The  former, 
defective  lighting,  is  found  to  be  the  more  important,  and  our  examina- 
tion led  us  to  conclude  that  where  this  factor  is  in  greatest  evidence 
there  we  find  the  greatest  incidence  of  cases.  Miners'  nystagmus  is 
a  disease  limited  practically  to  coal-mining,  and,  further,  it  is  associated 
with  the  use  of  lamps  of  small  illuminating  power,  such  as  the  Davy 
1914.  B 


212  REPORTS   ON   THE   STATE   OF  SCIENCE. — 1914. 

or  its  modifications,  so  that  it  is  rare,  even  in  coal-mines,  to  find 
cases  of  nystagmus  where  more  powerful  illuminants  such  as  candles 
and  electric  lamps  are  used.  Moreover,  the  great  absorption  of  light  by 
the  coal-surface  diminishes  the  illuminating  value  of  the  lamp  employed. 
This  absence  of  reflections  from  walls,  floor,  and  ceiUngs  interferes 
with  clear  visualisation,  since  direct  rays  are  never  so  satisfactory  as 
diffuse  rays.  The  other  factor  mentioned  above — muscular  strain, 
especially  of  the  elevators  of  the  eyeballs — is  also  taken  into  considera- 
tion, notwithstanding  the  difference  of  opinion  on  the  importance  of 
this.  Snell  has  collected  several  cases  of  nystagmus  which,  as  in  the 
case  of  compositors,  has  followed  strain  in  this  way,  and  we  have 
ourselves  found  that  there  is  a  larger  number  of  cases  of  miners' 
nystagmus  associated  with  '  hohng '  than  in  any  other  occupa- 
tion underground — under  conditions,  therefore,  which  demand  an 
awkward  posture  with  straining  of  the  head  and  eyes.  Other  sources 
of  peripheral  irritation  are  opacities  of  the  media,  errors  of  refraction, 
pigmentary  and  other  ocular  defects,  which  tend  to  produce  or  aggi-avate 
nystagmus  by  either  modifying  illumination  or  by  causing  muscular 
strain  or  by  interfering  with  the  direct  rays  on  the  fovea. 

Taking  all  these  factors,  however,  into  consideration — factors  which 
are  generally  acknowledged — the  fact  remains  that,  working  under 
similar  conditions  of  illumination  and  strain,  a  large  percentage  of 
miners  do  not  develop  nystagmus,  and  it  is  our  object  to  find  out  what 
is  the  decisive  factor.  Admitting  the  external  factors  in  those  who 
develop  nystagmus  to  be  more  or  less  constant,  admitting  the  occa- 
sional possibility  of  peripheral  factors  such  as  those  above  mentioned, 
there  remains  some  factor  unaccounted  for  which  explains  the  selection 
of  certain  miners  for  this  trouble.  At  this  stage  of  our  inquiry,  how- 
ever, we  investigated  what  seemed  to  us  a  neglected  field — the  relative 
sensibility  of  the  retina  in  the  foveal  and  in  the  perifoveal  regions — 
and  for  this  reason.  The  peculiar  modifications  which  the  dark-adapted 
eye  undergoes  might  bring  about  a  still  further  interference  with  the 
illumination  by  a  reactive  function  on  the  part  of  the  percipient. 

A  consideration  of  the  conditions  of  work  in  the  coal-mine  sug- 
gested very  strongly  the  importance  of  the  possession  by  the  miners 
of  delicate  vision  sensibility.  Before  dark- adaptation  could  be  fully 
developed  the  miner  at  his  first  entry  into  the  pit  would  have  to 
strain  his  vision  under  the  most  trying  circumstances  to  avoid  roof 
obstacles  as  he  made  his  way  to  his  work.  Such  a  strain  would  display 
itself  in  the  muscles  chiefly  involved,  such  as  the  elevators  of  the 
eyelids  and  of  the  eyes.  It  is  interesting  clinically  to  find  the  initial 
symptom  complained  of  is  a  heaviness  of  the  lids. 

At  work  on  the  coal-face  the  miner  with  his  eyes  on  the  coal- 
surface  would  be  subjected  only  to  a  few  reflected  rays  from  smooth 
facets  of  coal  and  some  little  diffused  light  from  the  coal-surface 
generally.  Very  dim  light  would  bring  out  the  latent  differences  in 
the  visual  sense,  such  as  the  differences  of  acuity  between  foveal  and 
perifoveal  vision.  If  the  rays  were  too  feeble  to  excite  foveal  sensation 
they  might  yet  stimulate  perifoveal  sensation. 

Our  theory  regarding  this  particular  feature  of  the  eye  was  that  a 


ON  miners'  nystagmus.  243 

perifoveal  sensation,  in  the  absence  of  foveal  sensation,  oi'  a  perifoveal 
sensation  of  greater  intensity  than  a  foveal  sensation,  would  excite 
a  fixational  or  movement  reflex.  This  would  bring  the  exciting  point 
in  the  marginal  field  on  to  the  fovea,  and  would  then  either  cease 
altogether  to  excite  sensation  or  would  be  so  diminished  in  intensity 
as  to  lay  the  eye  open  again  to  marginal  stimulation.  With  a  central 
stigma,  a  neurasthenic  diathesis,  there  would  be  present  all  the  material 
for  the  development  of  a  habit  spasm. 

A  large  number  of  observations  were  made  on  students,  assistants, 
and  ourselves  with  a  piece  of  apparatus  described  in  the  appendix. 
This  apparatus  was  arranged  to  present  a  spot  of  light  the  intensity  of 
which  was  controllable.  The  open  eye  was  directed  on  this  spot  while 
the  room  was  in  full  daylight,  and  then  the  room  was  suddenly  plunged 
into  darkness.  At  the  end  of  five  seconds  the  subject  was  examined  as 
to  his  ability  with  direct  vision  to  perceive  this  faintly  illuminated  spot, 
its  intensity  rapidly  altered  until  the  subject  was  only  just  able  to  per- 
ceive it.  The  time  for  this,  the  minimum  visibile,  usually  took  about 
five  seconds,  and  the  degree  of  illumination  was  remarkably  constant  in 
all  these  cases,  so  much  so  that  we  were  able  to  fix  on  this  degree  of 
light  intensity  as  our  zero.  The  direct  vision  was  contrasted  with 
indirect  vision,  the  subject  being  directed  to  look  slightly  away  from  the 
spot  of  light,  which  at  once  appeared  to  become  more  vivid.  The  inten- 
sity was  then  diminished  until  here  again  the  spot  was  only  just  dis- 
cerned, and  so  we  obtained  a  minimum  vision  visibile  for  indirect  or 
perifoveal  vision. 

At  intervals  of  two  and  a  half  minutes  the  minimum  visibile  was 
estimated  for  both  fovea  and  perifovea,  and  we  were  able  to  represent 
in  graphic  form  the  increasing  sensibility  of  the  retina  to  faint  illumina- 
tion. In  general  the  dark  adaptability  of  fovea  and  perifovea  increased 
rapidly  up  to  the  end  of  half  an  hour,  less  rapidly  up  to  the  end  of  two 
hours ;  arriving  then  at  its  maximum  sensibility  it  remained  stationary. 
The  perifovea  throughout  this  development  of  dark  adaptation  not  only 
retained  its  primary  advantage,  but  slightly  increased  that  advantage  up 
to  the  limit  of  change.  In  our  experience  in  the  coal-mines  we  never, 
however,  felt  that  the  maximum  amount  of  sensibility  was  ever  in 
demand,  and  while  the  light  was  indeed  feeble  enough  to  be  exces- 
sively irritating  to  our  unaccustomed  eyes,  yet  nowhere  did  we  find 
working  conchtions  approaching  our  experimental  conditions.  Was  the 
miner's  eye  differently  equipped  from  our  own,  did  it  possess  a  greater 
adaptability  through  use  and  habit  ? 

This  led  to  an  examination  of  the  dark-adaptability  of  miners  who 
had  been  afflicted  with  nystagmus,  and  here  we  found  without  exception 
a  totally  unexpected  condition,  yet  one  which  now  rendered  plausible 
our  fixational  hypothesis.  Instead  of  finding  a  greatly  increased  adapt- 
ability as  a  result  of  long  use  and  cultivation  of  the  eye  in  the  dark, 
we  found  that  in  this  respect  it  was  greatly  inferior  to  the  '  normal  '  eye. 
In  the  first  place  the  'zero  '  was  not  perceived  until  after  about  five 
minutes  of  exposure  to  the  dark,  and  then  once  perceived  it  remained 
without  an  appreciable  development  through  the  two  hours'  experiment. 
This  peculiarity  on  the  subjective  side  amounted  to  the  same  thing  in 

R  2 


244  REPORTS   ON   THE   STATE   OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 

its  effects  as  a  modification  of  the  external  factors  of  the  illumination, 
so  that  the  differences  observed  in  the  normal  eye,  under  the  experi- 
mental condition  described  above,  might  in  the  case  of  the  miner  come 
into  operation  under  the  condition  of  his  work  owing  to  the  altered 
sensational  values  following  retinal  insensitiveness.  The  fact  is  that 
the  theory  of  '  fixational  reflexes  '  might  yet  be  true  of  the  behaviour 
of  the  miner's  eye  in  the  coal-mine. 

The  conclusion  of  the  research  so  far  then  seemed  more  and  more 
to  lay  stress  on  the  one  well-recognised  agency,  that  of  illumination,  and 
that  insensitiveness  of  the  retina  really  amounted  to  the  same  thing 
as  an  absolute  decrease  in  the  illuminant. 

There  remains  for  examination  the  actual  excursion  of  the  eye,  and 
an  examination  into  the  nervous  system  of  the  afflicted  miner. 

Since  this  was  written  an  examination  of  unaffected  miners  has  been 
made,  with  the  result  that  there  is  no  appreciable  difference  between 
their  dark-adaptability  and  what  we  describe  as  the  normal. 

The  Apparatus  for  estimating  the  Minimum  Light  Sensibility  in  the  Process  of 

Dark-adaptation. 

It  consists  of  an  oblong  box,  the  front  of  which  is  pierced  by  a  round  hole 
with  a  diameter  of  20  mm.,  which  is  covered  by  an  opal  disc.  At  the  back  of  the 
box  exactly  facing  this  aperture  is  a  sheet  of  white  paper  which  reflects  light 
thrown  upon  it  on  to  the  disc.  At  the  side  of  the  box  is  another  aperture  into 
which  a  tube  nearly  2  m.  long  fits.  This  tube  carries  within  it  a  small  2-volt 
lamp  which  can  be  moved  quite  freely  from  end  to  end.  The  light  from  this 
lamp  is  thrown  on  a  mirror  so  placed  that  it  reflects  this  light  on  to  the  sheet  of 
paper,  which  then  reflects  it  on  to  the  disc.  It  was  only  in  this  way  the  light 
could  be  sufficiently  diminished  to  obtain  marginal  stimuli. 

After  a  number  of  experiments  we  arbitrarily  decided  upon  our  zero — that  is, 
the  light  that  could  be  only  just  perceived  five  seconds  after  the  room  was 
plunged  in  darkness.  At  intervals  of  two  and  a  half  minutes  the  subject  was 
tested  again,  and  the  lamp  was  gradually  moved  away  from  the  box  until  the 
subject  failed  to  perceive  the  disc. 


The  Investigation  of  the  Jurassic  Flora  of  Yorkshire. — Report 
of  the  Committee,  consisting  of  Professor  A.  C.  Seward 
{Chairman),  Mr.  H.  Hamshaw  Thomas  (Secretary),  Mr. 
Harold  Wager,  and  Professor  F.  E.  Weiss. 

This  year  attention  has  been  concentrated  on  the  plant  beds  on  and 
near  Roseberry  Topping,  North  East  Yorkshire,  more  especially  on  the 
Thinnfeldia  beds.  A  careful  search  was  made  for  the  reproductive 
structures  of  Thinnfeldia,  and  this  was  rewarded  by  the  discovery  of 
numerous  associated  seed-like  bodies,  whose  structure  has  yet  to  be 
investigated,  and  which  may,  perhaps,  prove  to  belong  to  this 
plant.  A  new  example  of  a  Williavisoniella  flower-bud  was  found, 
which  is  of  interest  in  greatly  extending  the  range  of  this  form.  Some 
fruits  and  seeds,  probably  referable  to  the  provisional  genus  Caytonia, 
were  also  discovered,  though  they  were  previously  known  only  from 
Gristhorpe.  One  or  two  new  forms  were  found,  and  many  duplicates 
of  the  more  interesting  species  were  collected.  It  is  not  proposed  to 
continue  field-work  and  collecting  in  the  future  on  the  same  scale  as 


ON    INVESTIGATION    OF    THE    JURASSIC   FLORA   OF    YORKSHIRE.      245 

during  the  past  three  years  until   tlie   existing  collections  have   been 
fully  investigated. 

The  Committee  does  not  seek  re-appointment. 


The  Vegetation  of  Ditcham  Park,  Hampshire. — Interim  Report 
of  the  Committee,  consisting  of  Mr.  A.  G.  Tansley  (Chair- 
man), Mr.  E.  S.  Adamson  (Secretary),  Dr.  C.  E.  Moss,  and 
Professor  E.  H.  Yapp,  appointed  for  the  Investigation  thereof. 

Since  the  date  of  tlie  last  report  a  large  number  of  experiments  have 
been  cai'ried  out  with  evaporimeters.  Especially,  a  large  series  of 
simultaneous  readings  have  been  taken,  covering  a  considerable  period, 
from  instruments  placed  in  various  positions  in  beech-woods,  coppices, 
and  in  open  grassland.  Several  of  the  results  suggest  further  lines  of 
experimentation  and  research,  but  a  much  larger  number  of  readings 
must  be  obtained  before  any  generalisation  can  be  enunciated.  The 
evaporimeter  readings  have  been  run  concurrently  with  a  series  of 
readings  of  wet  and  dry  bulb  thermometers,  and  also  of  maximum  and 
minimum  thermometers  which  have  been  placed  in  association  with  the 
evaporimeters. 

The  work  on  soils  has  commenced,  but  so  far  has  been  mainly 
preliminary.  Experiments  have  been  made  on  soil  temperatures, 
especially  in  relation  to  exposure,  drainage,  woodland  canopy,  &c. 

The  general  preliminary  mapping  of  the  various  associations  com- 
posing the  area  has  been  completed,  and  an  analysis  of  them  has  been 
made  from  the  topographical  and  floristic  standpoints  as  a  basis  for 
experimental  woi'k  in  the  coming  season.  In  this  connection  special 
attention  has  been  paid  to  the  successive  changes  occurring  after 
coppicing  till  the  re-forming  of  the  full  canopy,  and  also  to  the  question 
of  the  recolonisation  by  trees  of  cleared  areas  and  grasslands.  Data 
have  been  collected  which  serve  as  a  starting-point  for  a  more  detailed 
study. 

The  areas  enclosed  against  rabbits,  &c.,  have  also  been  under 
observation,  and  the  changes  occurring  have  been  examined  and 
recorded. 

The  Committee  asks  to  be  reappointed,  without  a  grant. 


Experimental  Studies  in  the  Physiology  of  Heredity. — Report  of 
Committee,  consisting  of  Professor  F.  F.  Blackman  (Chair- 
man), Mr.  E.  P.  Gregory  (Secretary),  Professor  W. 
Bateson,  and  Professor  F.  Keeblb. 

The  grant  of  30?.  has  been  expended  in  part  payment  of  the  cost  of 
experiments  conducted  by  Miss  E.  E.  Saunders,  Mr.  R.  P.  Gregory, 
and  Miss  A.  Gairdner.  Miss  Saunders'  experiments  with  stocks  have 
had  for  their  main  objects  :  — 

(1)  The  investigation  of  the  condition  known  as  half-lioarincss  anrl 


246  REPORTS   ON   THE    STATE    OF   SCIENCE,    1914. 

its  relations  to  the  glabrous  and  fully-hoary  forms.  A  new  half-hoary 
race,  which  has  been  obtained  after  some  difficulty,  has  made  it  possible 
to  design  a  complete  series  of  experiments,  which  is  now  in  progress. 

(2)  The  further  study  of  the  gametic  coupling  already  shown  to  exist 
between  the  factors  for  double-flowers  and  plastid-colour.  This  in- 
vestigation promises  to  give  results  of  great  intei'est,  but  a  further 
generation  must  be  raised  before  a  statement  can  be  made. 

(3)  A  result  of  some  interest  is  tlie  discovery  that  the  double- 
flowered  plants,  at  least  in  some  strains,  have  a  more  rapid  and  vigorous 
growi^h  than  the  singles.  It  is  thus  possible,  by  means  of  selection 
based  on  this  difference,  to  obtain  a  far  higher  percentage  of  doubles  in 
the  flower-bed  than  would  be  expected  from  the  normal  output  of 
doubles  by  a  double-throwing  single. 

(4)  A  beginning  has  also  been  made  with  the  work  of  obtaining  a 
complete  series  of  types  of  known  factorial  constitution,  so  that  a  supply 
of  material  may  be  available  for  testing  the  view  which  has  been  put 
forward  as  to  the  inter-relations  between  the  factors  determining  hoari- 
ness  and  sap-colour. 

Experiments  with  foxgloves  have  been  designed  for  the  investigation 
of  a  curious  condition  of  partial  hoariness,  as  well  as  for  observations 
on  the  range  of  variability  in  the  hepiandra  form. 

Experiments  by  Mr.  Gregory  with  Primula  sinensis  have  been 
designed  chiefly  with  a  view  to  the  investigation  of  the  cytology  and 
genetics  of  certain  giant  races,  which  have  been  shown  to  be  in  the 
tetraploid  condition ;  that  is  to  say,  they  have  4.t  (48)  chromosomes  in 
the  somatic  cells  and  2x  (24)  chromosomes  in  the  gametic  cells,  whereas 
in  the  diploid  races  the  numbers  are  2x  (24)  and  x  (12)  respectively. 
These  experiments  have  given  results  of  very  great  interest,  which  may 
he  briefly  summarised  by  saying  that  the  reduplication  of  the  chromo- 
somes has  been  found  to  be  accompanied  by  a  reduplication  of  the 
series  of  factors.  An  account  of  this  work  has  been  published  in  the 
'Proc.  Roy.  Soc.,'  B.,  Vol.  87,  p.  484,  1914,  and  it  is  hoped  that  a 
further  statement  will  be  made  at  the  meeting  of  the  British  Association 
in  Australia.  Further  experiments  with  these  tetraploid  plants  are 
designed  especially  to  investigate  the  phenomena  of  coupling  and  repul- 
sion between  certain  factors.  These  experiments  promise  to  yield 
results  of  very  great  interest,  both  as  regards  the  genetics  of  tetraploid 
plants  and  as  regards  cytological  theory  as  to  the  possible  relations 
between  factors  and  chromosomes. 

In  the  experiments  with  the  ordinary  diploid  races,  an  interesting 
case  has  been  discovered  in  which  the  coupling  between  the  factors  for 
magenta  and  green  stigma  is  on  the  system  7:1;  whereas  in  a  very 
large  number  of  other  experiments  the  coupling  (or  repulsion)  between 
these  factors  is  of  a  very  low  order,  apparently  less  than  3:1. 

A  paper  is  in  the  course  of  preparation,  and  will  shortly  be 
published  in  the  'Journal  of  Genetics,'  oai  the  inheritance  of  green, 
variegated,  and  yellow  leaves  in  Primula.  The  variegated  plants  consist 
of  a  mosaic  of  two  kinds  of  cells,  respectively  like  those  of  the  pure 
green  and  jiure  yellow-leaved  plants.  The  characters  of  the  chloro- 
plasts,  on  which  greenness  and  yellowness  depend,  have  been  found  to 


ON  EXPERIMENTAI.  STUDIES  IN  THE  PHYSIOLOGY  OP  HEREDITY.     247 

be  inherited  through  the  egg-cell  only,  the  male  gamete  playing  no  part 
in  determining  the  nature  of  the  offspring  in  resper.t  of  these  characters. 

The  experiments  of  Mr.  E.  P.  Gregory  and  Miss  Gairdner  on  the 
inheritance  of  variegation  and  other  characters  in  Tropceohmi  have  been 
continued.  It  is  lioped  that  sufficient  data  will  have  been  gained  by 
the  end  of  the  present  season  to  permit  of  the  publication  of  an  account 
of  this  work.  Present  I'esults  indicate  that  in  Tropceolum  variegation 
is  inherited  in  the  usual  way  from  both  the  father  and  the  mother,  and 
is  a  Mendelian  recessive  character.  Other  characters  in  Trofaolum 
which  are  being  studied  are  those  of  colour  and  habit  (dwarf  or  trailing). 

The  experiments  on  the  gynandrous  variety  of  the  Wallflower  and 
its  relation  to  the  normal  type  are  nearing  completion,  and  it  is  hoped 
that  an  account  of  them  will  be  published  next  year. 

The  Committee  ask  for  reappointment  with  a  grant  of  45L  The 
expenses  of  these  experiments  involve  an  annual  outlay  of  about  110?.. 
to  120?.  By  far  the  largest  item  in  this  expenditure  is  the  cost  of 
labour,  which  has  increased  during  the  last  few  years  with  the  general 
rise  in  wages  which  has  taken  place.  Other  important  items  are  those 
of  the  rent  of  the  garden  and  the  cost  of  heating  the  Primula  house. 
During  the  present  year  Miss  Saunders  and  Mr.  Gregory  jointly  receive 
a  grant  from  the  Eoyal  Society  of  60?.  in  aid  of  the  cost  of  this  work. 


Breeding  Experiments  with  CEnotheras.— Report  of  the  Com- 
mittee, consisting  of  Professor  W.  Batbson  (Chairman),  Pro- 
fessor F.  Keeblb  {Secretary),  and  jNIr.  K.  P.  Gregory, 
appointed  to  carry  out  the  Experiments. 

The  Committee  have  received  the  following  Eeport  from  Dr.  E.   E. 
Gates  on  the  experiments  which  he  has  made  :  — 

'  The  grant  of  20?.  made  by  the  British  Association  for  CE)iothera- 
breeding  has  been  applied  to  the  expenses  of  these  experiments  during 
the  last  year.  In  the  season  of  1913  about  10,000  plants  were  grown, 
representing  a  great  many  races  and  hybrids  of  QSnothera.  The  plants 
were  grown  at  Eothamsted  on  a  two-acre  plot  set  apart  for  the  purpose. 
They  developed  vei'y  successfully,  nearly  every  individual  reaching 
maturity.  The  largest  series  of  hybrids  were  the  F3  from  (E.  grandi- 
flora,  (E.  rubricalyx  and  its  reciprocal,  and  the  F3  of  crosses  between 
CE.  grandifiora  and  CE.  Lamarckiana.  The  F3  generation  of  the  former 
cross  confirms  and  extends  the  results  of  the  Fj  and  F,  generations 
already  published  in  '  Zeitschr.  f.  Abst.  u.  Vererb.,'  vol.  xi.  They 
show  in  particular  that  both  blending  and  alternative  inheritance  of 
characters  occur.  Some  of  the  plants,  which  have  been  examined 
cytologically  in  conjunction  with  Miss  Nesta  Thomas,  further  emphasise 
the  fact  that  mutation  and  hybridisation  in  OEiiothera  are  separate 
processes,  both  of  which  may  go  on  together.  Some  of  these  results 
\vill  be  incorporated  in  a  book  now  in  preparation. ' 


248  REPORTS    ON   THE    STATE    OF   SCIENCE,    1914. 

The  Renting  of  Gincliona  Botanic  Station  in  Jamaica.— Report 
of  the  Committee,  consisting  of  Professor  F.  O.  Bower 
(Chairman),  Professor  E.  H.  Yapp  (Secretary),  Professors  K. 
BuLLER,  F.  W.  Oliver,  and  F.  E.  Weiss. 

The  Committee  has  met  twice.  The  negotiations  with  the  Jamaican 
Government  are  progressing  favourably,  the  Committee  having  been 
assisted  by  the  advice  of  Sir  David  Prain.  There  is  every  prospect  of 
the  house  and  buildings  being  let  to  the  Committee  on  an  annual  tenancy 
to  commence  from  October  1,  1914,  at  a  rent  of  251.  There  has, 
however,  been  considerable  delay,  partly  owing  to  the  long  posts,  partly 
to  the  progress  of  papers  through  official  channels. 

As  no  agreement  has  yet  been  signed  the  grant  of  25L  has  not 
been  drawn.  But  in  view  of  the  prospect  of  negotiations  being  com- 
pleted on  the  terms  above  stated,  the  Committee  ask  that  they  may  be 
reappointed,  and  that  the  grant  of  25/.  be  carried  over  to  the  ensuing 
year  as  an  unexpended  balance. 


Mental  and  Physical  Factors  involved'  in  Education. — Report  of 
the  Committee,  consisting  of  Dr.  C.  S.  Myers  (Chairman), 
Professor  J.  A.  Green  (Secretary),  Professor  J.  Adams,  Dr. 
G.  A.  Auden,  Sir  Edward  Br.'^brogk,  Dr.  W.  Brown, 
Professor  E.  P.  Culverwell,  Mr.  G.  F.  Daniell,  Miss  B. 
FoxLEY,  Professor  E.  A.  Gregory,  Dr.  C.  W.  Kimmins, 
Professor  McDoug.\ll,  Drs.  T.  P.  Nunn,  W.  H.  E.  Eivers, 
and  F.  C.  Shrubs  all,  Mr.  H.  Bompas  Smith,  Professor  C. 
Spearman,  Mr.  A.  E.  Twentyman,  and  Dr.  F.  Warner, 
appointed  to  inquire  into  and  report  upon  tJie  metliods  and 
results  of  research  into  the  Mental  and  Physical  Factors 
involved  in  Education. 

The  Committee  has  to  report  the  retirement  of  its  Chairman,  Pro- 
fessor J.  J.  Findlay,  and  the  election  of  Dr.  C.  S.  Myers  in  his  place. 
They  have  been  engaged  in  collating  the  data  which  was  pro- 
visionally reported  upon  at  Birmingham,  and  hope  to  present  the 
results  in  a  definite  form  for  the  Manchester  Meeting  in  1915.  The 
Committee  asks  to  lie  reappointed,  and  applies  for  a  grant  of  30/.. 
to  include  the  unexpended  balance  from  this  year's  grant. 


Influence  of  School-hooks  upon  Eyesight. — Interim  Report  of 
the  Committee,  consisting  of  Dr.  G.  A.  Auden  (Chairman) , 
Mr.  G.  F.  Daniell  (Secretary),  Mr.  C.  H.  Bothamley,  Mr. 
W.  D.  Egg.\r,  Professor  E.  A.  Gregory,  Mr.  N.  Bishop 
H.\RM.\N,  Mr.  J.  L.  Holland,  and  Mr.  W.  T.  H.  Walsh. 

In  previous  reports  (193  2  and  1913)  reference  was  made  to  the  injurious 
effect  of  shiny  paper,  in  particular  to  the  interference  with  binocular 


ON   INFLUENCE    OP   SCHOOL-BOOKS   UPON   EYESIGHT.  249 

vision  whicli  may  result  fi'om  excess  of  speculiir  reflection.  The 
Committee  is  investigating  the  proportion  of  specular  to  diffusive 
reflection  in  the  case  of  books  and  writing-papers  used  in  schools,  and 
has  received  valuable  assistance  from  Mr.  A.  P.  Trotter,  who  has 
devised  a  gloss-tester.  The  Committee  desires  to  continue  this  investi- 
gation in  the  hope  of  arriving  at  an  objective  standard  the  adoption  of 
which  would  prevent  injury  to  eyesight  through  the  use  of  glossy  paper, 
and  therefore  asks  to  be  reappointed  with  a  grant  of  61.  in  addition  to 
the  unexpended  balance  of  last  year's  grant. 


Museums. — Report  of  tJie  CotMnittee,  eonsistiruj  of  Professor 
J.  A.  Gree\  (Chairman),  Mr.  H.  Bolton  and  Dr.  J,  A. 
Clubb  (Secretaries),  Dr.  Bather,  Mr.  E.  Gray,  Mr.  M.  D. 
Hill,  Dr.  W.  E.  Hoyle,  Professors  E.  J.  Garwood  and 
P.  Newberry,  Sir  Eichard  Temple,  Mr.  H.  H.  Thomas, 
Professor  F.  E.  Weiss,  and  Mrs.  J.  White,  appointed  to 
examine  the  Character,  Worh,  and  Maintenance  of  Museums. 

The  Committee  report  that  a  detailed  schedule  of  inquiry  upon 
Museums  has  been  drawn  up  and  presented  to  the  House  of  Lords  by 
Lord  Sudeley.  It  is  hoped  that  the  schedule  will  be  issued  by  the 
Board  of  Education,  and  that  the  information  obtained  will  be  available 
for  the  purposes  of  the  Committee.  Opinions  and  reports  have  been 
obtained  upon  various  sections  of  museum  work  and  their  relation  to 
various  divisions  of  Education.  Other  inquiries  of  a  similar  nature 
are  also  being  made.  Offers  of  assistance  have  been  received  from  the 
American  Association  of  Museums.  Two  members  of  the  Committee 
will  examine  overseas  museums  during  their  journey  tO'  and  from 
Australia  and  report. 

A  deputation  will  report  upon  the  educational  work  of  Museums 
in  France. 

The  following  questions  are  receiving  special  consideration:  — 

The  requirements  of  (1)  students;  (2)  school  children;  (.3)  general 
visitors  to  museums. 

The  Committee  ask  to  be  reappointed  with  a  grant  of  ,30/.,  includ- 
ing the  balance,  11.  9s.  2(/.,  of  last  year"s  grant,   now  in  hand. 


250  EEPORTS   ON   THE   STATE    OF   SCIENCE. — 1914. 


On  Salts  Coloured  by  CaUiode  Rays. 
By  Professor  E.  Goldstein. 

[Ordered,  on  behalf  of  the  General  Committee,  to  be  printed  in  extenso.'] 

Perhaps  a  part  of  the  phenomena  which  I  am  about  to  discuss  is 
already  familiar  to  you  all.  I  shall  not  bring  forward  many  hypo- 
theses. So  you  will  perhaps  ask  why  I  should  speak  at  all.  And, 
in  fact,  apart  from  reference  to  certain  facts  not  published  hitherto, 
my  int-ention  is  mainly  to  invite  the  interest  of  men  younger  and  abler 
than  myself  in  a  class  of  phenomena  which  seem  to  constitute  a  new 
condition  of  matter,  but  on  which  very  few  have  yet  worked. 

If  cathode  rays  fall  on  certain  salts — for  example,  common  salt,  or 
chloride  of  potassium,  or  potassium  bromide — vivid  colours  are  pro- 
duced immediately  on  these  salts. ^  Thus  common  salt  becomes 
yellow-brown  (like  amber),  potassium  chloride  turns  into  a  beautiful 
violet,  potassium  bromide  becomes  a  deep  blue  colour  quite  like  copper 
sulphate.  Here  you  see  a  specimen  of  common  salt  transformed  in 
this  way  on  the  surface  of  the  single  crystals  into  a  yellow-brown 
substance.  I  show  also  sodium  fluoride,  which  takes  a  fine  rosy 
colour. 

The  colours  so  acquired  in  a  very  small  fraction  of  a  second  may 
be  preserved  for  a  long  time,  even  for  many  years,  if  the  coloured 
substances  are  kept  in  the  dark  and  at  low  temperatures.  But  in 
the  daylight,  and  also  under  heat,  the  colours  will  gradually  disappear 
till  the  original  white  condition  is  reached  again. 

The  colours  of  different  salts  are  sensitive  to  heating  in  a  very 
different  degree.  I  could  show  you  the  yellow  sodium  chloride,  pre- 
pared some  months  ago  in  Europe,  but  I  cannot  show  you  here  the 
violet  KCl  and  the  blue  KBr,  because  these  colours,  even  in  the  dark, 
do  not  stand  the  heat  of  the  Equator.  The  same  salt,  if  dissolved, 
may  kee()  very  different  colours,  according  to  the  medium  in  which 
it  has  been  dissolved,  even  when  the  pure  medium  itself  cannot  be 
coloured  at  all  by  cathode  rays.  I  am  speaking  of  solid  solutions, 
produced  by  fusing  a  small  quantity — for  instance,  of  common  salt 
or  of  certain  other  alkali  salts — together  with  a  great  mass  of  a 
salt  which  remains  itself  colourless  in  the  cathode  rays,  as,  for  example, 
the  pure  potassium  sulphate.  Lithium  chloride  acquires  a  bright 
yellow  colour  in  the  cathode  rays ;  but  if  dissolved  in  potassium  sul- 
phate a  lilac  hue  is  produced,  as  you  may  see  in  this  specimen.  Like- 
wise the  pure  carbonate  of  potassium  acquires  a  reddish  tint,  but 
after  dissolving  it  in  the  potassium  sulphate  it  becomes  a  vivid  green 
in  the  cathode  rays,  as  you  see  here. 

Very  small  admixtures  are  sufiicient  to  produce  intense  colours. 
So  •5-5-0-OT5-  of  carbonate  will  produce  the  green  colour  in  the  potassium 

1  E.  Goldstein,  Wiedem.  Ann.  54, 371  ;  60,491 ;  Phis.  Zeitschr.  3, 149  ;  Sitzuntjslf^r. 
Bed.  AJcad.  d.  Wiss.  1901,  222. 


ON  SALTS  COLOURED  BY  CATHODE  RAYS.         251 

sulpliate;  even  ^-^^i^^^  gives  a  marked  colour,  and  an  amount  of 
certain  admixtures,  which  I  estimated  as  ruoooo  only,  may  produce 
a  slight  but  quite  perceptible  colouration  in  some  salts.  80  if  you 
work  with  potassium  sulphate  which  you  obtain  from  chemical  fac- 
tories guaranteed  as  chemically  pure,  you  may  observe  a  set  of 
different  colours  in  these  preparations  under  the  cathode  rays,  by 
which  you  will  detect  the  nature  of  the  different  small  ad- 
mixtures which  adhere  to  the  pretended  pure  preparations  of  the 
different  factories.  In  this  way  a  new  analytical  proof,  much  more 
sensitive  than  the  ordinary  chemical  methods,  is  obtained,  and  im- 
purities may  be  detected  even  when  a  certain  specimen  of  salt  contains 
more  than  a  single  impurity,  because  the  colours  produced  by  different 
admixtures  generally  disappear  with  different  speed  in  the  daylight  or 
under  rise  of  temperature.  Eor  instance,  the  ordinary  potassium 
sulphate  turns  to  a  dark  gray  with  a  slight  greenish  tint  at  first. 
After  a  short  while  the  very  sensitive  gray  will  disappear,  simply  under 
the  ordinary  temperature  of  the  laboratory  room,  and  a  vivid  green 
comes  out.  The  gray  hue  indicates  a  very  small  amount  of  sodium 
chloride,  lomroo  O"^  so,  and  the  remaining  green  indicates  the  admix- 
ture of  a  carbonate.  Here  are  some  preparations  of  potassium  sul- 
phate each  containing  a  single  small  admixture  (KoCOg,  Li.GOg, 
LiOl,  KOI,  KBr).  You  will  notice  how  different  are  the  colours  of 
the  originally  white  substance,  varying  from  green  to  bluish  gray,  ash- 
gray,  grayish  blue,  and  violet. 

By  fractional  crystallisation  one  may  finally  get  a  really  pure  pre- 
paration of  potassium  sulphate,  which  is  no  longer  coloured  by 
cathode  rays  (or  only  in  a  very  slight  degree,  indicating  minimal  traces 
of  sodium  chloride).  But  there  are  other  preparations  which,  so  far 
as  I  know,  cannot  be  acquired  in  pure  condition  by  any  means,  not 
even  by  fractional  crystallisation.  I  never  came  across  a  pure  sodium 
sulphate — the  purity  exists  only  on  the  manufacturers'  labels.  Even 
the  best  preparations  of  this  salt  contain  an  amount  of  sodium  car- 
bonate which  up  to  the  present  cannot  be  separated  from  it,  not 
even  by  frequent  fractional  crystallisation.  The  colour  produced  by 
the  small  admixture,  which  always  remains,  is  a  very  marked  ash- 
gray.  By  an  intentional  further  addition  of  sodium  carbonate  the 
colour  becomes  nearly  black. 

The  question  aiises :  What  may  be  the  cause  of  these  colourations 
in  pure  salts  and  also  in  solid  solutions  of  them?  Shortly  after  the 
colours  of  the  alkali  salts  had  been  discovered,  an  explanation  was 
given^,  according  to  which  the  phenomenon  mainly  consists  in  a 
chemical  reduction.  For  instance,  in  the  case  of  potassium  chloride 
the  chlorine  would  be  set  free,  while  the  remaining  potassium  is  dis- 
solved in  the  unaltered  main  quantity  of  the  salt,  colouring  it  at 
the  same  time.  And  it  seemed  a  convincing  proof  for  this  theory 
when  GieseP  and  also  Kreutz,  simply  by  heating  rock  salt  in  the 
vapours  of  sodium  or  of  potassium,  produced  colours  in  this  rock 
salt  quite  similar  to  those  produced  by  cathode  rays.     It  seemed  that 

2  E.  Wiedemann  and  G.  C.  Sshmidt,  Wied.  Ann.  54,  618. 
8  F.  Giesel,  Ber.  D.  Chem.  Ges.  30,  156. 


252         REPORTS  ON  THE  STATE  OF  SCIENCE.— 1914. 

the  problem  was  settled  finally.  However,  it  was  soon  discovered 
that  the  coloured  Giesel  salts,  although  they  look  to  the  eye  quite 
like  the  cathode-ray  salts,  in  all  other  respects  behave  quite  differently. 
For  instance :  — 

(1)  The  cathode-ray  salts,  as  I  mentipned  before,  are  very  sensitive 
to  daylight :  after  an  exposure  to  diffuse  dayliglit  of  a  few  minutes — or 
in  some  salts  even  of  several  seconds  only — the  colouration  diminishes, 
whilst  the  Giesel  salts  remain  unaltered  even  when  they  are  kept  in  full 
sunshine  for  days  or  even  weeks. 

(2)  The  cathode-ray  salts,  if  dissolved  in  distilled  water,  show 
absolute  neutral  reaction ;  the  Giesel  salts  are  strongly  alkaline. 

(3)  The  cathode-ray  salts  give  vei'y  marked  photoelectric  effects  (as 
Elster  and  Geitel  *  observed) ;   the  Giesel  salts  are  quite  ineffective. 

(4)  Under  certain  cii'cumstances,  which  will  be  mentioned  further 
on,  the  cathode-ray  salts  may  emit  a  phosphorescent  light,  the  Giesel 
salts  none  at  all.  Therefore  the  question  arose  again,  whether  there 
is  not  a  marked  internal  difference  between  the  cathode-ray  salts  and 
the  Giesel  salts,  and  what  is  the  nature  of  the  latter? 

I  have  succeeded  in  settling  this  question,  having  produced  salts 
by  cathode  rays,  the  behaviour  of  which  is  in  every  respect  absolutely 
identical  with  the  Giesel  salts.  You  may  produce  such  substances  if 
you  allow  the  cathode  rays  to  fall  on  the  original  salts  not  for  a  short 
moment  only,  but  for  a  somewhat  prolonged  time,  until  the  salts  are 
strongly  heated.  Produced  in  this  way  the  salts  will  keep  colours;  but 
the  substances  coloured  in  this  way  are  not  sensitive  to  light;  they 
show  no  photoelectric  effect;  they  give  strong  alkaline  reaction,  and 
they  are  not  suited  for  phosphorescence — all  like  the  Giesel  salts.  It 
is  quite  sui'e,  and  you  may  test  it  also  directly  by  spectroscopic  proof, 
that  in  this  case,  if  for  instance  you  have  worked  on  sodium  chloride, 
the  cJilorine  is  set  free.  Then  of  course  an  amount  of  free  sodium  is 
left,  which  dissolves  itself  in  a  deeper  layer  of  unaltered  sodium 
chloride,  to  which  the  cathode  rays  could  not  penetrate.  I  call  these 
non-sensitive  colours  the  after-colours  of  the  second  class,  while  the 
ordinary  sensitive  after-colours,  produced  in  a  short  time  on  cool 
salts,  are  called  after-colours  of  the  first  class. 

Now,  if  the  after-colours  of  the  second  class  are  identical  with 
the  Giesel  salts,  then,  of  course,  the  very  different  substances  of  the 
first  class  cannot  be  also  identical  with  the  Giesel  salts.  Therefore  the 
question  arises  anew  what  is  the  nature  of  the  first-class  after-colours  ? 

One  observes  with  regard  to  solid  solutions  that  the  first-class  colours 
depend  not  only  upon  the  metal  contained  in  the  small  admixture,  but 
they  vary  greatly,  for  instance,  in  the  case  of  the  admixture  consisting 
of  potassium  chloride  or  bromide  or  iodide.  This  indicates  that  the 
metals  alone  do  not  cause  the  after-colours.  It  becomes  much  more 
clear  when  we  expose  some  ammonium  salts  to  the  cathode  rays.  (The 
ammonium  salts  are  cooled  by  liquid  air  in  the  discharge-tube  to  prevent 
their  evaporation.)  Then  you  get  strongly  marked  after-colours  hke- 
wise ;  for  instance,  ammonium  chloride  becomes  yellow-greenish,  the 
bromide  becomes  yellow-brown,  the  iodide  becomes  brown,    and  the 

*  J.  Elster  and  H.  Geitel,  Wied.  Aun.  59,  487. 


ON  SALTS  COLOURED  BY  CATHODE  RAYS.         253 

fluoride  a  deep  blue.  In  the  daylight  these  colours  are  gradually 
destroyed,  quite  like  other  after-colours  of  the  first  class.  The  colours 
themselves — yellow-greenish  for  the  chloride,  yellow-brown  for  the 
bromide,  and  so  on — induce  us  to  presume  that  the  after-colours  in  this 
case  are  produced  by  the  haloids,  and  not  by  the  hypothetical 
ammonium  radical.  This  presumption  becomes  a  strong  conviction 
when  we  observe  that  also  a  great  number  of  organic  preparations 
which  contain  no  metal  at  all  (and  not  any  metal-like  radical)  acquire 
marked  after-colours  of  the  first  class  in  the  cathode  rays  also.  (The 
part  of  the  discharge-tube  which  contains  the  organic  substances  is 
cooled  by  liquid  air.) 

Then  you  may  observe  that  solid  acetic  acid  (C^H^O,)  remains 
quite  colourless  in  the  cathode  rays ;  but  if  you  substitute  a  hydrogen 
atom  by  chlorine,  the  substance  thus  produced  (the  monochloro-acetic 
acid)  acquires  a  marked  yellow-green  after-colour.  If  you  introduce 
an  atom  of  bromine  instead  of  chlorine,  you  get  02H3Br02  and  the 
after-colour  is  of  a  marked  yellow.  Bromoform  (CHBr^)  turns  into 
the  colour  of  loam,  and  chloral  (CoHCljO)  becomes  a  deep  yellow. 
In  this  way  we  see  that  not  only  salts,  but  likewise  substituted  acids, 
substituted  hydrocarbons,  and  substituted  aldehydes  acquire  after- 
colours  if  they  contain  any  haloid. 

Now,  it  seems  highly  improbable  that  in  the  case  of  alkali  salts  the 
electro-positive  component  is  absorbed  only  (producing  the  after-colour), 
and  that,  on  the  other  hand,  in  the  ammonium  salts  and  in  the  organic 
substances  the  electro-negative  component  is  efficient  only.  The  most 
probable  inference  is  that  in  each  case  both  components  remain  and 
that  both  are  efficient,  but  that  under  the  same  conditions  the  haloids 
produce  a  slighter  colour  than  the  metals,  so  that  in  the  case  of  the 
salts  the  haloid  colour  is  overwhelmed  by  the  metal  colour. 

Therefore  we  are  compelled  to  suppose  that  we  have  not  to  deal 
with  a  decomposition  in  the  ordinary  form,  by  which  the  different  com- 
ponents are  finally  separated  from  each  other  and  at  least  one  of  them 
is  set  entirely  free,  but  that  the  components  detained  by  absorption 
remain  at  a  quite  short  distance  from  each  other,  so  that  they  may 
easily  meet  again.  I  realise  that — for  instance,  in  the  case  of  sodium 
chloride — at  every  point  of  the  coloured  layer  there  is  an  atom  (or 
perhaps  a  molecule)  of  chlorine  and  an  atom  (or  a  molecule)  of  sodium ; 
but  they  cannot  combine,  because  they  are  fixed  by  absorption  and  dis- 
tended from  each  other  by  the  absorptive  power,  which  in  this  case 
surpasses  the  chemical  affinity.  But  the  absorptive  power  may  be 
weakened  by  heating  and  the  chemical  affinity  or  the  amplitude  of  the 
molecular  vibrations  may  be  strengthened  by  the  energy  of  daylight. 

If  we  grant  these  assumptions,  it  is  immediately  evident  why  the 
reaction  of  all  dissolved  colour  substances  of  the  first  class  is  a 
neutral  one,  for  the  two  components  may  combine  again  and  re- 
establish the  original  substance.  The  other  special  qualities  of  the 
first-class  colours,  and  especially  tlieir  differences  from  the  Giesel 
salts,  which  contain  the  electropositive  component  only,  may  be  de- 
duced likewise  from  this  retention  of  both  components  and  their  oppor- 
tunity   of  meeting   each   other  again    when   the    absorptive   power   is 


254  REPORTS   ON  THE   STATE   OF  SCIENCE. — 1914. 

weakened  or  the  chemical  affinity  is  strengthened.  Now,  the  two 
components  in  the  coloured  substances  being  distended  in  some  degree, 
I  propose  for  this  special  condition  of  matter  the  name  of  distension.  If 
we  accept  this,  have  we  created  a  new  name  only,  or  does  ma^tter  in 
this  condition  really  show  new  qualities?  It  seems  to  me  that  we 
have  to  deal  with  a  peculiar  condition  of  matter,  which  deserves  a 
more  elaborate  study  than  it  has  met  till  now.  I  will  not  enter  again 
into  some  special  qualities,  which  have  already  been  mentioned — ^the 
photoelectric  effect  and  so  on — but  I  should  like  to  point  out  that 
matter  in  the  distension  state  shows  a  strongly  strengthened  absorption 
of  light. 

We  noticed  with  regard  to  ammonium  chloride  the  yellow -greenish 
after-colour  of  the  chlorine.  Now,  cathode  rays,  as  used  in  these 
experiments,  will  not  penetrate  any  deeper  than  one-hundredth  of  a 
millimetre  into  the  salt.  In  such  a  thin  layer  even  pure  liquefied 
chlorine  would  not  show  any  perceptible  colour.  But  besides  this  it 
must  be  noticed  that  we  observe  this  after-colour  at  the  temperature 
of  liquid  air,  and  that  chlorine  at  this  temperature,  as  Dewar  and 
Moissan  observed,  is  snow-white,  even  in  thick  layers.  In  a  similar 
degree  the  brown  colour  of  bromine  is  weakened  at  low  temperatures. 
Now,  if  nevertheless  we  observe  at  this  very  low  temperature  the  marked 
characteristic  colours  of  chlorine  and  bromine,  we  must  conclude  that 
the  absorptive  power  of  these  substances  has  become  a  multiple  of 
its  ordinary  value.  One  may  observe  this  strengthening  of  the  absorp- 
tive power  directly  in  the  pure  sulphur.  Sulphur  likewise  turns  into 
a  snow-white  substance  if  cooled  by  liquid  air.  But  when  the  cathode 
rays  fall  on  the  white  sulphur  it  takes  immediately  a  yellow -reddish 
colour.  It  is  a  real  after-colour,  because  at  constant  low  temperature 
the  colour  is  destroyed  by  daylight. 

Now,  since  the  strengthening  of  light-absorption  occurs  in  this 
elementary  substance,  it  becomes  evident  that  the  cause  cannot  be 
any  chemical  process,  but  only  a  physical  allotropy.  The  special 
character  of  this  allotropy  (which  may  be  connected  with  an  absorp- 
tion of  electrons)  will  not  be  entered  on  in  a  discussion  here.  Probably 
we  have  to  deal  with  a  polymerisation,  so  that,  for  instance,  the 
yellow-reddish  sulphur  would  be  analogous  to  polymerised  oxygen — to 
ozone. 

I  have  mentioned  already  that  the  first-class  after-colours  are 
gradually  destroyed  by  incident  daylight.  A  peculiar  phenomenon  is 
connected  with  this  destruction  of  colour.  I  found  that  after  the  day- 
light had  fallen  on  the  coloured  substances,  even  for  the  shortest  timei' 
most  of  them  showed  a  marked  phosphorescence  of  long  duration. 
I  have  observed  this  phosphorescence  even  in  substances  which  had 
been  coloured  twelve  years  ago  and  had  been  kept  in  the  dark  since 
that  time.  The  diffused  dim  light  of  a  gloomy  November  day,  when 
falling  through  a  window  on  the  coloured  substance  for  one  or  two 
seconds  only,  is  sufficient  for  the  production  of  this  phosphorescence 
in  a  marked  degree.  If  you  allow  the  daylight  to  fall  several  times 
on  the  same  spot,  then  the  colour  is  weakened  at  this  spot,  and  we 
come   to   the  presumption  that   the   loss   of  colouration   is   generally 


ON  SALTS   COLOURED    BY   CATHODE   RAYS.  255 

attended  by  the  emission  of  phosphorescent  hght.  This  is  in  accord- 
ance- with  the  experience  of  Wiedemann  and  Schmidt  that  if  the 
destruction  of  the  colour  is  produced  by  heating,  Ukewise  a  phos- 
phorescent hght  is  produced,  which  in  this  case  is  strong  but  of  a 
short  duration,  corresponding  to  the  quick  destruction  of  the  after- 
colours  by  strong  heating. 

If  the  salts,  after  having  been  coloured  in  the  condition  of  a  fine 
powder  and  then  having  been  put  between  two  glass  plates  (in  order 
to  obtain  a  plane  surface),  are  placed  in  a  photographic  camera  instead 
of  the  photographic  plate,  you  may  get  a  fine  phosphorescent  picture 
of  a  landscape  or  of  architecture  after  a  very  short  exposure. 

Time  does  not  allow  me  to  mention  in  detail  several  other 
peculiarities  which  are  shown  by  matter  in  the  distension  state.  In 
one  direction  only  I  may  be  allowed  to  make  some  remarks. 

The  first-class  after-colours  may  be  produced  not  only  by  cathode 
rays  but  also  by  the  /3  rays  of  radioactive  substances,  as  you  probably 
know.  But  they  may  also  be  produced  by  ultra-violet  light,  for 
instance,  by  ultra-violet  spark  light,  even  when  a  quartz  plate  is  inter- 
posed between  the  spark  and  the  salt.  More  than  thirty  years  ago  I 
brought  forward  a  hypothesis,  according  to  which  in  every  point  where 
cathode  rays  strike  a  solid  body  a  thin  layer  of  ultra-violet  light- 
radiating  molecules  is  produced  in  the  gas,  to  which  ultra-violet  light  of 
very  short  wave-lengths,  for  instance,  the  phosphorescence  of  the  glass 
walls  in  the  cathode  rays,  is  due.  But  I  came  further  to  the  assumption 
that  nearly  all  effects  which  are  commonly  ascribed  to  special  qualities 
of  the  cathode  rays,  and  likewise  of /3  rays  and  x  rays,  are  mere  effects 
of  the  ultra-violet  light  which  is  produced  by  the  stopping  of  these  rays. 
I  have  been  guided  by  this  assumption  during  many  years,  and  have 
very  often  been  aided  by  it  in  foreseeing  new  phenomena.  For 
instance,  in  this  way  I  was  induced  to  expect  that  the  after-colours 
would  be  produced  not  only  by  cathode  rays  but  also  by  the  ordinary 
ultra-violet  light ;  further  I  could  guess  that  also  the  x  rays  would 
produce  after-colours  (which  in  this  case  have  been  observed  by 
Holzknecht),  and  in  recent  times  I  could  foresee  that  solid  aromatic 
substances  (the  benzene  derivatives)  in  the  ultra-violet  light  must  change 
their  spectra  of  ordinary  phosphorescence,  composed  of  broad  bands, 
and  turn  to  peculiar  spectra  composed  of  narrow  stripes,  the  wave- 
lengths of  which  are  characteristic  of  the  single  aromatic  substances. ° 
So  I  believe  also  that  the  after-colours  are  produced  not  directly  by  the 
cathode  rays  or  by  /3  rays,  but  by  the  aforesaid  ultra-violet  light  which 
is  connected  with  the  stopping  of  the  other  rays. 

In  this  way  the  after-colours  enter  at  once  into  a  great  class  of 
phenomena  known  as  reversible  effects  of  light.  You  know  that  certain 
effects  of  the  visible  spectral  rays  are  destroyed  by  rays  of  longer 
wave-lengths,  by  the  infra-red  rays.  And  the  analogy  to  this 
phenomenon  is  in  my  opinion  the  destruction  of  the  after-colours :  they 
are  produced  by  the  ultra-violet  light  of  the  stopped  cathode  rays  and 
are  annihilated  by  the  longer  visible  wave-lengths  of  daylight.  In  this 
way  you  may   likewise   understand,    for   instance,    that   the   coloured 

«  E.  Goldstein,  Verhandl,  d.  D.  Physik.  Oea.  12. 


256  REPORTS   ON   THE   STATE    OF   SCIENCE. ^19 14. 

spots,  produced  by  x  rays  on  the  luminescent  screens  after  long 
exposure,  may  be  destroyed  again  by  exposure  of  the  screens  to  day- 
light. You  may  also  explain  the  peculiar  medical  observation  that 
therapeutic  radium  effects  in  parts  of  the  human  body  not  covered, 
specially  in  the  face,  are  often  not  of  long  duration — for  the  face  is 
exposed  to  the  counteracting  visible  rays  of  daylight. 

We  notice  here  a  connection  of  our  subject  with  a  department  of 
great  practical  importance.  For  all  therapeutic  effects  of  x  rays, 
radium  rays,  and  mesothorium  rays  would,  according  to  this  view,  be 
effects  only  of  ultra-violet  light  produced  by  the  stopping  of  these  rays 
in  the  human  body,  and  the  special  character  of  the  radium-  and  meso- 
thorium- and  d:-ray  treatment  would  consist  mainly  in  the  carriage  into 
the  interior  of  the  body,  by  the  rays,  of  the  ultra-violet  light,  which 
is  not  confined  to  the  surface  of  the  body,  but  is  produced  at  every  place 
where  any  of  the  entering  rays  are  stopped.  You  may  notice  further 
that  this  view  of  the  medical  ray-effects  presents  a  heuristic  method 
for  the  treatment  itself,  which  up  to  the  present  followed  quite  fortui- 
tous and  merely  empirical  paths.  For  it  may  be  hoped  that  treatment 
by  radioactive  substances  will  be  useful  in  eveiy  disease  in  which  ultra- 
violet light  has  been  proved  to  be  efficient  in  some  degree ;  you  will 
avoid  such  treatment  in  the  well-known  cases  in  which  light  of  short 
wave-lengths  is  noxious,  and  you  may  be  justified  in  substituting  an 
ultra-violet  light  treatment  where  radium  or  mesothorium  is  not  obtain- 
able. At  the  same  time  it  becomes  evident  why  the  treatment  of  certain 
diseases  by  the  j3  rays  has  effects  very  similar  to  those  produced  by 
fulgiiration — that  is,  by  the  light  of  very  strong  sparks:  the  efficient 
agent  is  in  both  cases  the  ultra-violet  light. 

But  it  cannot  be  a  physicist's  task  to  enter  too  far  in  medical 
questions :  it  was  only  my  intention  to  show  how  interesting  are  some 
of  the  problems  which  are  connected  with  the  salts  coloured  by  cathode 
ravs. 


The  Problem  of  the  Visual  Requirements  of  the  Sailor  and  the 
Railway  Employee.  By  James  W.  Barrett,  C.M.G.,  M.D., 
M.S.,F.R.C.S.Eng. 

[Ordered,  on  behalf  of